Abnormal Psychology Exam 1 Study guide
Abnormal Psychology Exam 1 Study guide PSY 35000 - 002
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Olivia Lee on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 35000 - 002 at Purdue University taught by David Rollock in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 230 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Abnormal Psychology Exam 1 Chapters 1-6 Chapter 1 1) Understanding psychopathy a) Psychological disorder/abnormal behavior: a psychological dysfunction associated with stress or impairment in functioning and a response that is not typical of culturally expected. b) Phobia: disorder characterized my marked and persistent fear of an object or situation c) Psychological dysfunction: refers to a breakdown in cognitive, emotional, or behavioral functioning i) Ex: you go on a date. Should be fun – but you are experiencing severe fear all evening d) Personal distress or impairment: i) Psychological order: psychological dysfunction, distress or impairment, atypical response e) Atypical or Not Culturally expected: i) Deviation from the average; further from the average means more abnormal ii) Not as good as a definition. Lady Gaga had blood spurt from clothes, accepted. iii)Another abnormal definition: violating social norms (1)Being possessed in western cultures is bad, east Africa says she just was possessed at the wrong time and that’s what made it strange f) An Accepted Definition i) Normal/abnormal debate continues ii) Best definition: behavioral, psychological, or biological dysfunctions that are unexpected in their culture context associated with present distress and impairment in function or increased risk of suffering, pain, or death. iii)DSM criteria are all ‘prototypes’ g) Science of psychopathology i) Def: scientific study of psychological disorders h) Scientist practitioner i) Mental health professional expected to apply scientific methods to his or her work. Must know the latest research on the diagnosis and treatment, must evaluate their methods of effectiveness, and may generate research to discover information about disorders and their treatment ii) Focus (1)Clinical description (2)Causation (3)Treatment and outcome i) Clinical description i) Presenting problem: original compliant reported by the client to the therapist ii) Clinical description: details of the combination of behaviors, thoughts, and feelings of an individual that make up a particular disorder iii)Prevelance: number of people displaying a disorder in the total population at any given time iv)Incidence: number of new cases of a disorder appearing during a specific period v) Course: pattern of development and change of a disorder over time (1)Chronic: lasts a long time (2)Episodic: likely to recover within a few months only to suffer a recurrence of the disorder later on (3)Time limited: improve without treatment in a relatively short period (4)Acute onset: begin suddenly (5)Insidious onset: develop gradually over an extended period of time (6)Prognosis: anticipated course of a disorder j) Causation, treatment, and etiology outcomes i) Etiology- study of origins ii) If a new drug or treatment is successful in treating a disorder, it may give some hints about the nature of the disorder 2) Supernatural tradition a) Demons and witches th i) 14 century religious and authorities supported popular superstitions ii) Bizarre behavior was due to evil and were responsible for any misfortune experienced by the community iii)Exorcism: various religious rituals were performed to rid the victim of evil spirts b) Stress and melancholy: i) Melancholy- depression was the source of weird behavior c) Treatments for possession i) Exorcisms: relatively painless ii) Other forms of treatment: confinement, beatings, forms of torture iii)Hung over snakes or put in cold water; temporarily relieve the symptoms of a patient d) Mass hysteria i) Large outbreak of bizarre behavior ii) Modern: 19 students reported the same symptoms after reported a smell and all went to the hospital – no reason found for these symptoms iii)Emotional contagion or mob psycology e) Moon and stars: i) Moon and stars had effect on people’s functioning. This inspired the word lunatic, coming from luna ii) Now people look at medical science before spiritual solutions 3) Biological traditions a) Hippocrates and Galen i) H. considered the brain to be the source of all feeling ii) Galen: normal brain functions were due to body fluids or humors iii)Blood-heart, black bile- spleen, yellow bile- liver, brain- phlegm iv)Too much or too little can result in a chemical imbalacne v) Melancholgy- too much black bile vi)Humors were related to heat, dryness, moisture, and cold vii) Humors were treated by regulating the environment, good health and rest, or potential bleeding or bloodletting viii) Chinese focused on wind therapy ix)Somatic symptom disorders: where no physical cause can be found- noticed this occurred primarily in women: fumigate the vagina to help the uterus b) 19ths century i) Syphilis (1)STD with microorganism in the brain; feel like everyone is against you or that you are God, became paralyzed within 5 years of onset (2)‘burned’ out symphillis with blood from a soldier that had malaria ii) John P. Grey (1)Thought causes of insanity were almost always physical – all patients should be treated as if they are physically ill (2)Conditions in hospitals improved but they became so big that individual treatment was almost impossible iii)Development of biological treatments: (1)Insulin shock therapy: gave increasingly higher dosaes until the patients became comatose after convulsions (2)Electric shock therapy being used for schizophrenia (3)Neuroleptics: tranquilizers iv)Consequences in biological therapy (1)Thought mental disorders were due to undiscovered brain psychology and focused on the diagnosis and study of brain pathology stuff itself 4) Psychological tradition a) Psychosocial therapy-treatment practices that focus on social and cultural factors as well as psychological influences. These approaches include cognitive, behavioral, and interpersonal methodsth b) Moral therapy: psychosocial approach in the 19 century that involved treating patients as normally as possible i) Pinel arrived in 1791 and removed all chains used to restrain patients , asylums were like jails c) Asylum reform and the decline of moral therapy i) Asylm cleanliness declined but Dorothea Dix wanted to change this ii) Known as the mental hygiene movement d) Psychoanalysis: assessment and therapy by Freud that emphasizes exploration of unconsciours processes and conflicts e) Behaviorism: explanation of human behavior f) Unconscious: part of the psychic makeup that is outside the awareness of the person g) Catharsis: rapid or sudden release of emotional tension thought to be an important factor in psychoanalytic theory Abnormal deviation from the set standard/ social norm Deviant unusual, non- normative Irrational doesn't make sense in (cultural) context Maladaptive/ Harmful dangerous to self or others; interferes with self- care (suicide) Painful/ distressing subjective sense of discomfort or distress (flashback to trauma in PTSD; paranoia) Three Key Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior spiritual/ Supernatural somatogenic/ biological/ medical psychogenic Spiritual/ Supernatural Cause, Treatment, Professional cause- control by supernatural forces treatment- drive out evil force and nurture good forces professional- priest, sensitive person, elder Somatogenic/ Biological/ Medical Cause, Treatment, Professional cause- somatic/bodily processes gone wrong treatment- correct body and/ or physiological processes professional- physicians Psychogenic Cause, Treatment, Professional cause-disturbed feelings, habits, attitudes treatment- change behavior by talk/ new experiences professional- training in social science and human behavior Historical/ Conceptual Issues Spiritual/ Supernatural Model- in Europe demonic possessions as cause of abnormal behavior logical- need for prayer and spiritual intervention treatment- drive (evil) spirits out by making body in hospital Historical/ Conceptual Issues Spiritual/ Supernatural Model- in other kinds of traditional societies placate or nurture good spirits healing an rest for less beneficent spirits Limitations and question with Spiritual/ Supernatural Model whose spirituality- radical divergence in system/ individuals' moral culpability for problem training of appropriate professions- dependent on belief system better too for relevant knowledge - success rate in treatment Symptoms discrete, identifiable abnormal process that my signal larger problem Syndrome pattern, group of regularly co- occurring symptoms, without reference to origin Disorder syndrome with clear, coherent pattern reflecting a larger condition, but with unknown etiology Disease disorder with known etiology Etiology of Abnormal Behavior in Medical Model disease organism biochemistry neuroanatomy genetics Disease organism viruses/ other pathogens Biochemistry imbalances in brain or other bodily chemicals Neuroanatomy structural changes in brain or other parts of central nervous system Genetics inherited "weakness" or disposition doesn't have full effect on abnormal behavior Key Benefits of Medical Model understand previously misunderstood pattern potential for earl and reliably diagnosis and treatment by identifying biological markers foundation of effective new treatment Key Criticism of Medical Model reductionism problems often extend well beyond brain abnormalities mental versus physical illness social responsibilities- if abnormal behavior is just faulty physical process, shouldn't be help responsible for behavior current lack of understanding etiology Freud's structural theory: ID inborn, based on biological needs repository of libidinal energy pleasure principle unconsious Freud's structural theory: EGO develops out of id to meet the needs of the id in the "real world" reality principle largely conscious Freud's structural theory: SUPEREGO "moral arm" of psyche, based on assuming the moral values of the same-sex parent develops out of fear/ love of parents partially conscious Freud's developmental theory- Oral Age, Erogenous Zone/ Activity , Conflict, Fixation age: 0-1 erogenous zone/ activity : mouth/ sucking conflict: weaning fixation: dependency, indulgence Freud's developmental theory- Anal Age, Erogenous Zone/ Activity, Conflict, Fixation age: 1-3 erogenous zone/ activity: anus/ elimination conflict: toilet training fixation:stinginess, compulsiveness Freud's developmental theory- Phallic Age, Erogenous Zone/ Activity, Conflict, Fixation age: 3-5 erogenous zone/ activity: "penis"/ masturbation conflict: oedipal, electra fixation: homosexuality Freud's developmental theory- Latency Age, Erogenous Zone/ Activity age: 5-12 erogenous zone/ activity: none in particular; consolidate same- sex identity Freud's developmental theory- Genital Age, Erogenous Zone/ Activity, Conflict, Fixation age: 12+ erogenous zone/ activity: genitals/ intercourse conflict: societal norms fixation: sexual impulsivity Meditation of EGO via some combination of symptoms defense mechanisms Symptoms from EGO Examples of Symptoms signs of forbidden wish trying to be expressed/ satisfied anxiety, conversion, "perversion", psychosis Defense Mechanisms of EGO Examples of Defense Mechanisms effort to divert or minimize energy or object of forbidden wish repression, displacement, projection, sublimation Major Criticisms of Classical Psychoanalytic Approach questionable evidence alternatives to conflict highly deterministic but not predictive stringent requirements for psychoanalysis Major Contributions of Classical Psychoanalytic Approach hard psychic determinism theory of unconscious mental life abnormal and normal behavior are on continuum conflict as basis for abnormal behavior and anxiety as crucial symptoms Hard Psychic Determinism abnormal behavior as not random, but the result of definite psychological antecedent Theory of Unconscious Mental Life social needs for order which curbs of particular id urges Abnormal and Normal Behavior are on Continuum everyone is warped, to some degree, by common early experience and biology Psychoanalysis Key Underpinning from Theory Theory Aspect structural developmental additional Psychoanalysis Theory Aspect- Structural Theoretical Element, Implications for Treatment drives are basic and unconscious must gratify drives assess and access unconscious through "unguarded" route and recurring behavior Psychoanalysis Theory Aspect- Developmental Theoretical Element, Implications for Treatment conflict (society vs drives) --> developmental early experiences --> fixation -->specific symptoms identify original trauma --> liberate energy --> reduce symptoms Psychoanalysis Theory Aspect- Additional Theoretical Element, Implications for Treatment drives don't go away --> anxiety and new areas of expression conflict will surface in relationship with (neutral) therapist Psychoanalytic Treatment Process- Goals recover information about (true, underlying unconscious) cause of problems nurture insight work through the problem(s) Transference analyst presents neutral face to analysand strong feelings develop toward analyst feelings therefore must represent unconscious life Positive Transference allows acceptance of (parent- like) support Negative Transference hostility; resistance to interpretation Classical Psychoanalysis Posture, Talking, Technique, Focus posture: lying down/ not facing analyst talking: mostly by analysand; minimal by analyst technique: tap into (primitive) unconscious life focus: uncovering unconscious conflict, especially childhood sexual/ aggressive roots Modern Psychoanalysis Posture, Focus Posture: sitting up, facing therapist Focus: discussion of support of coping by ego, then roots of id- based conflicts Hierarchy of needs 1. "self- actualization" 2. esteem (from self and others) 3. belongingness and love 4. safety (security, order, stability) 5. physiological (food, water) Self- Actualizing people open direct spontaneous people independent in touch with their spirituality and in harmony with life Actualizing Tendency basic tendency of all organisms to maintain and enhance themselves Self- Actualizing Tendency as organisms begin differentiating its own phenomenological extistence In presence of Unconditional Positive Regard congruence with experience and reality which leads to self actualization In presence of Conditional Positive Regard in congruence with experience and reality which leads to distress General Contributions of Humanistic Approaches emphasize importance of individuals' subjective views view of healthy human personality empirical validation of importance of therapist values and competence to provide unconditional positive regard, accurate empathy, genuiness General Criticisms of Humanistic Approach many major constructs and processes to empirically testable truly self- actualized individuals are rare "naivete" about "natural goodness" of human nature Roger's Client- Centered Therapy emphasizes unique individual qualities therapist role: create conditions for growth genuineness unconditional positive regard accurate empathy Humanistic Approach:Therapist approach since client is expert on own needs, therapist is facilitator non-directive reflective note utility when focus on values Psychogenic Models of Abnormal Behavior classical conditioning operant conditioning modeling Classical Conditioning neural stimuli comes o elicit conditioned response by informational pairing with unconditional stimuli Operant Conditiong reinforcement history influence the probabilities of later behaviors Modeling observing the behavior of others may produce learning by imitation Extinction loss of ability of conditioned stimulus to elicit conditioned response, due to disruption of pairing or information association with conditioned stimulus clinical assessment Systematic evaluation & measurement of psychological, biological & social factors in an individual with a possible psychological disorder Purposes of clinical assessment -To understand the individual -To predict behavior -To plan treatment -To evaluate treatment outcome Reliability degree to which a measurement is consistent -Examples include test-retest and inter-rater reliability Test/Retest comparing two test scores from one person. inter/rater reliability looking at two people and their independent observations Validity it measures what its supposed to measure. concurrent validity condition of testing in which the results from one test correspond to the results of other measures in the same phenomenon. predictive validity degree to which an assessment instrument accurately predicts a person's future behavior. (Ex: SAT, GRE tests) standardization process of establishing benchmarks for comparison that ensure consistency in measurement. Clinical interview most common clinical assessment method, in which information about the client's current and past history of behavior is gathered. Structured clinical interview type of interview in which all patients are presented with the same questions in the same order. Great for comparison because its conistent semi structured clinical interview has open structure and allows for new questions and ideas to be brought up. Mental status involves the systematic observation of an individual's behavior. Behavioral assessment measuring, observing, and systematically evaluating the client's thoughts, feelings, and behavior in the actual problem, situation or context. Direct observation the here and now, ABCs ABCs identify Antecedents, Behaviors and Consequences. self monitoring action by which clients observe and record their own behaviors as either an assessment of a problem and its change or a treatment procedure that makes them more aware of it. reactivity changes in one person's behavior as a result of being observed Psychological tests projective, personality, intelligence Projective test Rooted in psychoanalytic tradition -Used to assess unconscious processes -Project aspects of personality onto ambiguous test stimuli -The Rorschach inkblot test: the test includes 10 inkblot pictures that serve as the ambiguous stimuli. -TAT: a test that uses 31 cards; 30 have pictures on them and 1 is blank. It asks the patient to tell a dramatic story about the pictures. It is based on the idea that people will reveal their unconscious mental processes in their stories of the pictures. Personality test Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) most widely used test in the US. Extensive reliability, validity, and normative database. Intelligence test deviation IQ: intelligence test score that estimates how much a person's score deviates from that of the average of persons of the same age. Neuropsychological testing Assess broad range of skills and abilities -Tests for cognitive impairment (measuring brain dysfunction)Example: Bender-Gestalt Visual-Motor Test -Problems with neuropsychological tests •False positives: Mistakenly shows a problem where there is none •False negatives: Fails to detect a problem that is present Neuroimagining objective is to understand brain structure and brain function Brain structure -Computerized axial tomography (CAT or CT scan) • Utilizes X-rays -Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) •Utilizes strong magnetic fields •Better resolution than CT scan CAT scan Computerized axial tomography, utilizes X rays MRI Magnetic Resonance imaging, utilizes strong magnetic fields, better resolution than CT scan Brain function PET scan, fMRI PET scan Position Emission Tomography, involve injection of glucose and radioactive tracer fMRI functional MRI; brief changes in bran activity Psychophysiological assessment -Learn more about the physiological bases of psychological processes -Electroencephalogram (EEG) - brain wave activity -Heart rate and respiration -Examples - PTSD; sleep disorders Taxonomy classification in a scientific context Nosology taxonomy in psychological/medical phenomena Nomenclature labels in a nosological system (e.g., "panic disorder" "depressive disorders") EEG Electroencephalogram (EEG) - brain wave activity Categorical approach (classical or pure) Strict categories (e.g., you either have social anxiety disorder or you don't) Dimensional approach classification along dimensions (e.g., different people have varying amounts of anxiety in social situations), on a scale. Prototypical approach combines classical and dimensional views. Common or typical example. DSM-5 (Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) based on classification system developed by Emil Kraepelin 1850s Removed the axial system more clear symptom list Clear inclusion and exclusion criteria for disorders Disorders are categorized under broad headings Empirically-grounded, prototypic approach to classification based on research and observation prototype approach mostly used Unresolved Issues in DSM-5 The problem of comorbidity Defined as two or more disorders for the same person combination of symptoms High comorbidity is extremely common Labeling issues and stigmatization Some labels have negative connotations and may make patients less likely to seek treatment ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases) Published by the World Health Organization (WHO), covers all health conditions appearance & behavior the clinician notes some overt physical behaviors as well as the individual's dress, general appearance, posture and facial expressions. thought processes rate of speech, continuity of speech, content of speech mood and affect: mood is the predominant feeling state of an individual. Affect is the feeling state that accompanies what we say at a given point. intellectual functioning type of vocabulary, use for abstractions and metaphors sensorium awareness of surroundings in terms of person, time and place. Antecedent what happened just before the behavior (mother telling her son to put glass in the sink) behavior the ______________ itself (throwing a glass at his mom) consequence what happened afterward (mother's lack of response) Diagnosis -Detailed description accompanies each mental disorder -list of disorders and their accompanying symptoms
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