Chapter 8 Study Guide
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Kortney Keane Developmental Psychology Study Guide Ch. 8 1. Contrast selfesteem and selfconcept in your own words. Selfesteem refers to global evaluation of the self. The child may think they are a good person. Selfconcept refers to domainspecific evaluation of the self. The child may think they are good at basketball. 2. Elijah is proud of how well he can build things out of construction toys. However, he is disappointed that he cannot kick a soccer ball very well. Is this an illustration of his developing selfconcept or selfesteem? Why? This is an example of selfconcept. He realizes that he does well in one area (construction), but doesn’t do as well in another (soccer). This is domainspecific 3. List four strategies to enhance selfesteem in children. Identify the causes of low selfesteem. Provide emotional support and social approval. Help children achieve. Help children cope. 4. Define selfefficacy. This is the belief that one can master a situation and produce favorable outcomes. 5. What is Erikson’s fourth stage of development? How can parents help to ensure their child develops a positive sense of industry? Industry versus inferiority. Parents can help ensure their child develops a positive sense of industry by encouraging them to make, build, and work. 6. Read the following information and then study Kohlberg’s theory of development in your text. A woman is near death from cancer. A druggist has discovered a drug that doctors believe might save her. The druggist is charging $2,000 for a small dose—ten times what the drug costs him to make. The sick woman’s husband, Heinz, borrows from everyone he knows but can scrape together only $1,000. He begs the druggist to sell him the drug for $1,000 or let him pay the rest later. The druggist refuses, saying “I discovered the drug and I’m going to make money from it.” Heinz, desperate, breaks into the man’s store and steals the drug. Should Heinz have done that? Why or why not? (Kohlberg, 1969) Heinz’s problem is the most famous example of Lawrence Kohlberg’s approach to studying moral development. Starting in the 1950s, Kohlberg and his colleagues posed hypothetical dilemmas like this one to 75 boys ages 10, 13, and 16 and continued to question them periodically for more than 30 years. At the heart of each dilemma was the concept of justice. By asking respondents how they arrived at their answers, Kohlberg concluded that the way people look at moral issues reflects cognitive development. What is your response to the Heinz Dilemma? Which level of moral reasoning do you think that would put you at? 7. Write your own definition of gender stereotype. Give an example. My definition of a gender stereotype is when people assume that boys like blue and girls like pink. They assume boys like cars and girls like dolls. They label toys “boy toys” and “girl toys,” when really, they’re just kids’ toys. 8. In regards to the research on gender similarities and differences, who (male or female) seems to be stronger in each of the following areas: Life expectancy, mental disorders, coronary heart disease, surface area of brain tissue, verbal skills, aggression. Life expectancy: 9. Explain the term androgyny. Kortney Keane This is the presence of positive masculine and feminine characteristics in the same individual. 10. Explain how parenting techniques should change from preschool kids to school aged children. As children move from preschool to school age, parents should give their children a little more space to have their own responsibility. They should still be there for support and monitoring school work but ultimately letting the children have responsibility for their school work. 11. List the characteristics of popular children. Frequently nominated as a best friend and are rarely disliked by their peers. 12. Define bullying. Who is most likely to be bullied? Verbal or physical behavior intended to disturb someone less powerful. Boys are more likely to be bullies than girls are. Boys and younger middle school students are also most likely to be bullied. 13. Discuss the causes and effects living in poverty has on a child’s education. (3 pts.) Children who live in poverty are at higher risk of having parents who don’t set high enough education standards for them, who are incapable of reading to them, or who don’t have enough money for educational materials and experiences such as books and trips to zoos and museums. They could be malnourished or live in areas where crime and violence are a way of life. 14. When comparing Math skills of American and Asian students, researchers found it wasn’t just the time spent learning math in a classroom that differed, differences in parenting differed as well. Explain the differences in parenting. Include studies done by Eva Pomerantz on parental involvement in children’s learning. (3 pts.) 15. Your text makes the statement: “A current concern is that too many of today’s children grow up receiving praise for mediocre or even poor performance and as a consequence have inflated selfesteem”. There is even a book entitled, “Dumbing Down Our Kids: Why American Children Feel Good About Themselves But Can’t Read, Write, or Add”. (See pg. 221) Comment on your opinions, experiences, etc. of this. What recommendations or advice would you give to parents & teachers in light of these statements? (3 pts.)
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