Chapter 3 Study Guide
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kortney Keane on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to at Iowa Central Community College taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 306 views.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Kortney Keane Developmental Psychology Study Guide Ch. 3 (24 pts.) 1. Define and give an example of the cephalocaudal pattern of development. It is the sequence in which the earliest growth always occurs at the top with physical growth and differentiation of features gradually working their way down from top to bottom. An example of this is when a baby grows they can use their hands to hold and reach for things before they can crawl or walk. This is because humans grow starting at the top of their body and then move to the bottom. 2. Define and give an example of the proximodistal pattern of development. Growth occurs in a sequence starting at the center of the body and moves outward toward the extremities. An example is when infants can move their trunk and arms before they can control their hands. 3. An average American baby weighs ________7.5 lbs__________ at birth. 4. Define SIDS. What is one important recommendation to parents for reducing the risk in their infant? SIDS is sudden infant death syndrome. It’s a condition that occurs when an infant stops breathing. It usually occurs at night. The infant dies suddenly without an apparent cause. To reduce risk of SIDS it is recommended that infants are placed to sleep on their backs. 5. Who is Dr. Brazelton? He is America’s bestknown pediatrician. He takes a family centered approach to child development issues. He founded the Child Development Unit at Boston Children’s Hospital. He created the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale. It’s widely used to measure newborn’s health and wellbeing. 6. Contrast gross and fine motor development. Give an example of each. Gross motor skills involve using largemuscle activities like using arms and walking. Fine motor skills involve finely tuned movements like grasping a toy or using a spoon. 7. Discuss the research on infants’ visual preferences. Robert Frantz made the discovery that infants look at thing for different lengths of time. He placed infants in a “looking chamber.” It had two visual displays on the ceiling above the infant’s head. An experimenter viewed the infant’s eyes by looking through a peephole. If the infant was looking at one display, the experimenter could see the reflection in the infant’s eyes. Fantz found that infants only two days old would gaze longer at patterned stimuli. Similar results were found in infants two to three weeks old. 8. Piaget is a premier cognitive psychologist. As a review from chapter 1, explain the cognitive domain or area of human development. Piaget’s theory explains how biology and experience shape cognitive development. 9. Study Piaget’s cognitive stage of sensorimotor development. As the name of the stage implies, how do infants learn? Infants learn by coordinating sensory experiences with physical, motor actions. 10. “Out of sight, out of mind” would describe which accomplishment in Piaget’s sensorimotor stage? Then explain this accomplishment in your own words. Kortney Keane Object Permanence is the understanding that objects that cannot be seen continue to exist. When a child is presented with an interesting object they pay special attention to it. When there is a barrier placed between the object and the child, the child cant’ see it so they assume it isn’t there anymore. 11. How would a simple childhood game like peekaboo enhance the development of object permanence? When playing peekaboo the child sees your face until you cover it with your hands. Your face is covered for a short amount of time before revealing it to the infant again. The infant can see that even though your face is covered, you are still sitting in front of them. 12. Describe one common childhood toy that would aid in the development of object permanence…. One that Piaget would like! Explain why he would like that toy. A Jack in the box would be a great toy for object permanence. When the song is playing and the knob is being turned, the jack is in the box. Then the jack pops out and the child can see it. To start again you put the jack back in the box and turn the knob. It is expected for the Jack to pop out of the box when the song is over. 13. What is the premise, or theory behind operant conditioning and how people learn through this process? Operant conditioning involves positive reinforcement. Positive actions receive positive rewards. When Pavlov rang his bell he would give the dog a treat. He did that continuously until the dog began to salivate every time the bell rang. 14. Define deferred imitation. Give a real life example of a behavior you believe children might learn through imitation. Imitation that occurs after a time delay of hours or days. For example, a 9 month old demonstrated pushing a button that made a sound after they watched someone do that a day earlier. 15. Why do adults have a difficult time recalling events such as their first birthday party? We experience infantile or childhood amnesia. Older children and adults have difficulty recalling events from early in life because the prefrontal lobes of the brain are immature. 16. Do your best to explain how both nature and nurture (biological and environmental influences) play a part in a child learning to speak. You might think about why you learned to speak your first language. (3 pts.) Babies all over the world follow a similar path in language development: crying, cooing, babbling, and gestures. We speak the language we do because of our parents. We mimic them and develop our language. 17. If you or your wife were expecting a baby at this point, would your desire be for or against breastfeeding your baby? Why? Were you breastfed or formula fed? (3 pts.) If I had to decide right now whether or not I would breastfeed, I would try it out. I am not partial at this point to either breastmilk or formula. I was formula fed as well as my brother. I would definitely try to breast feed and if it didn’t work out for me then I wouldn’t have a problem formula feeding. 18. Turn to page 7475 in your text. Study figure 34. If you were interested, as a parent, in helping to promote the wiring of your infant’s brain, what specific environmental experiences would you provide for your baby? (3 pts.) Kortney Keane I would provide my child with plenty of social interaction and would expose them to all different kinds of music and foods.
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