Exam 3 Study Guide POSC 1010
Exam 3 Study Guide POSC 1010 POSC 1010
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lindsey Green on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POSC 1010 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Olson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 244 views. For similar materials see Intro to American Government in Political Science at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Dr. Olson: Intro To American Government Chapters 10, 11, & 12 Chapter 10: Congress 10.1 Congressional Elections ● The most important difference between the House & Senate involves the term of office ● House Senate 435 members 100 Senators Serve for two years Serve for 6 years Stand for election at the same time Only a third stand for election at the same Must be 25 years old time Must have been citizens for seven years 30 years old Must be resident of state from which theyCitizen for at least nine years are elected Must be resident of state from which they Members rep. Districts within the state are elected Districts are determined by population Every state has two senators Represent the entire state ● Constituents The residents of a congressional district of state ● Framers set the Senate requirements higher as a way to shape the Senate as a check against the less predictable House. ● The exact number of districts assigned to each state is determined by the Census. ● Reapportionmen tThe assigning by Congress of congressional seats after each census. State legislatures reapportion state legislative districts. ● Redistricting The redrawing of congressional and other legislative district lines following the census to accommodate population shifts and keep districts equal as possible in population ● Gerrymandering T he drawing of legislative district boundaries to benefit a party, group, or incumbent. Two types: ○ Cracking the majority party uses the break a strong minority party district into pieces to be merged with other districts, thereby reducing the minority party's strength in that one district. ○ Packing merges pieces of the majority party in its weak districts into a single, strong district. ● Advantages of Incumbency ○ Incumbent The current holder of elected office ○ Safe seat An elected office that is predictably won by one party or the other, so the success of that party’s candidate is almost taken for granted. ○ Incumbents help their constituents get their benefits from agencies such as the Social Security Administration, nominate students to West Point, provide internships to college students, etc. ○ Maintain a visible presence back home through emails, letters, press releases, social media. ○ Use their committee and subcommittee positions to influence legislation to help their districts create jobs, etc. ○ Incumbents have substantial influence on federal spending for their districts through earmarks. ○ Earmarks special spending projects that are set aside on behalf of individual members of Congress for their constituents. 10.2 The Structure and Powers of Congress ● Framers expected that Congress would be the most important branch of the governmentbut worried about how to keep Congress from dominating other branches. ● Bicameralism The principle of a twohouse legislature most important organizational feature of the U.S. Congress. ● James Madison, Federalist 51, “In order to control the legislative authority, you must divide it.” ● Enumerated Powers The powers explicitly given to Congress in the Constitution ○ 1. he Power to Raise, Make, and Borrow Money C ongress has the power to tax, borrow money, issue currency, and coin money. ○ 2. The Power to Regulate Commerce Regulate commerce between the U.S. and other countries, as well as between states. Can set standards for values of products. ○ 3. The Power to Unify and Expand the Country create post offices and postal roads, which link the states together; to determine the rules for becoming a citizen; to acquire, manage, and dispose of federal land. ○ 4. The Power to Prepare and Declare Wa r congress can raise, support, and regulate armies and a navy. ○ 5. he Power to Create the Federal Judiciary responsible for creating all inferior courts below the Supreme Court and for determining their jurisdiction ● **Many of these powers are limited in someway. ● House has the authority to charge or impeach a president or judge for committing “high crimes and misdemeanors”, but the Senate is the one that conducts the trial to determine guilt or innocence. ● House Senate Legislatio : Legislation: Decision to consider legislation made byDecision to consider legislation made by majority; final decisions require a “rule” or ticket to the floor from the House Rules Committee imous consent of all members; one Responsible for moving first on raising senator can stop action Responsible for giving advice and revenues; All amendments to legislation consent on presidential appointees and be approved for consideration in advance of legislative action. treaties Amendments are generally allowed 10.3 Congressional Leadership & Committees 1. The HOUSE ● Speaker of the House: The presiding officer in the House of rep., formally elected by the House but selected by the majority party. Has enormous power to reward and punish members, set the legislative agenda, influence congressional campaigns, and control the flow of debate on the floor. ● The Party Caucus: A meeting of the members of a party in a legislative chamber to select party leaders and to develop party policy. ● Majority Leader: The legislative leader selected by the majority party who helps plan party strategy, confers with other party leaders, and tries to keep members of the party in line. ● Minority Leader: The leader selected by the minority party as spokesperson for the opposition. ● Whip: The party leader who is the liaison between the leadership and the rankandfile in the legislature. Help “whip up” votes for or against specific legislation given a list of members to keep in line on controversial votes. ● House Rules Committee: The most powerful committee in either chamber; decides the rules of governing the length of the floor debate on any legislative issue, and sets limits on the number and kinds of floor amendments allowed. ○ By refusing to grantrule, which is a ticket to the flthe committee can delay consideration of a bill ○ Closed rule: prohibits any amendments to bills or provides that only members of the committee reporting the bill may offer amendments. ○ Open rule: ermits floor amendments within the overall time allocated to the bill. 2. THE SENATE ● Same basic structure as the house, but a smaller body of members makes for more time for debate. More open and decentralized. ● Led by the Senate Majority Leader, who is elected by the majority party. ● President Pro Tempore : An officer of the Senate selected by the majority party to act as a chair in the absence of the vice president. Usually the most senior member of the majority party. ● Filibusterprocedural practice in the Senate whereby a senator refuses to relinquish the floor and thereby delays proceedings and prevents a vote on a controversial issue. Holds the floor continuously. ● Cloture:A procedure for terminating debate, especially filibusters, in the Senate. Motion to end a debate has to be approved by 60 senators. ● Congressional Committees ○ Standing Committee: A permanent committee established in a legislature, usually focusing on a policy area. ○ Special or Select committee: A congressional committee created for a specific purpose, sometimes to conduct an investigation ○ Joint Committee: A committee composed of members of both the House of Representatives and the Senate; such committees oversee the Library of Congress and conduct investigations. ○ Standing committees are the most important for making laws and representing constituents, and they fall into 6 types: rules and administration, budget, authorizing, appropriations, revenue, and oversight. ○ Each political party controls the selection of standing committee members most committee chairs are selected on the basis of theeniority rule assigns the chair of a committee or subcommittee to the member of the majority party with the longest continuous service on the committee. ○ Conference Committees: A committee appointed by the presiding officers of each chamber to adjust differences on a particular bill passed by each in different form. 10.4 How a Bill Becomes a Law House Senate 1. Bill is introduced and assigned to a 1. Bill is introduced and assigned to a committee, which refers it to the committee, which refers it to the appropriate subcommittee. appropriate subcommittee. 2.Subcommittee holds hearings and ‘marks up’ 2. Subcommittee holds hearings, debates the bill. If the bill is approved in some form,provisions, and ‘marks up’ the bill. If the bill is to the full Committee. approved in some form, it goes to the full Full committee onsiders the bill. If the bill Committee. approved in some form, it is “reported” to the Full committee considers the bill. If the bill is House and placed on the House calendar. approved in some form, it is “reported” to the full Senate and placed on the Senate calendar. 3. Rules committee : issues a rule to govern Leadership: Majority & minority leaders by debate on the floor and sends it to the full “unanimous consent” agreements schedule House. full Senate debate and vote on the bill Full House: debates the bill and may amend Full Senate: Debates the bill and may amend it. If the bill passes and it is in a form diffit. If the bill passes and is in a form different form the Senate version, it must go to a from the House version, it must go to a conference committee. conference committee. Conference Committee: If necessary, a Conference Committee: If necessary, a conference committee of senators and conference committee of senators and representatives meets to reconcile differences representatives meets to reconcile differences between bills. When agreement is reached, a between bills. When agreement is reached, a compromise bill is sent back to both the House and romise bill is sent back to both the House and the Senate. the Senate. President: President signs or vetoes the bill. President President signs or vetoes the bill. Congress can override a veto by a twothirds Congress can override a veto by a twothirds majority in both the House and Senate. majority in both the House and Senate. ● Discharge petition: A petition that, if signed by a majority of the members of the House of Rep, will pry a bill from committee and bring it to the floor for consideration. ● Rider: A provision attached to a bill to which it may or may not be related in order to secure its passage or defeat. ● Pocket Veto: Exercised by the president after Congress has adjourned; if the president takes no action for ten days, the bill does not become law and is not returned to Congress for a possible override. ● Override: an action taken by Congress to reverse a presidential veto, requiring a twothirds majority in each chamber. 10.5 The Job of the Legislator ● Congress has a split personality members of congress perceive their roles differently. Some believe they should serve as delegates, while others see themselves as trustees. ○ Delegate: n official who is expected to represent the views of his or her constituents even when personally holding different views. ○ Trustee: An official who is expected to vote independently based on his or her judgment of the circumstances. ● A member may vote with a colleague on one bill, with the expectation that the colleague will later vote for a measure about which the member is concerned. This is called Logrolling:Mutual aid and vote trading among legislators. ● Attentive public: citizens who follow public affairs closely. ● Ideology: ○ Closely related to a member’s party as a predictor of congressional voting. ○ Can also be measured by studies of actual votes that calculate the percentages of liberals and conservatives in both chambers. ○ Both chambers have become more conservative over the past two decades; this shift is part of a general movement toward more polarization in Congress. ○ Polarization:The extent to which liberals and conservatives occupy the more extreme positions on the liberalconservative ideological spectrum. 10.6 An Assessment of Congress ● Citizens can influence Congress in many ways ● Congress is a larger and very different kind of institution from the one the Framers envisioned. More complex, polarized, and active. Notes From CH. 10 REVEL quiz ● Interest groups greatly influence the legislative process, but may cancel one another out, killing the bill. ● The best predictor of voting behaviors for members of Congress is party affiliation. ● Which of the following powers given to the Senate by the Constitution demonstrates the Framers’ intent that the Senate should be the more prestigious chamber? Approving or rejecting treaties. ● Framers made the House terms of office & election cycles shorter in order to make them more responsive to their constituents. ● Congressional redistricting is largely a political process, often generating conflict between parties. ● The power to originate revenue bills is unique to the House of Reps. Chapter 11: The Presidency 11.1 The Structure & Powers of the Presidency ● The president’s power to act as commander in chief is part of the Constitution’s separation of powers. ● Parliamentary governments : a form of government in which the chief executive is the leader of the majority party in the legislature. ○ Prime minister is more influential controls both the exec and legislative branches. ● The U.S. is one of the few world powers that is neither a parliamentary democracy nor a wholly execdominated government. ● Electoral College: voters vote for electors pledged to cast their ballots for a particular party’s candidates. ● Framers gave the exec. A fouryear term of office, balancing with the house and senate terms. ● 22nd Amendment : limits presidents to two terms in office that are normally served backtoback. ● Framers then created the position of VP, in case the president left office before the end of the term. VP has power to break ties in the Senate. ● Qualifications for the Presidency: ○ 1. At least 35 years old on inauguration day. ○ 2. Naturalborn citizen of the United States ○ 3. Resident of the United States for the previous 14 years ● Original choosing of the VP was the runner up to the president got the job this was a huge problem. ● 12th Amendment : Electors were allowed to cast separate votes for the president and VP, encouraging ‘presidential ticket’ ● Presidential Ticket:The joint listing of the presidential and vice presidential candidates on the same ballot, as required by the Twelfth Amendment. Presidential Powers ● Vesting Clause: “The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the U.S.A.” Article II of Const. ○ Presidents use this to argue that they control everything that happens in the executive branch after a bill becomes a law. ● President has three central roles in government: ○ 1. Commander in chief:head of the navy & army; can order troops into battle without formal declaration of war. ○ 2. Diplomat in chi negotiator in chief of treaties with foreign nations; ■ Treaty a binding and public agreement between the US and one or more nations that requires mutual action towards a common goal. ■ Executive agreement: a formal agreement between the US pres. And the leaders of other nations, that does not require senate approval. ■ Congressionalexec agreement: A formal agreement between the US pres. And the leaders of other nations, that requires approval by both houses of Congress. ○ 3. Administrator in ch: power to require the opinion of the principal officer in each of the exec. Departments. President is in charge of the daytoday operations of the federal departments and agencies. ○ Additional Exec. Powers: ■ Appointment Power authority to nominate judges, ambassadors, and other officers of the exec branch. Subject to confirmation by a majority vote of the Senate. Recess appointments are used when the President appoints someone without Senate confirmation during Senate recess. ■ Veto Power: bills passed by both chambers shall be presented to the President who can approve or issue a veto (a formal decision to reject a bill passed by Congress). ■ Pardon Power: The most delicate power presidents exercise; presidents can shorten prison sentences, correct judicial errors, and protect citizens from future prosecution. ■ Take Care Power: take clare cause, that states presidents take care that the laws are faithfully executed, even if they disagree with the purpose of those laws. Can make use of this clause to clnherent powerspowers that are not listed, but essential for the government to make and execute laws. ■ Power to Inform and Convene Congress:this basically created the State of the Union Address, which is the president’s annual statement to Congress & the nation. ○ Signing statement: document that explains why a president is signing a particular bill into law. ● Impeachment ○ A formal accusation against the president or another public official; the first step in removal from office. 11.2 Controversies in Presidential Power ● The War Power ○ Article I gives Congress the power to declare war, but Article II gives the president the power to wage war as a commander in chief. ○ Congress tried to reassert its role and authority in the use of military force at the end of the Vietnam War. ○ War Powers Resolution Passed in 1973 requiring the president to give advance warning of a military attack or ask Congress for a declaration of war or specific legislation. ● Executive Privilege ○ The power to keep executive communications confidential, especially if they relate to national security. Some experts argue that this has no constitutional basis. ● Executive Order ○ A president’s or governor’s formal order to a government agency, or agencies, that carries the force of law. ○ They are generally accepted as the law of the land unless they conflict with the constitution or a federal law. ○ Presidents have issued nearly 14k orders ■ Ex: declaration of the U.S. neutrality in the war between France and England ○ Executive Memoranda: A less powerful formal order to an agency or agencies, which does not carry the force of law, to undertake a particular course of action. ● Budget ○ Constitution explicitly gives Congress the power to appropriate money, but presidents are responsible for actually spending it. ○ Also responsible for providing a budget proposal to Congress. ○ Impoundment: a decision by the president not to spend money appropriated by Congress, now prohibited under federal law. ○ Line item vetoPresidential power to strike, or remove, specific items from a spending bill without vetoing the entire package; declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court. 11.3 Managing the Presidency ● White House Staff ○ Chief of Staff: head of the White House staff; most powerful White House assistant, and oversees everything from the legislative agenda to the White House cafeteria. ○ Two types of White House offices: ■ Politic offices are designed to help the president run for reelection, control the national party, and shape the president’s image through media. ■ Polic: offices are designed to shape the president’s foreign and domestic program. ● Executive Office of the President (EOP) ○ Cluster of presidential staff agencies that help the president carry out his responsibilities. Consists of the Office of Management and Budget, the Council of Economic Advisors, and others. ○ Office of Management & Budget (OMB): entral EOP agency for making decisions about the budget. ● The Cabinet ○ The advisory council for the president, consisting of the heads of the 15 exec. Departments, the VP, and a few other officials selected by the president. ● The Vice Presidency ○ One major duty: be ready to take the oath of office in case the president cannot discharge his duties. 11.4 The President’s Job ● Morale Builders ○ Project a sense of national unity and authority; national selfconfidence and helps unlock the possibility for good that exists in the nation. ● Agenda Setters ○ Economic Policy: expected to promote policies that keep unemployment low, fight inflation, keep taxes down, and promote economic growth and prosperity. ○ Social Polic Art of knowing what followers want. ○ National Security PolicSpecial need for speed and unity in dealing with other nations. Sole organ of the fed. Government in the field of international relations. 11.5 Congress & the Presidency ● Influencing Congress ○ Substantial role in shaping what Congress does; primarily using the president’s agenda to do so. ○ Presidential support scorpercentage of times a president wins on key votes in Congress. ○ Mandate: A president’s claim of broad public support ○ Political Capi the amount of overall public approval that a president can use to win support for major decisions and proposals. ○ Rally Point a rise in public approval of the president that follows a crisis as Americans “rally around the flag” and the chief executive. ■ Do not necessarily last long. George W. Bush’s ratings jumped dramatically following 9/11. Jumped again at the start of the Iraq War. ○ Experts believe that the president’s reputation has declined in recent years, in part due to political scandals. 11.6 Judging Presidents ● Presidential greatness is hard to define; some rise because they led the nation through periods of intense domestic or international crisis; others rise because they had a distinctive vision of where the nation could go on issues like civil rights. ● Many consider Washington, Jefferson, Lincoln, and FDR as the greatest presidents. ● Greatness depends in part on how they deal with crisis and war. Notes from REVEL quiz ● The Office of Management and Budget is the staff agency that advises the president about the performance of hundreds of government agencies. ● Why does Pres Lyndon Johnson rate low as a president? He did not win the Vietnam War. ● George W. Bush won reelection despite starting his campaign with an approval rating below 50%. ● As a president, George Washington established the legitimacy and basic authorities of the office. Chapter 12: The Federal Bureaucracy and the Public Policy Process 12. 1: Understanding the Federal Bureaucracy ● Bureaucracy ○ A form of organization that operates through impersonal, uniform regulations and procedures. ○ Bureaucrat: a negative term for describing a career government employee. ○ Under the constitution, the fed. bureaucracy is responsible for faithfully executing the laws on behalf of the president, Congress, and the judiciary. ● Three Key Decisions ○ 1. Framers prohibited members of the House and Senate from holding legislative and exec branch positions at the same time. ○ 2. The framers decided to give the president authority to nominate the senior office of government, while giving the Senate authority to confirm or reject the president’s appointees. ○ 3. Gave Congress the power to create new departments and agencies through legislation signed by the president. ● Types of Federal Organizations ○ 4 broad types: ■ Departments: Usually the largest organization in government with the largest mission; also the highest rank in the federal hierarchy. Biggest budgets. 15 departments employ more than 70% of all federal civil servants. Spend 93% of all federal dollars. ■ Independent standalone agenciesOperates outside a traditional government department, but under the president’s direct control. More focused missions. Work on specific problems, like the Veterans Administration. ■ Independent regulatory commissionsCreated to insulate the agency from congressional and presidential control, they have regulatory power whose independence is protected by Congress. Consumer Product Safety Commission, and the Federal Trade Commission are examples. ■ Government corporations:Agency that is designed like a business corporation, and is created to secure greater freedom of actions and flexibility for a particular program. Least understood organizations in the bureaucracy. Cover a wide range of policy issues such as mail delivery, the U.S. postal service. ● Types of Federal Employees: ○ Presidential Appointeerun the bureaucracy and make major policy recommendations to the president and Congress ○ Senior Executive Serviceestablished by Congress in 1978 as a flexible, mobile corps of senior career executives who work closely with presidential appointees to manage government. ○ Civil Servic Federal employees who work for government through a competitive, not political selection process. ■ Spoils Systemsystem of public employment based on rewarding party loyalists and friends, enacted under Andrew Jackson. ■ Patronage the process of awarding favors to the party in power. ■ Merit Syste: established after the abolishment of the spoils system, a system of public employment in which selection and promotion depend on demonstrated performance rather than political patronage ■ Office of Personnel Managemenagency that administers civil service laws, and regulations. ○ Hatch Act barring federal employees from active participation in certain kinds of politics and protecting them from being fired on partisan grounds. 12.2 The Job of the Federal Bureaucracy ● Implementation: the process of putting a law into practice through bureaucratic regulations or spending. ● Administrative Discretion: Authority given by Congress to the federal bureaucracy to use reasonable judgment in implementing the laws. ● How the Federal Workforce Implements Laws : ○ Regulation: a precise statement of how a law is implemented, which are produced through the rulemaking process (the detailed process for drafting regulation). All proposed regulations must be publisheFederal Register (an official document that lists the new and proposed regulations of exec. Departments and regulatory agencies, published every weekday) ● Raising Revenue ○ 1.Indv. income taxe: these account for the largest share of the federal government’s tax revenue. ○ 2. Payroll tax pay for social insurance (Social Security & Medicare), second largest and fastest rising source of fed. Revenue. ○ 3.Corporate income taxe: have fallen steadily since World War II. ○ 4.Excise taxFederal excise taxes on the sale of liquor, tobacco, gasoline, telephones, air travel, and other luxury items. ● Federal Reserve Board a variation of an independent regulatory agency with a chairman and board that controls the supply of money that flows through the U.S. economy. ● Spending Money ○ Most government spending is uncontrollable, bulk of it goes to entitlement programs. ○ Entitlement progra: program such as unemployment insurance, disaster relief, or disability payments that provides benefits to all eligible citizens. ○ Uncontrollable Spendinghe portion of the federal budget that is spent on previously enacted programs, such as social security, that the president and Congress are unwilling to cut. 12.3 Controlling the Federal Bureaucracy ● Oversight legislative or executive review of a particular government program or organization that can be in response to a crisis of some kind of part of routine review. ● Presidential Controls: ○ Use the Office of Management and Budget for most routine oversight. ○ Central Clearanc review of all exec branch testimony, reports, and draft legislation by the OMB to ensure that each communication to Congress is in accordance with the president’s program. ● Congressional Controls: ○ “Police patrol” overstwo branches watch the bureaucracy through a routine pattern; read key reports, monitor the budget, etc. ○ “Fire alarm” oversitwo branches wait for citizens, interest groups, or the press to find a major problem and pull the alarm. 12.4 Defining Public Policy ● Public Policy ○ A specific course of action that government takes to address a problem. ○ Government sets public policy through laws, judicial decisions, and more detailed regulations issued by the bureaucracy. ○ Policy Maker an individual or group that makes the actual choices to create a public policy. ● Types of Public Policy: ○ 1.Distributive pol A public policy such as Social Security that provides benefits to all groups in society. ○ 2.Redistributive poli policy that provides to one group of society while taking away benefits from another through policy solutions such as tax increases to pay for job training. ○ 3.Zerosum game: a policy that takes away benefits or money from one group to give to another. ○ 4.Reverse distributive pola policy that reduces benefits for all groups, often by imposing regulations or taxes that govern everyone, rich or poor. 12.5 The Public Policy Process ● Eight Steps in making public policy: Making Assumptions: predictions about what will happen in the future. Answers to questions about the future shape decisions about what the federal govt might do. Setting The Agenda: choosing the problem to be solved is essential to set the policy agenda, which is a list of issues that the federal government pays attention to. ● Think Tank: a nongovernmental organization that seeks to influence public policy through research and education Deciding to Act:Policy makers deciding to act on a certain issue, either could be important to them or to the general public. ● Issueattention cyclThe movement of public opinion toward public policy from initial enthusiasm for action to realization of costs and a decline in interest. Deciding How Much to Do: G overnment can launch a comprehensive program, or it can expand a smaller program bit by bit over time. ● Incremental poli small adjustments to existing public policies. ● Punctuating policradical changes to public policy that occur only after the mobilization of large segments of society to demand action. ● Iron Trianglpolicymaking instrument composed of a tightly related alliance of a congressional committee, interest groups, and a federal department or agency. ○ Has three sides that hold together for lond periods of time: (1) a federal department or agency, (2) a set of loyal interest groups, (3) a House and/or Senate committee. ● Issue Networka policymaking instrument composed of loosely related interest groups, congressional committee, presidential aides, and other parties. Choosing a Solution: Three tools to solve most public problems: (1) making regulations to encourage or prohibit behavior through standards, incentives, or penalties. (2) using taxes both to raise money and encourage certain behaviors (3) spending money to purchase goods and services or provide benefits to the public as a whole or specific populations such as the elderly or children. Deciding Who Will Deliver the Solution: Who will actually implement the program, not always a federal employee. Passing a Law and Making Regulations: p rocess starts when a bill is passed and signed into law, which is sent to the appropriate department or agency for “faithful execution” of a policy. Running the Program Day to Day: Implementation does not end with release of a final rule, continues with tasks of actually running a federal department or agency. The Order of Action: Making public policy is an oftenunpredictable process. 12.6 Citizens and Public Policy ● Citizens face obstacles to being heard in the policy process; they have more influence at certain stages of the process, and they can make their voices heard through both traditional and nontraditional means.
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