Anth 310 study guide Exam 1
Anth 310 study guide Exam 1 Anth 310
Edinboro University of Pennsylvania
Popular in Intro to Forensic Anthropology
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katelyn Vogel on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Anth 310 at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Barbian in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Intro to Forensic Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania.
Reviews for Anth 310 study guide Exam 1
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/23/16
Anthro 310: Forensic Anthropology Study Guide: Exam 1 1. What is the definition of anthropology? “the study of human beings” 2. What are the four fields of approach in anthropology? cultural, linguistic, archaeology, and physical/biological 3. What is cultural anthropology? the study of present day cultures and derivation of cultures 4. What are the four subgroups in cultural anthropology? economic, medical, political, religion 5. What is linguistic anthropology? study of language in cultures 6. What are the three subgroups in linguistic anthropology? structural, historical, sociolinguistics 7. What is archaeology? study of past cultures using artifacts and other material cultures 8. What is prehistoric archeology? nonliterate (no written language or language unable to read) 9. What is physical/biological anthropology? study of human biology to understand human cultures 10. Name three types of physical/biological anthropology. paleoanthropology, human variation, and primatology 11. What is paleoanthropology? the study of fossil remains (human evolution) 12. What is human variation? the study of biology of human population 13. What is primatology? the study of biology and behavior of nonhuman primates 14. The study of anthropology is a theoretical science. FALSE, applied . 15. What is forensic anthropology also known as? physical anthropology 16. A theory is a validated hypothesis. TRUE 17. What is forensic anthropology? identification of human skeleton for medicolegal purposes 1 Anthro 310: Forensic Anthropology Study Guide: Exam 1 18. What types of remains can forensic anthropologists encounter? complete, whole skeletal, skeletal fragments, and burned bones 19. What biological determinations can be made from the skeleton? age, death, sex, ancestry, stature, unique characteristics, antemortem pathological conditions 20. What is the biological feature that determines the age of a skeleton? teeth 21. Premolars only appear in adult skeletons. TRUE 22. What is the major bone to determine the sex of a skeleton? pelvis 23. What three groups classify as ancestry? negroid, mongoloid, caucasoid 24. Antemortem means “after death.” FALSE, postmortem . 25. Who is considered the father of forensic anthropology? Thomas Dwight 26. What was the first case of skeletal reconstruction? Parkman murder of 1849 27. What cases established the use of skeletal bone fragments? Leutgert Cases of 1897 28. Who performed facial reproduction of the skull? Harris H. Wilder 29. Who made age determinations from the epiphyseal union? Paul Stevenson 30. What is forensic science? any science used for the purpose of law such as in court or in the justice system 31. Forensic science may serve for either civil or criminal cases. TRUE 32. What is the difference between a coroner and a medical examiner? a coroner is elected and a medical examiner is appointed as a forensic pathologist 33. The only person who can legally identify and determine the cause of death of a skeleton is either a coroner or medical examiner. TRUE 34. What is the difference between cause of death and manner of death? For example, cause of death is a gunshot wound and the manner of death is homicide. 35. What are the five types for manner of death? homicide, suicide, accident, natural, unknown/indeterminate 2 Anthro 310: Forensic Anthropology Study Guide: Exam 1 36. Forensic scientists must be subjective. FALSE, objective . 37. What is criminalistics? analyze, compare, identify, and interpret physical evidence 38. What are engineering scientists subjected to in the work field? failure analysis, accident reconstruction, causes and origins of fires or explosions 39. What is forensic dentistry? the identification of human remains through teeth or bite mark analysis 40. What is the job of a forensic pathologist? to perform autopsies to determine cause of death 41. What is the purpose of anthropology? to determine a biological profile, assist in recovery of remains, and trauma analysis 42. Which of the following questions can be answered when identifying documents? ANS: e. a. Who wrote this? b. Is this a true signature? c. Has this document been altered? d. Was this pen used to write this? e. All the above 43. What is forensic toxicology? investigation of crimes in which drug or alcohol use is an element of the crime or may be a defense 44. What was the first case to use expert testimony? Folkes v. Chadd (1783) 45. The expert witness testimony is the only opinion allowed as evidence. TRUE 46. What are the two standards for evidence admission? Frye Test and Rule 702 47. What does the Frye Test say? trust the expert and leave the admissibility to the jury 48. What is the Federal Rule of Evidence: Rule 702? strictly scrutinize the evidence allowing the judge to be the gatekeeper to remove the evidence 49. What case established the standards for evidence? Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals 50. What are the tests for admissibility? relevant and reliable 3 Anthro 310: Forensic Anthropology Study Guide: Exam 1 51. What are the biological attributes of personal identity? sex, height, skin color, and age 52. What are the cultural facts of personal identity? gender, selfidentified race 53. What are some reasons to identify the dead? funerary rites, “closure,” legal and financial resources, prosecution of the guilty 54. What is orpus Delicti? most basic biological evidence of a crime that establishes a relationship between victim and criminal; requires a heavy burden of proof in criminal courts 55. When the body has not been altered, what personal identification is used? facial form 56. When the body has been altered, what personal identification is used? scientific determination and nonbiological contextual evidence 57. What evidence is used to make a positive identification? fingerprints and DNA 58. What is presumptive identification? logically associate remains with a specific individual 59. Why use presumptive evidence? practical realities and probative values may be very high 60. What is idiosyncratic morphology? traits unique to a specific person 61. What are some examples of idiosyncratic morphology? DNA and anatomical structures 62. What are some skeletal indicators of stress? trauma and disease 63. What are some types of comparisons for biological factors and identification? radiographs/photographs, surgical appliances, bone/tooth DNA, artistic renderings 64. What is the Safe Medical Devices Act of 1993? It requires recording of lot and serial numbers of orthopaedic devices 65. What are the two types of DNA identification? Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA 66. Where is Nuclear DNA found? recent remains, ie muscle tissue 4 Anthro 310: Forensic Anthropology Study Guide: Exam 1 67. Where is mitochondrial DNA found? bone 68. What is the descent of Nuclear DNA? patrilineal and matrilineal (parents to offspring) 69. What is the descent of mitochondrial DNA? matrilineal (mother to offspring) 70. Which type of DNA is used for positive identification? Nuclear DNA 71. Which type of DNA can be used for presumptive identification? mitochondrial DNA 72. What is osteology? brance of anatomy dealing with bones 73. What are the types of physical anthropology? forensic anthropology, paleopathology, paleoanthropology 74. What information is available from the skeleton? age, sex, stature, race/ancestry, pathology/trauma, habitual activities 75. What are the two methodological approaches? visual comparison and mathematical approach 76. What are the advantages of each? visual comparison: less restricted in choice of variables, use traits that cannot be expressed as quantitative variables mathematical approach: construct probabilities, reveal biological structures not easily observed. 77. What is FORDISC? computerized program that analyzes human remains 78. What is the difference between a population and a sample? a sample is a subgroup of the population 79. What are some sampling effects? loss of diagnostic power, biased results, and misinterpretations 80. What is the mean? the sum of all observations divided by the number of observations 81. What is the standard deviation? spread of observations about the mean 5 Anthro 310: Forensic Anthropology Study Guide: Exam 1 82. What are some sources of osteological data? archaeological series, reference samples, anatomical samples of known age, sex and race 83. What are the characteristics of archaeological samples? ancient, estimated ageatdeath, crosssectional, nonsurvivors 84. What are the standards developed from archaeological samples? age and diaphyseal length, sex assessment and femoral midshaft diameter 85. What are the characteristics of reference samples? modern, living, longitudinal, chronological age, imaging technology 86. What are the characteristics of anatomical samples? historic, known ageatdeath, crosssectional, nonsurvivors 87. What type of bodies were gathered to use in the Terry collection? unclaimed and donatedtothestate bodies 88. What type of bodies were gathered to be used in the HamannTodd collection? unclaimed bodies 89. What type of bodies were gathered for the SucheyBrooks sample? autopsies 90. Which collection was the largest collection? Terry collection 91. What are the characteristics of war dead samples? healthy, wellfed population, sudden death, all male, limited age range 92. Where were war dead studies conducted? WWII, Korea, Vietnam 93. What is the difference between biological age and chronological age? Biological age is the appearance of the body and chronological age is the numerical value 94. What is the difference between sex and gender? Sex is biologically determined by chromosomes and gender is social group 95. What is the difference between ancestry and ethnicity? Ancestry is the biological bloodline and ethnicity is the cultural affiliation 96. What factors affect accuracy and precision? skeletal elements present, age categories, analytical methods 97. What are the three major types of bias’? biological mortality bias, environmental bias, and cultural bias 6 Anthro 310: Forensic Anthropology Study Guide: Exam 1 98. What is a biological mortality bias? the physiological and morphological difference between those who die and those who survive 99. What is an environmental bias? different skeletal preservation due to soil composition and acidity, humidity, internment/curation conditions, preparation techniques 100. What is a cultural bias? differential representation of individuals in skeletal samples because of variation in mortuary practices 7
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'