Anatomy and Physiology 2
Anatomy and Physiology 2 Anatomy and Physiology
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lyndsey Wenzel on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Anatomy and Physiology at West Chester University of Pennsylvania taught by Giovanni Cassotti in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Science in Science at West Chester University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Introduction 1. Understand what homeostasis is especially the full definition (shown as bullets in the lecture) as described by Claude Bernard. Homeostasis balance, the tendency to keep regular, maintenance of a relative constant state regardless of large external fluctuations, control systems help to regulate and maintain homeostasis, regulate small internal fluctuations due to large external fluctuations Claude Bernard’s concept on homeostasis all organs interact, organs made of tissues, tissues of cells all cells of organs bathed in internal fluid, internal fluid of cells=intracellular(cytoplasm), outside cell fluid is extracellular, space between cells in interstition contains extraceullar fluid bc outside of cell cells exist if fluid remains constant in quantity and quality, quality of fluid=concentration, quality effects quantity fluctuations occur within narrow limits 2. Know the definition of osmosis and understand which way water moves across a cell membrane when given different concentration values on either side of the cell. Osmosis diffusion of water from where water is in high concentration to where water is in low concentration Concentration how many ions/solutes are dissolved in solution Osmoles/milliosmoles(mOsm)concentration units?? Human body=290mOsm+/ 5mOsm to maintain homeostasis throughout the body Examples: exercising w/o drinking water, concentration goes up, lose water, higher % ions water diffuses to higher conc of ions Dehydrated cells shrink Hydrated cells are full 3. Know what is meant by feedback mechanisms and understand how both negative and positive feedback mechanisms operate. Which feedback mechanism is more common and why? body reacts to stimuli, tries to maintain homeostasis upregulation ex:heart rate low, body upregulates downregulation ex: heart rate high, body downregulates Negative Feedback mechanism (benefical): disturbance occurs=bad control system working to maintain homeostasis, (ie brain,CNS) sensors detect disturbances that are bad for the body, error signals(ie skin receptors) set point adjustment as long as disturbance is going on, will never reach equilibrium, close but not exact Inverted amplifier(|> ) – working against disturbance, working negatively, hence negative feedback Positive Feedback mechanism: (rare, mostly destructive, occurs in GI and reproduction) similar process disturbance, sensor (signals), amplifier (<| ) 4. Come up with examples of both types of feedback mechanisms. Negative Feedback (ends in downregulation) Example: Beneficial Perspiration Exercising and muscles are working, this creates a… Disturbance increase in body temp Sensor body/nervous system senses this, sends signal to sweat glands Inverted amplifier sweat is released and evaporated, heat dissipates, body cools down, inversion/ decrease in temp doesn’t prevent displacement restores stability close to operating parameters (set adjustment point) once disturbance goes away, can get back to exact equilibrium Positive Feedback (ends in upregulation) Example: Destructive congestive heart failurue Infected w virus where blood doesn’t circulate well, therefore not enough oxygen, not enough nutrients Disturbanceinability of heart to pump blood Sensor nervous system Amplifier increase in heart muscle contraction increase in muscle contraction makes heart work harder, muscle gets tired eventually stopping, causing complete downregulation of blood flow often leading to death 5. Control Systems Stimulus receptor (cell)[Afferenttoward CNS] Integration (CNS) [Efferent away from CNS] Effector (muscle, gland) Response ANS 1. Understand how the nervous system in humans is arranged and the differences between the somatic and autonomic nervous system (ANS). CNS PNS CNScentral nervous systembrain and spinal cord Sensory division PNS Sensory division stimulus is detected here, found in PNS, sends afferent info to PNS, info goes in one direction PNS Motor division PNS peripheral nervous system nerves and ganglia outside of brain and spinal cord Motor Division motor neurons only carry info away from PNS and to ANS or SNS Motor DivisionSNS & ANS Somatic Nervous System voluntary control, skeletal muscle, afferent and efferent Autonomic Nervous SystemInvoluntary control of body functions, part of PNS, major organs, motor neuronsimpulses from brain/spinal cord to organ, gland, muscle. ANS sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions Sympathetic fight or flight, usually upregulates Parasympathetic resting and digesting, usually downregulates Synapses, Ganglia, Neurotransmitters among SNS/ANS Automatic Nervous system Ganglia cell bodies, linked by synapses Preganglionic neuron neuron before ganlia Post ganglionic neuron neuron after ganglia _______ contains ganglia (only ANS not SNS) ANSinvoluntary Sympathetic Division o fight/flight o neuron to neuron, neuron to hormonal communication o neurons innovate CNS neurons come off nerves from T1L2, first thoracic vertebrae nerve to second lumbar vertebrae nerve o sympathetic ganglia long chain of ganglia, sympathetic ganglia run parallel to vertebral column= paravertebral ganglia o Target organs Smooth muscle (in blood vessel) Neuron to neuron communication Short pre ganglionic neurons o Cholinergic neuronreleases acetylcholine o Post neuron contains nicotinic receptors to bind this acetylcholine Long post ganglionic neurons ganglia far from target organ o Post ardrenergic neurons releases norepinephrine o target organs contain ardrenergic receptors Glands Neuron to hormonal communication No glanglia?? Neuron innovates directly to target organ Adrenal gland (next to kidney), outer kidney=adrenal cortex, inner area=adrenal medulla Hormone released in adrenal medulla! Acetylcholine is hormone releasedcholinergic Nicotinic receptorslocated on adrenal medulla cells, recongnize acetylcholine and bind Acetylcholine release causes adrenal medulla cells to release hormones (epinephrine/norepinephrine) aka adrenaline, when released hormones enter the blood, carried to organs, overall upregulating Parasympathetic divison o Resting and digesting o Neurons innovate CNS Neurons arise from cranial and sacral neurons, sacral nerve 2&4 (S2&S4) o Target organs Cardiac Muscle Neuron to neuron communication Long pre ganglionic neurons o Cholinergic neuronreleases acetylcholine o Post neuron contains nicotinic receptors to bind this acetylcholine Short post ganglionic neuronsganglia close to target organ o Cholinergic neuronreleases acetylcholine o Neurons/target organs contain cholinergic receptors o Nicotinic receptors receptors on post gang neurons o Muscarinic receptors on target organ, cardiac muscle SNSvoluntary Target organs o Skeletal muscle Neuron to neuron communication No ganglia, directly from CNS to target organ Works quicker bc crosses no synapses Releases Acetylcholine, causes muscle to contact, upregulation chemicals releases in blood are neurotransmitters, hormones, acetylcholine, epinephrine, norepinephrine acetylcholinegenerally downregulates norepinephrinegenerally upregulates there are multiple neurons pre/post ganglia Effects of Divisions Sympathetic o Heart muscle increase (speed up) o Gut (GI tract) decrease (slows down) o Glands, slight increase (some secretion) o Gastric (stomach), slight increase (secretion) o Sweat increase (copious secretion) o Basal metabolism increase (speeds up) o Eye pupil increase (dialate) o Lungs increase (dialate bronchioles) Parasympathetic o Heart muscle decrease (slow down) o Gut (GI tract) increase (speeds up) o Glands, increase (copious secretion) o Gastric (stomach), increase (copious secretion) o Sweat decrease (no secretion) o Basal metabolism decrease (none) o Eye pupil decrease (contraction) o Lungs increase (dialate bronchioles) Nerves of ANS preganglionic are cholinergic neurons postganglionic of sympathetic are adrenergic neurons postganglionic of parasympathetic are cholinergic neurons cholinergic neurons release acetylcholine adrenergic neurons release norepinephrine Cholinergic receptors bind acetylcholine Nicotinic receptors (mostly on neurons) o Neuron recognizes acetylcholine (dendrite (branched extension of nerve cell) recognize then receptor recognize) o Stimulatory, always upregulates o Location All post ganglionic neurons Adrenal medulla cells Skeletal muscle cells Muscarinic receptors (only found on target organs) o Recognize acetylcholine o Inhibitory, when acetylcholine binds these organs they are downregulated! Except sweat glands are stimulated o Location All parasympathetic target organs (heart) Some sympathetic target organs (sweat glands) Adrenergic Receptors recognize and bind norepinephrine Only found on target organs, found on all smooth muscle Only post ganglionic neurons release norepinephrine (&adrenal medulla) Alpha o Generally stimulatory, upregulates o Except digestion, downregulates o Norepinephrine increases fight/flight, so GI would go down Beta o Generally inhibitory, downregulates o Except for heart is upregulated Heart only has beta receptors Beta blockers drugs bind to beta receptors so hormones cannot, when hormones cant bind blood pressure cannot be upregulated, this keeps blood pressure low taken by people with high blood pressure ANS CONTROL Hypothalamus o The boss o Receives signals from the cerebral cortex and limbic lobe, responds to these signals o Control of physiology o Communication at subconscious level Limbic lobe o Emotional input Cerebral cortex o Frontal lobe Example: Relative passes away become sad Sad bc limbic system is tied closely with memory Knows will never see that person again Results in hypothalamus to release hormones that cause general downregulation of body creating depressive effect sad 2. What types of neurons are found in the ANS? Motor neurons! CNS output impulses 3. Identify some differences between the somatic and autonomic nervous system. Voluntary vs involuntary, 4. Know what neurotransmitters are found in what nervous system. SNSach ANS ach and ep and norep 5. Here are some questions you should be able to answer. What is a ganglion? How many ways does the sympathetic nervous system operate? What target organs are innervated by the autonomic nervous system? 6. Ganglion cell body Sympathetic fight or flight response, targets smooth muscle and glands in dif ways ANS innovates smooth muscle, glands, cardiac muscle 7. Describe how the ANS neurons are anatomically arranged. Sympathetic ganglia are paravertebral, parallel to spinal cord, short pre/long post neurons Parasympathetic ganglia near target organ, long pre/short post neurons 8. What are some physiological effects to organs of stimulating either the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system? Up/downregulation, chart above 9. What is the difference between cholinergic and adrenergic neurons, and between cholinergic and adrenergic receptors? Where are they located? What ultimately controls the ANS? Listed above Endocrinology Endocrinology the study of hormones o Nervous System o Electrochemical impulses along axons regulate muscles and glands Moving across synapse chemical impulse, aids regulation o Quick response, react quickly o Endocrine System o Influences metabolism via chemical messages Metabolism sum total of all chemical reactions in your body Hormone any substance released into your blood stream Body needs oxygen and fuel (glucose) o Prolonged response, will take time to enact o Endocrine vs exocrine glands Endocrinereleased into blood stream (hormones) Exocrine releases substances to the outside of the body or into body cavities (stomach, intestines) (ie sweat glands) Endocrine Glands o Major glands o Pituitarybrain o Thyroid throat o Parathyroid behind thyroid, neck o Adrenalkidneys o Pineal brain o Thymus b/w pectoralis muscles o Other glands o Pancreas, gonads o Organs/tissues producing hormones o Adipose tissue (fat), intestine, stomach, kidneys, heart *ALL RELEASE HORMONES INTO BLOOD Hormones Steroidal (5%) derivded from fats (cholesterol) o Gonads(reproductive organs), adrenal glands Amino Acid Based (95%) – derived from proteins o Works by a secondary messenger system multiple messages needed to make compound inside of cell Cyclic AMP cAMP signaling mechanism, made inside of cell (AMPadenine monophosphate) PIPcalcium signaling mechanism (PIPphosphoatidyl inositol phosphate), when PIP attaches to calcium, cell reacts to it cAMP components receptor, G protein, adenylate cyclase, cAMP, protein kinase Example: Cells contain plasma membrane made of phoshpholipid bilayer (fats) fats dissolve in fats, therefore steroid hormones dissolve and get through easily proteins cannot dissolve through fats, therefore amino acid based hormones cannot get through membrane instead attach to membrane, make message inside cell, tells what to do inside membrane (proteins, enzymes, receptor proteins in membrane) Cyclic AMP signalingamino acid based hormones 1. First messenger receptor recognizes hormone, binds together 2. GDP GTP (phosphate added) 3. This activates G protein (guanosine molecule attached to protein, GDP= GPiPi), cell doesn’t recognize ADP/GDP form, must be activated and in ATP/GTP form (organic phosphates are made in cell to activate) 4. Activation of adenylate cyclase (enzyme) 5. this enzyme breaks down energy (ATP) and 6. cAMP is formed from ATP (second messenger formation of cAMP) 7. During this reaction GTP hydrolyzed GDP (side reaction) and Gprotein is inactivated 8. cAMP activates proteins kinase (kinases phosphorylate/dephosphorylate) 9. Active protein kinase triggers response of target cell (activates enzymes, stimulates cellular secretion, opens ion channels) 10. Activation of metabolism PIP Calcium Signaling amino acid based hormones 1. First messenger receptor recognizes hormone 2. GDP GTP (phosphate added) 3. This activates G protein (guanosine molecule attached to protein, GDP= GPiPi), cell doesn’t recognize ADP/GDP form, must be activated and in ATP/GTP form (organic phosphates are made in cell to activate) 4. Activation of phospholipase (enzyme) 5. This enzyme breaks down PIP, splits and converts PIP2 into DAG (diacylglycerol and IP3 (inisitoltriphosphate) 6. During this reaction GTP hydrolyzed GDP (side reaction) and Gprotein is inactivated 7. Second messengers DAG and IP3 o DAG activates protein kinases o IP3 triggers calcium release, IP3 reacts w endoplasmic reticulum which stores and releases calcium ions 8. cell reacts to calcium release, calcium activates channels on plasma membrane or binds to calmodulin activating metabolism Steroidal Hormones go right through membrane, no secondary messenger system required 1. Diffuse into cell and enter nucleus 2. Hormomes bind to receptors to form receptor complexes (receptorhormone complex) 3. Complexes bind to DNA 4. Production of mRNA (DNA RNA via transcription) 5. mRNA comes out of nucleus and into cytoplasm and 6. ribosomes attach to mRNA and make proteins (RNA proteins via translation) 7. proteins include enzymes that stimulate metabolism **OVERALL hormones released to make proteins Hormones o travel in blood free or bound to protein carriers o hormones dissolved in blood plasma are considered “free hormones” o organs release hormones when given stimulus o blood hormone concentration decreases o overtime o when degraded by target organswhen come out of blood and is used by target organs where they bring the hormone into cells and break it down o removal by kidneys and liver kidneys filter blood, hormone gets filtered out of bloodstream and used o half life: 30sec to minutes o time it takes for the concentration of that hormone to get to half of its most concentrated level o Hormone release 3 major stimuli to why organ releases hormone Humoral change in nutrient status, ionic strength or ion concentration, stimulus for release of some hormones to go back to homeostasis (example of nutrient: glucose) ie: calcium concentration lowering causes PTH (parathyroid hormone) to be released Neural neural input increases or decreases hormonal secretion, ie: SNS nerve signal stimulates adrenal gland to release epinephrine and norepinephrine o Hormonal (common) – hormone is released, what causes organ to release another hormone comes from previous hormones being released, domino effect, ie: hypothalamus (controls endocrine system) releases hormones that cause pituitary to release other hormones Types of Hormones o Growth hormone helps you grow! Catalyzes reaction stored fats fatty acids, body can use fatty acids to make energy o Site of release anterior pituitary controls growth and development and the functioning of other endocrine glands o Target organ targets every organ in the body mostly skeletal muscles and bone because they grow the most o Stimulation humoral, neural, and hormonal stimuli Primary released in adolescence, low levels of GH (growth hormone) stimulate release During puberty more than avg amount is released, once in adulthood maintains homeostasis o Feedback mechanism (what shuts off release of hormone) high levels of GH hyperglycemia high blood sugar meaning high level of plasma glucose, sugar is glucose, glucose in plasma obesityhigh blood glucose down regulates growth hormone, therefore less fatty acids are made, therefore less energy is made, therefore less growth, once children are adults they will not be able to reach highest potential height (being fat and eating too much sugar as a child can stunt your growth) o Thyroid hormone increases metabolism, which increases body temperature, increases ATP energy production & metabolic rate, controlled by pituitary gland o Precursors Hypothermialow body temp Stimulates hypothalamus bc it controls body temp Hypothalamus produces TRH TRH thyroid releasing hormone, target anterior pituitary (pituitary has 2 lobesanterior and posterior, located directly below hypothalamus) to stimulate release of TSH TSHthyroid stimulating hormone, stimulates thyroid gland to release T3 & T4 T3&T4 thyroid hormone, speeds up metabolism, which increases body temperature, increases ATP energy production & basal metabolic rate ( o Stimulation Low levels of T3 (triiodothyronine) & T4 (thyroxine) o Feedback (shuts off hormone release) Increase in basal metabolic rate and body heat (exercise) People that exercise for extended periods of time have low thyroid hormone levels, always warm o Parathyroid hormoneregulate calcium level in blood (not the only way) o calcium is needed for muscle contraction bone growth blood clotting cant clot blood w/o calcium to conduct info b/w neurons (nerve impulses) o Site of release parathyroid glands back of throat, neck, behind thyroid gland o Target organ Bone PTH activates/upregulates osteoclasts (break down bone), allows calcium and phosphate to be released into blood intestines PTH allows calcium absorption in intestines, from food, when absorbed goes into blood Kidneys PTH promotes activation of vitamin D Causes reabsorption when calcium is fltered out of blood through kidney and reabsorbed back into blood o Stimulationfalling calcium blood levels o Feedback mechanism increase in calcium blood levels o Adrenocorticotropic hormone (adrenobc organ effects adrenal gland, corticobc adrenal cortex part of gland) o Site of release anterior pituitary o Target organ adrenal cortex layer of cells outside adrenal gland glucocorticoids series of hormones released from adrenal cortex, will effect plasma glucose levels o Stimulation Stress (ie: fever, hypoglycemia) Cortisol released due to stress, most common type of glucocorticoids Leads to increase in glucose levels hence energy production Glucose + O2 CO2 + ATP + H2O Aerobic w/ oxygen net 36 ATP per glucose Anaerobic w/o oxygen net 2 ATP per glucose o Feedback mechanism increased levels of blood glucocorticoids, once enough, decreases back to homeostasis o Adrenal gland hormones o Epinephrine and norepinephrine Site of Release Adrenal medulla Target organs all upregulated Heart Vasculature refers to blood vessels o Vasoconstrictors when hormone released blood vessels get small (constrict) this increases blood pressure (epinephrine and norepinephrine do this) Bronchioles o Want bigger bc need air in lungs for oxygen, and more ATP energy Stimulation Sympathetic division Feedback Mechanism(down regulated, stops signals) None. Stimulation decreases when needed o Mineralocorticoids Aldosterone hormone released from adrenal gland, effects sodium (Na+) levels in blood, effects kidneys (causes increase in Na+ reabsorption in kidney, water follows salt, so as sodium absorbed so is water) (kidney filters water and sodium out of blood, bloodstream must reabsorb to get it back) Site of Release adrenal cortex Target Organ kidneys Stimulation Decrease in blood volume Decrease in blood pressure Decrease in Sodium (Na+) level Feedback Mechanism (down regulated, stops signals) Increase in blood volume, pressure, sodium (Na+) level o Pancreatic hormones o Insulin and glucagon important regulators of plasma glucose levels released in pancreas hypoglycemia too much insulin released hyperglycemia too much glucagon released glucagon catalyzes glycogen glucose glucagonturns stored reserves of glucose (glycogen) to glucose if we starve, no glucose available, comes from ‘reserves’ energy made in cell, glucose in plasma, need insulin to get glucose into cell MEAL: (occurs 1040 min after you eat) Plasma glucose increases Insulin release from pancreas increases Insulin allows glucose uptake into cells Plasma glucose is decreased STARVATION: Plasma glucose decreases Glucagon release from pancreas increases Glucagon allows glycogen (skeletal muscle, liver) glucose Plasma glucose is increased o Other hormones o Renal (kidney) Arginine vasopressin (antidiuretic hormoneADH) ADH works on kidneys, volume goes in, more comes out, blood pressure goes up, increases water reabsorption from kidney into bloomstream Antidiuresis to retain water Diuretic loosing water, goes to bathroom/pees alot o Reproduction FSH follicle stimulating hormone LH luteininzing hormone Oxytocin cant give birth w/o high levels of this 1. Understand differences between the endocrinology and nervous systems in terms of how they operate. 2. Be able to list glands and organs that have a role in endocrinology. 3. Know the difference between steroid and amino acidbased hormones. 4. Understand why secondary messenger systems occur in the first place. Understand the steps involved in different secondary messenger systems with aminoacid based hormones. 5. Understand the steps involved in steroid hormone operation. 6. Know how and where hormones are carried in the body, how they are degraded and what is meant by halflife. 7. Know the different stimuli for the release of hormones and which hormones use which stimulus. 8. For each of the hormone described in the lecture know a) where it is released from, 2) what organ(s) it targets (and the effect it has on those organs), 3) what the stimulus for its release is, and 4) how it is down regulated. Cardiovascular I Hemodynamics study of blood going through blood vessels Blood Composition whole blood nothing taken out, prior to being centrifuged o when centrifuged RBC on bottom heaviest and dark plasma on toplightest in weight and color buffy coat thin white layer in between made of WBC and platelets Plasma and formed elements o Plasmawhite space, fluid component of blood 90% water protein (albumin acts as buffer) albuminimportant component of plasma o acts as osmotic buffer chemical that allows you to reduce change o maintains concentration of plasma (290mOsm) o less albumin, lower conc of plasma, water leaves blood vessels, conc goes up fats, amino acids, salts (NaCl), gases (O2, CO2), enzymes narrow osmolality range (maintained by albumin) conc of plasma= 290mOsm +/ 5mOsm o Formed elements cells and parts of cells (erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets) Erythrocytes red blood cells, look like donuts but not hollow, clear on inside bc light goes through, anucleate doesn’t have nucleus, biconcave disk aids diffusion, function to carry oxygen (gas exchange) Erythropoiesusprocess of making RBC (1 week) o made inside red bone marrow in bones o stimulus to make RBC is hypoxia decrease in amount of oxygen that your blood can carry, low RBC count, increased tissue demands for oxygen o kidney contains cells that detect low O2, releases hormone called erythropoietin targets red bone marrow to produce more RBC, upregulating oxygen levels in blood stem cells(hemocytoblast) can divide and make any cell in body o stem cells become committed cell (proerythroblast): will form a specific cell type, commits to becoming RBC erythroblasts (early&late) undergo rapid mitosis, ribosome synthesis(early), start making hemoglobin protein (late) normoblast ejection of nucleus Reticulocytes immature RBC (2% of blood), leaves bone, enters blood stream 2% turnover: 2% die off as 2% are made 98% mature RBC (erythrocytes) once reticulocyte, cell leaves the bone Erythrocyte Function: carry oxygen, gas exchange o Oxy/deoxyhemoglobin 4 sqiggly areas= globin portion quaternary structure highly folded protein, polypeptide chains of amino acids green disk (4: one per chain) iron containing heme group, Iron attacks O2 2 alpha and 2 beta chains CO2 binds to polypeptide chains Can carry max 4 molecules of gas, 4:1 ratio, 4 oxygen to 1 hemoglobin molecule (oxyhemoglobin) Deoxyhemoglobin doesn’t mean no oxygen, just < 4:1 ratio Tissue lungs (deoxy) Lungs tissue (oxygenated), tissue uses O2 to make energy (glucose+ O2 water + CO2 + ATP) Destruction of Erythrocytes o after 34 months o cant make any more protein bc missing nucleus, die off o trapped in spleen and destroyed by macrophages spleen filters blood macrophages engulf RBC and break them down o Globin is broken down and recycled into amino acids o Iron is used to make new RBC o Rest of heme group is converted to bilirubin (waste) o Bilirubinmade in macrophage, contributes to color in urine/feces, Albumin takes bilirubin liver intestines kidneys (filtered) Erythrocyte Disorders o Athletes Anemia Athletes blood volume upregulates, more fluid (plasma), become anemic bc RBC <45% Stop training for 23 days, allows body to release water, back to normal, artificial condition o Thalassemia Red blood cells not made properly, specifically the polypeptide chains which bind CO2, cant bind if not made, therefore CO2 is built up in the blood, which is poisoness!! Become lethargic, pale Blood transfusions to fix problem o Sicklecell When oxygen tries to come off of hemoglobin and ruptures heme group, breaks down entire heme group Irregular shape, gets jammed in blood vessels Blood transfusion to fix problem o Blood doping among athletes Take their own blood, eliminate plasma to make higher RBC conc, before an event they will reinject this blood, hematocrit will become >45% gives competitive advantage, more RBC allows blood to carry more oxygen and therefore making more glucose, giving them more energy Top athletes are required to give blood for hematocrit testing to make sure they are not blood doping Leukocytes white blood cells, have nucleus, dark spots in center, only complete cells fight infection, protect against invasion move out of blood by diapesis process WBC squeeze through fenestrated capallaries holes called fenestrations between endothelial cells amoeboid motion process of how WBC move through tissue, meander through Follow chemical trails by chemotaxisability to use trails to follow signal and find bacteria, once they find it they will engulf and destroy it (phagocytosis) o Bacteria release toxins toxic to cells, further from bacteria, lower conc of toxins Granulocytes contains cytoplasmic granules o Neutrophils Most abundant Multi lobed (36 lobes), dark purp nucleus Twice size of RBC Phagocytose bacteria engulf Light purple specked granules o Eosinophils Bilobed nucleus (2 lobes) Course, deep red granules Many big granules (more than neutrophils) Twice size of RBC Release digestive enzymes to kill worms (too large to be phagocytosed) Destroy parasitic worms larger than itself Worms can be obtained from poor hygiene, raw fish Enzymes will dissolve and destroy worms o Basophils Course, dark purple/black granules Least common and smallest (ab size of RBC) granulocyte Release histamine (inflammatory chemical), causes inflammation, this is the way the body promotes healing, attracts other WBC to the area/fluid for help to destroy bacteria Hard to seee nucleus bc granules are so dark, nucleus takes up 80% of body Agranulocytes without cytoplasmic granules o Lymphocytes Large, dark purple nucleus, small amount of visual cytoplasm About size of RBC, almost perfectly round Act in immune response (T&B cells) o Monocytes large, dark purple nucleus, looks like kidney? 3x the size of RBC, biggest cell Leave blood stream acting to phagcytose viruses and bacteria, engulf and eat whatever is causing infection Abundance (high to low) o Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas Platelets dark fragments of cells, look like dirt Important for blood clotting! Megakaryocytes cell inside bone, cells rupture through sinusoid capallaries have sinus holes in capillary, lead to inside bone through nutrient foramen (hole in bone), capallaries explode in bone creating platelets Enucleate, age quickly (10 days), high turnover rate Hemostasis the stopping of blood flow, blood liquid gel coagulation o body tries to reduce amount of blood lost, smooth muscle lining capallaries contract, get smaller o Vascular spasm Vasoconstriction reduces blood flow/loss, causing vessels to explode o Platelet plug information Collagen fibers surround blood vessels, exposed collagen fibers, release chemicals and promote platelets to adhere, Platelets swell, and adhere to eachother Aggregate where broken to plug hole When attracted to area of damage, they swell, attracting even more platelets Platelets release PF3 chemical o Coagulationblood transformed from liquid to a gel Chemicals activate Prothrombin (protein in plasma) Activated formed Conversion into Thrombin Fibrin seals the hole, only comes out in presence of thrombin Fibrin/fibrinogen(soluble fibrin) protein, soluble, dissolves in solution Blood Typing RBC plasma membranes bear specific glycoproteins recognized by the body (on the membrane) Glycoproteins proteins w glucose molecules attached, embedded in RBC membrane, also called agglutinogens and are a type of antigen(most are foreign to your body, bacteria or virus) Body makes antibodies that bind to antigen, recognize and fit, you do not want an antibody that recognizes the antigen of your own blood type, then antibodies will destroy your own good cells When give blood filter out antibodies, only donating RBC and plasma ABO blood group (A,B,AB,O) o A blood type Surface of cells have A type agglutinogen B type antibodies, receive A and O blood o B blood type Surface of cells have B type agglutinogen A type antibodies, receive B and O blood o AB blood type least common Have no antibodies, can receive blood from anyone o O blood type most common Surface of cells have no agglutinogens A& B antibodies, only receive O blood Can donate blood to anyone bc RBC have no antigen Rh Blood group o Rh factor: 8 Rh agglutinogens o C,D,E antigens are most common o Carry Rh symbolized by +/ o Blood groups reported together with sign determining if contains Rh as well o Positive or negative Rh can donate to positive o Only negative can donate to neg, positive cannot donate to Rh Rheology the study of blood flow, how fluid moves through tubes Viscosity thickness of blood, increases exponentially with increased hematocrit leads to polycythemia due to inc conc of hemoglobin/ decr conc of plasma, puts more pressure on the heart, more difficult to pump blood, gets slower Flow Rate o Flow rate= 1/viscosity Inversely proportional Time it takes to empty tube when plug is taken out High viscosity greater time to leave, low flow rate and vise versa o Flow rate= difference in pressure (ΔP= P1P2) Directly proportional Blood pressure= P1/P2 P1>P2 (pressure) – fluid travels from high pressure to low pressure P1 highest pressure coming out of heart Heart contracts, blood leaves, pressure in aorta as heart pumps (P1), heart relaxes and there is minimal pressure (P2) Hypertension high blood pressure, high flow rate High blood pressure, upregulates, incr pressure even more positive feedback, makes bad situation worse o Flow rate = 1/L Inversely proportional to vessel length Fat is highly vascularized= lots of blood vessels, fat living in tissue Fatter = longer blood vessels, longer path length, slower flow rate Body tries to increase flow rate by pumping harder, leads to heart problems, high blood pressure Never ending cycle eat healthy, exercise, loose weight! o Flow rate = r^4 Directly proportional to the radius of the vessel to the fourth power Can change the fastest Will alter blood flow the most Changing diameter by vasoconstriction/vasodialation Vasoconstriction brings less blood through, lower blood flow Vasodialation brings more blood through, greater blood flow Hemodynamics o Rate of blood flow is highest in smallest cross sectional areas Aorta – largest, carries O2 away from heart, lowest area Arteries from heart o Arterioles –from heart Capillariessmallest, highest area, (tissues) o Venules to heart Veins to heart Vena cavae to heart (2) o Functional significance Further from heart is lowest pressure Blood flow is increased closer to heart Total area of vessels go up as branches off more Area and velocity are inversely related Want slow blood flow bc gas and nutrient exchange, diffusion is slow, if blood flows too quickly there will not be enough time for it to diffuse Blood Flow o Laminar flow – layered flow Blood vessels on edge have slower blood flow bc increase in drag towards periphery, middle has greater blood blow Continuous (small vessels) Continually forward Occurs in capillaries in tissues Pulsatile (large vessels) One step forward, two steps back, as heart relaxes, opposite pressure Occurs in vessels between heart and tissue o Turbulent Flow not layered Obstructions, sharp turns, high flow rate Bumping of vessels into one another Occurs after aortic and pulmonary valves or valves in veins Valve like a swinging door Blood flow so high no way its layered Occurs in vessels between heart and tissue Compliance tendency of blood vessel volume to increase as pressure increases o when you do something, moves with you o force blood through, vessel will expand o take away blood, goes back to normal size o C= delta V/delta P o Veins are MORE compliant Thin wall Large area Can yield more blood, more elastic, can change volume more easily 8x more blood, 3x more elastic, 24x more compliant o Arteries are LESS compliant Thick wall Small area Human body has more arteries than veins Blood that comes out heart must= blood that goes in 1. Know all of the components that constitute blood. 2. Know what is meant by the hematocrit and if it changes (high or low) why this is a problem. 3. Know what constitutes plasma. Understand the role of albumin in blood and what an osmotic buffer means. 4. Understand the stimulus and mechanism for, and the steps involved in erythropoiesis. 5. Know the hemoglobin molecule in detail (i.e., its structure, what gases bind where, the different states hemoglobin occurs in the body and what those states are called). 6. Understand how hemoglobin is destroyed and what happens to each of those components. 7. Understand the physiological implications of each types of anemia described in the lecture. 8. Know the mechanisms by which WBCs leave the bloodstream to fight infection. 9. Be able to recognize the different types of WBCs under a microscope. 10.Understand how platelets are formed and their role in hemostasis. Know the different steps in hemostasis. 11. Understand who can donate blood to whom for the purposes of a blood transfusion. This includes the ABO and Rh blood groups. 12.Understand what the effects of a change in viscosity, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and blood vessel length and vessel diameter have on blood flow. 13. Understand the physiological importance of the capillary network to body cells and which vessels in the body have a high and low flow rate. 14. Understand the different types of laminar flow and which occur in which vessels. 15. Understand what turbulent blood flow is and in what vessels it occurs. 16. Understand what is meant by compliance, which vessels have a greater compliance and why.
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