Chapter 4 Study Guide
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Kortney Keane Developmental Psychology Study Guide Ch. 5 (22 points) 1. Review and describe the principles of cephalocaudal and proximodistal development. Cephalocaudal development The sequence in which the earliest growth always occurs at the top with physical growth in size, weight, and feature differentiation gradually working from top to bottom. Proximodistal development When growth starts at the center of the body and moves towards the outer extremities. 2. Physical growth slows during early childhood (compared to infancy). The emphasis at this age is on muscle development and coordination. Read the section on Motor Development and give evidence and examples of this. As a child develops and gets older they become more familiar with their body and how it moves and what they can do with it. They like to show off what they can do, even though it might still be a little clumsy, they like to showboat and get praise for it. One example of gross motor skills is a three year old who enjoys running and jumping. They enjoy showing off what they can do just for the sense of accomplishment. A fine motor skill example is a three year old putting a puzzle together. They know where to put the puzzle pieces but they might not line them up exactly right so they try to force them or pat them hard to get them to stick. 3. Describe which part of the brain shows rapid growth during the early childhood years. What type of activity does this portion of the brain regulate? The prefrontal cortex shows rapid growth around ages 36. This part of the brain plays a role in planning and organizing new actions and maintaining attention to tasks. 4. Contrast gross motor skills and fine motor skills. Give examples of each. Gross motor skills use large muscle groups. An example of this would be like running or jumping. Fine motor skills use small muscle groups. An example of this would be like picking up a small object with two fingers. 5. Discuss the problems associated with being overweight in early childhood. The children who are overweight in early childhood have a greater risk of being overweight later in life as well. They also have a greater risk of high cholesterol levels which can cause heart disease. 6. What do you think about the statement, “A child’s life should be centered around activities, not meals.” Isn’t mealtime together important? This is a tough one. I think that mealtime together is important but I also think that being active is important. I don’t think it’s healthy to be constantly going to and from different activities all of the time. That can lead to a lack of time for family meals and could require eating out because of the rush between activities. I think a child’s life should be centered around the health of the child. Having plenty of activities with time set aside for family meals is ideal. 7. Read pg. 137 – 138 and discuss the increase of children eating fast food. (Can you really consider french fries a vegetable? Ha!) I think that Americans live such a busy and active lifestyle that eating out is sometimes the only option for some families. I don’t think this is healthy at all. I think that parents need to limit the amount of activities their children participate in so they aren’t forced to get fast food because of a lack of time between activities. 8. What is the leading cause of death in young children? Cardiovascular Disease 9. How does lowincome affect the status of young children. Kortney Keane Children who live in lowincome families can experience hunger, malnutrition, illness, inadequate access to health care, unsafe water, and lack of protection from harm. 10. The first stage of Piaget’s cognitive theory is sensorimotor which you covered in the previous chapters. What is the second stage in Piaget’s theory? How would you describe the thought processes of this second stage? The Preoperational Stage. This stage is when children begin to represent the world with words. 11. What are the “gains” or accomplishments in the symbolic function substage of Piaget’s theory? The child learns about different perspectives other than their own. 12. Preschoolers often want to hold a book being read to them directly in front of them…. Not realizing the reader may not be able to see the words. This thinking is because of which limitation in their thinking according to Piaget’s theory? Egocentrism. The child is thinking about what they can see and not what the reader can see. 13. A young child may be afraid of their bedroom curtains blowing from the breeze, thinking they are coming after them. This demonstrates which limitation in cognitive thought? Animism. The child believes that inanimate objects are capable of action. 14. Study figures 5.4 and 5.5. Be sure you understand how children in the preoperational stage of development are limited by centration and the inability to conserve. Explain briefly so I understand you’ve learned this concept. Children only focus on one characteristic and exclude all others. They are unable to recognize that altering an objects appearance doesn’t change is basic properties. When there are two glasses of water filled equally the child can see that. When one of the glasses is poured into a skinnier taller glass, the child immediately thinks the taller glass has more water because that’s the one characteristic they see. They only see that the water level in the skinnier glass is higher than the waterline in the shorter, wider glass. 15. Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development is a social constructivist approach. What is the emphasis of this theory of how kids learn? It emphasizes the social contexts of learning and the construction of knowledge through social interaction. 16. Define the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). This is Vygotsky’s term for the range of tasks that are too difficult for a child to master alone but can be learned with the guidance and assistance of adults or moreskilled children. 17. You are interested in developing your child’s literacy skills. What are some suggestions or guidelines you will follow. You may want to look at the writing sample on page 153. (3 pts.) Some key principles in young children’s vocabulary development are: Children learn the words they hear most often Children learn words for things and events that interest them. They learn words best in responsive and interactive context. They learn words best in contexts that are meaningful They learn words when they access clear information about word meaning. They learn words best when grammar and vocabulary are considered. Working with your children to use correct tenses and adding correct prefixes and suffixes will help your child with their literacy skills. This is what was done in the “Wugs” example. 18. As a review, what are the two major influences on development at all stages? What are the 3 domains or areas that we develop in? (3 pts.) Kortney Keane We develop in 3 areas; physical, cognitive, and language. The two major influences on all stages are nature and nurture.
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