Chapter 6 Study Guide
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kortney Keane on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to at Iowa Central Community College taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 332 views.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Kortney Keane Developmental Psychology Study Guide Ch. 6 1. Refer back to page 18 in your text. Review the chart of Erikson’s theory of personality development. Explain what Erikson means by saying that early childhood is dominated by feelings of initiative versus guilt. Erikson explains that as the child is exposed to a widening social world, they face challenges that require active and purposeful behavior (initiative). They can, although, experience guilt if they are irresponsible and made to feel anxious. 2. List the 3 areas by which young children base their selfdescriptions on. Size, shape, and color. 3. The way parents interact with their children is an important factor in how children develop emotionally. Distinguish between emotioncoaching parents and those who use an emotiondismissing approach. Emotioncoaching: When parents view negative emotion as opportunities for teaching. Parents assist them in labeling emotions and teach them how to deal with them. Emotiondismissing: When parents deny, ignore, or change negative emotions. 4. Billy is helping his mother make a cake. He accidentally drops the carton of eggs and breaks the entire dozen eggs. Julie was told not to get into the refrigerator while her mother was gone. But she opens the refrigerator door to get a soda, and one egg falls off the shelf in the door and breaks. According to Piaget’s thinking on moral development, who would a 6 year old child think is “naughtier”? The 6 year old is in the heteronomous morality stage. This means that the six year old would most likely think that Julie is “naughtier” because she broke the rules and then broke an egg. Where Billy was just helping his mom when he accidentally broke an egg. 5. Early childhood years are the years when boys and girls discover they are different…. Not just physically, but different in their gender. Define gender. Briefly describe the 3 theories presented in your text on how this learning about gender occurs. The three theories are Parental Influences, Peer Influences, and Cognitive Influences. Parental Influences: Each parent plays a role in the development of a child. A study discovered that mothers tend to socialize their daughters to be more obedient than their sons and fathers tend to give more attention to their sons and engage in more activities than their daughters. Peer Influences: Peer reward and punish gender behavior. For example, a girl brings a doll to the park, she makes new friends. A boy brings a doll to a park, he gets rejected by the children. Cognitive Influences: Children gradually develop schemas of what is genderappropriate and what is genderinappropriate. They categorize the world in male and female. They pick up what is gender appropriate in their culture and shape how they perceive the world. 6. Explain what the phrase “Play is a child’s Work” means to you. (Really think about this one!) I think this statement means that when children play, they are exercising their minds. Playing is their way of making sense of things and figuring out the world. When children play “house”, they may reenact situation that happen at their own home to make sense of it. They are developing when they are playing. 7. What percentage of kids born to married parents, can expect to experience their parents’ divorcing? Have you experienced your parents’ divorce…. or your own divorce? Read pg. 180181 carefully and compare the research with the effect it has had on your or your child’s development? If you have not experienced divorce in your own family, comment on the research. (3 pts.) It is estimated that 40% of children born to married parents will experience their parents’ divorce. I have not experienced a divorce (Thank goodness). In regards to the research, I can only say that I am thankful Kortney Keane my parents are still together. I have a few friends that have divorced parents and I have seen things in them that the research described. 8. List and briefly describe the four types of parenting as described by Baumrind. Which parenting style did your parents use? If you have children, or if you intend to have children some day, which style do you think is best and which will you or are you using? (3 pts.) Authoritarian: The parents have a restrictive, punitive style in which the parents exhort the child to follow their directions and respect their work and effort. (My way or the highway type of parenting) Authoritative: The parents encourage the child to be independent but still places rules and limits to control their actions. These parents allow verbal give and take with the children and maintain a good relationship. Neglectful: The parent is uninvolved in the child’s life. The children believe that other parts of the parents’ lives are more important than them. Indulgent: The parents are highly involved with their children but place few demands or controls on them. Basically the children are allowed to do most of what they want. My parents used authoritative parenting. I think that this is the best approach to parenting and it’s the method I plan on using for my children. 9. What is the current recommendation for children age 2 to 4 years old in regards to “screen time”? Discuss some of the concerns associated with kids spending too much time in front of a screen. (3 pts.) It is recommended that children ages 24 only have one hour of “scree time” per day. Too much “screen time” can make kids become passive learners, distract them from doing homework, teach them stereotypes, provide them with violent models of aggression, and present them with unrealistic views of the world.
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