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Chapter 4 Study Guide

by: Kortney Keane

Chapter 4 Study Guide

Marketplace > Iowa Central Community College > > Chapter 4 Study Guide
Kortney Keane
GPA 3.8

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Chapter four study guide.
Developmental Psychology
Study Guide
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kortney Keane on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to at Iowa Central Community College taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views.


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Date Created: 02/23/16
Developmental Psychology Study Guide Ch. 4  (17 pts.) 1.  Explain and define emotion in your own words. How you feel after interaction.  2.  What are the first emotions humans express? Surprise, interest, joy, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. 3.  How do babies first communicate their emotions…. Both happy and sad? Babies first communicate emotions by crying and smiling. 4.  Differentiate between a reflexive smile and a social smile. A reflexive smile is a smile that doesn’t occur because of external stimuli. It usually occurs in the first few months after birth, usually during sleep. A social smile occurs because of external  stimuli. This can occur as soon as two months after birth. 5.  Contrast stranger anxiety and separation protest. Stranger anxiety is when an infant shows fear and gets nervous around strangers. Separation  protest is when an infant cries after a caregiver leaves.  6. Sophia falls down on the sidewalk and immediately looks to her mom as if to see if she should cry or not. This is an example of ______Social Referencing___________. 7.  Temperament is defined as an individual’s behavioral style and characteristic way of  responding. Of the three classifications by Chess and Thomas, which would you say best  matches your temperament? Give examples of why you chose that style.  Really think about this  one! I think I was an easy child. I was usually happy and friendly. I wasn’t very hesitant towards  strangers and I loved new things and experiences.  8.  Explain the goodness of fit and how it applies to parenting children. Your parenting methods should reflect your baby’s personality. If your child is very active then  you should be keeping up with them making sure an active schedule is available for them. If your child is a slow­to­warm­up child then you should accommodate to your child. 9.  Describe the two major conflicts experienced by infants and toddlers that Erikson believed  were central in shaping personality. What parenting practices will help in the positive resolution  of these crisis? There are two stages brought out in this chapter. Developing a sense of self and finding their independence. It is important to let children develop  at their own pace. You shouldn’t rush a child when you want them to do something you think  they are capable of. You also shouldn’t discourage them when they want to do things on their  own.  10.  Attachment is a close emotional bond between two people. Is feeding as important to  attachment as Freud thought?  Explain Harlow’s experiment and what it concluded. (Check out  YouTube for some great videos of the original experiment!) No, feeding is not as important as Freud thought it was. Harlow explained that in his experiment  with monkeys, the babies clung to the mothers that gave them comfort, not the ones who fed  them. 11.  Study the sections on the impact child care has on the development of children. Identify  some findings from The National Longitudinal Study of Child Care on how child care can  influence infant development. This study found that child care around the US wasn’t ideal. Children who are in child care for  more than 30 hours a week can experience behavior problems and developmental issues. They  also found that family influences outweigh the influences of child care. Although, the  combination of poor child care and poor parenting could be very damaging to your child’s  development. 12. If you were faced (or have been faced) with the decision to place your child in day care, what factors would be important to you? (3 pts.) If I was going to put my child in daycare, I would look for an in­home daycare. I think that  having one or two consistent adults with my child would make me feel more comfortable. There  would also be less children at in in­home daycare. That would make getting sick less of a risk.  13. Explain how child care policies in the United States differ from those in other countries. How could they be improved? You might also compare child care policies/traditions among different  cultures. (3 pts.) There are different child care policies around the world. More children are in child care now than ever before. It’s believed to be because of the short time allowed for maternity/paternity leave. In the U.S. it’s usually unpaid. In other countries like Sweden, parents can take 18 months off of  work to take care of their child. They will be paid and guaranteed their job back after the 18  months. 


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