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Exam One Study Guide

by: Miri Taple

Exam One Study Guide BIO 227

Miri Taple
Cal Poly

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About this Document

This covers the material that will be covered in exam one.
Wildlife Conservation Biology
Dr. Lisa Needles
Study Guide
Bio, Wildlife conservation
50 ?




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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Miri Taple on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 227 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Lisa Needles in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 52 views.


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Date Created: 02/23/16
Wildlife  Conservation  Biology     Key  Concepts  Exam  One-­‐  answers     1.   Context:  the  human  footprint     Global  population:  current  size:  7.349  billion,  annual  growth  rate  1.2  %  (78  million   added  per  year)   3  most  populous  nations  in  the  world,  U.S.  rank:  1.  China  2.  India  3.  U.S.A   majority  of  global  growth  is  occurring:  developing  nations   estimated  global  population  by  2050:  9  billion,  most  of  the  growth  will  occur  in   developing  nations     consumption  “ecological  footprint”  US  average  v.  world  average:  U.S.A-­‐  24  acres  World-­‐   5.4  acres     with  our  standard  of  living  all  over  the  world  how  many  planets  would  we  need  to   sustain  life:  personally,  4.5  planets     2.   Biological  diversity   Biodiversity:  variation  of  life  at  all  scales,  the  variety  and  variability  of  life     Wildlife:  free  ranging,  non-­‐domesticated     Conservationist:  someone  who  advocates  or  practices  the  sensible  and  careful  use  of   natural  resources     Preservationist:  advocates  allowing  some  places  and  some  creatures  to  exist  without   significant  human  interference     Environmentalist:  someone  who  is  concerned  about  the  impact  of  people  on   environmental  quality     Ecologist:  studies  the  relationships  between  organisms  and  their  environment   Gifford  Pinchot:  utilitarian  leader,  believed  in  the  sustainable  use  of  resources,  people   will  not  deplete  it  because  they  will  limit  consumption     John  Muir:  spiritual  leader,  “romantic-­‐transcendental  preservation  ethic”  emphasizes   non-­‐consumptive  use  of  resources.    This  is  the  root  of  state  and  national  parks  where   you  cannot  extract  resources  at  all.    Keeping  areas  intact,  also  human  centered   “anthropocentric”  yet  non-­‐consumptive     Aldo  Leopold:  conservation  biology  leader,  arose  from  the  science  field  of  ecology.    It  is   the  application  of  various  biological  disciplines  toward  the  goal  of  preserving  biological   diversity.    It  is  an  applied  science  and  a  crisis  discipline,  implies  that  biological  diversity   can  and  should  be  conserved.       Two  primary  traditions  of  conservation  in  North  America:  utilitarian  tradition-­‐  resource   conservation  ethic  and  spiritual  or  scenic  tradition-­‐  romantic  transcendental   preservation  ethic   Instrumental  v.  intrinsic  value:  instrumental-­‐  consumptive  and  non-­‐consumptive,   intrinsic-­‐  irrespective  of  humans   Consumptive  v.  non-­‐consumptive:  consumptive-­‐  food,  medicine,  engineering…  non-­‐ consumptive-­‐  recreational,  spiritual,  and  service   Ecological  services:  pollination,  pest  control,  erosion  control   Willingness  to  pay  v.  “compensation  value”:  how  much  would  you  be  willing  to  pay  v.   how  much  should  you  be  compensated  for  the  loss  of  a  system,  service   Richness:  number  of  species     Evenness:  abundance     Endemism:  unique     Overlap:  same  species  in  several  areas     Weight  factors,  native  v.  non-­‐native,  rare  v.  common,  etc:  these  are  facets  that  hold   precedence  for  conservation   Spatial  scale,  alpha,  beta,  and  gamma  diversity:  alpha-­‐  how  many  in  a  site,  beta-­‐  how   does  species  composition  vary  across  multiple  areas  (turnover),  gamma-­‐  cumulative   total  biodiversity  across  multiple  areas  within  a  region,  #  species  within  a  state,  country,   etc.     Biological  species  concept  and  its  shortcomings:  BSC-­‐  groups  of  actually  or  potentially   interbreeding  populations  which  are  reproductively  isolated  from  such  other  groups.     Shortcomings-­‐  asexual,  chronospecies,  species  that  hybridize  easily  (plants)   Number  of  species  that  have  been  described  by  science:  1.9  million     Taxon  that  has  the  most  known  species:  insects   How  do  vertebrates  compare  to  other  taxa  in  terms  of  species  richness:  more  rich?     How  many  species  probably  exist:  5-­‐8  million     Methods  used  to  estimate  global  species  diversity:   Relationship  between  body  size  and  species  diversity:  inverse  relationship,  the  bigger  the   size,  the  lower  the  diversity.    This  is  because  there  are  less  large  animals,  they  are  k-­‐ selected.     4  main  terrestrial  biogeographic  patterns  of  richness  and  endemism:  SAIL…  structural   complexity,  area,  isolation,  and  latitude   Rappaport’s  Rule:  as  latitude  decreases,  geographic  ranges  of  individuals  shrink   Species  area  curve:  it  is  an  S-­‐curve,  logarithmic  because  there  is  a  carrying  capacity  so  it   can’t  be  a  J-­‐curve,  exponential,  species  cannot  grow  forever.     Isolation  and  endemism:  islands,  due  to  their  isolation,  have  higher  endemism   Madagascar  case  study:  Madagascar  is  a  biodiversity  hotspot,  it  has  been  isolated  for   more  than  70  million  years,  so  most  species  are  endemic  to  the  island.     Biodiversity  in  the  U.S.  California  has  the  most  species  and  the  most  endemic  species,  it   is  a  biodiversity  hotspot.    Hawaii  has  the  highest  proportion  of  endemic  species   California  floristic  province:  it  is  on  the  coast,  it  has  48  %  endemic  plant  species,  it  is  a   small  area  with  a  lot  of  species  richness     3.   Population  concepts     Population:  multiple  individuals  of  the  same  species  in  the  same  general  geographic   location  1.  Organism  2.  Population  3.  Community  4.  Ecosystem  5.  Biosphere     4  emergent  properties  of  populations:  1.  Quantity  2.  Composition  3.  Special  extent  4.   Dynamics     “zones  of  physiological  tolerance”:  all  organisms  have  optimal  environmental  conditions,   departure  from  these  conditions  causes  reduction  in  fitness,  high  fitness  =  low  stress,   low  fitness  =  high  stress     change  in  population  over  time  is  a  net  result  of  these  four  processes:  birth  rate,  death   rate,  immigration,  and  emigration       k-­‐selected:  long  life  span,  late  age  of  first  reproduction,  few  offspring  with  large   investment  in  each,  low  juvenile  mortality   r-­‐selected:  short  lifespan,  early  age  of  first  reproduction,  many  offspring  with  little   investment  in  each,  high  juvenile  mortality     carrying  capacity:  the  general  capacity  of  habitat  to  support  wildlife,  realized  population   growth  rate  is  proportional  to  the  environment’s  carrying  capacity   Allee  effect/  extinction  vortex:  when  small  populations  have  lower  fitness  populations   that  fall  below  a  certain  “critical  minimum”  may  have  diminished  survival  and   reproduction.    Extinction  vortex:  small  population…  reduced  fitness…  smaller  population     4.   External  threats  and  intrinsic  vulnerabilities     4  main  factors  that  cause  species  to  become  endangered:  habitat  destruction,  exotic   species  introduced/  disease,  overexploitation,  ecological  linkages/  cascading  effect   5  intrinsic  characteristics  that  make  species  susceptible  to  external  threats:  resource  for   humans  or  compete  with  humans  for  a  resource,  specialists,  k-­‐selected,  endemic  to   islands,  small  and/or  restricted  population     characteristics  of  cheetahs  that  make  them  especially  vulnerable  to  extinction:  they  are   rare  and  growing  rarer,  hunters  shoot  them  for  sport  and  poachers  capture  them  for   exotic  trade,  the  cheetah  is  designed  for  speed  and  so  they  become  a  monetary  or   status  symbol   wolves  in  North  America:  elk  and  wolves  are  tied  together  in  a  predator  prey   relationship;  one  cannot  survive  without  the  other.    When  wolves  were  eliminated  from   Yellowstone  national  park  the  elk  population  went  way  over  its  carrying  capacity   creating  issues  for  themselves  and  for  the  Yellowstone  environment.    Wolves  live  in   cooperative  social  “packs”  and  dogs  came  from  the  domestication  of  wolves,  reflective   of  human  traits.    Hunters  that  want  to  hunt  elks  want  the  wolves  dead  because  they  are   competition.    Others  want  to  save  wolves  for  various  reasons.      Wolves  are  portrayed  as   being  a  threat  but  they  really  aren’t.    wolves  were  eradicated  from  Yellowstone  in  1926,   listed  as  endangered  in  1974,  and  1975  began  the  process  of  restoring  them.    In  Jan.   1995  they  were  reintroduced  to  Yellowstone,  captured  from  Alberta.    They  are  an  apex   predator,  top  of  the  food  chain,  and  a  keystone  species,  they  have  a  big  impact  on  their   environment.         5.   Overexploitation     Overexploitation:  increase  in  direct  human  caused  mortality  of  a  species  to  an  extent   that  threatens  its  viability   4  major  types  of  exploitation:  subsistence  (bush  meat),  recreational  (hunting),  incidental   (by  catch),  commercial  (seafood/timber)     how  can  recreational  hunting  benefit  a  species:  it  creates  a  user  group  that  is  interested   in  conserving  a  certain  species,  or  they  can’t  hunt  it  anymore.    They  control  the   population  size  so  that  species  do  not  go  over  their  carrying  capacity,  the  “user  pays”  for   licenses  in  which  the  funds  go  to  conservation     two  largest  ($)  international  industries  in  harvested  biological  products:  timber  and   seafood     general  pattern  of  commercial  use  of  (renewable)  natural  resources:   Garret  Hardin’s  “Tragedy  of  the  Commons”:  especially  prevalent  for  fisheries,  it  says  that   if  there  is  a  limited  resource  that  everyone  will  go  as  quickly  as  they  can  in  any  way   possible  to  get  their  share,  and  the  most  of  it  that  they  can.   Commercial  extinction:  fishing  down  the  food  chain,  can  change  the  whole  system,   annual  shark  harvest  is  destroying  shark  populations  in  brutal  and  unnecessary  ways,   timber  industry  destroys  habitat,  etc.     Commodity  v.  collector  value:  commodity-­‐  as  object  becomes  rarer  people  are  unwilling   to  pay  more,  extraction  becomes  more  difficult  and  less  profitable,  leads  to  supply   switching.    Collector-­‐  as  object  becomes  rarer  people  are  willing  to  pay  more,  creates   market  incentive,  rarity  leads  to  greater  prices/  greater  profits,  can  easily  lead  to   extinction   Management  implications:  there  are  only  simple  bans  in  place  which  just  creates  a  black   market  for  the  illegal  pet  trade,  the  management  should  rather  look  at  every  stage  of   the  process  and  put  bans  on  it.     Rhino  horns:  when  depleted  they  become  more  valuable,  medicinal  or  status  value,   more  rhinos  are  being  poached  now  in  Africa  than  ever  before,  removal  of  the  rhino   horn  has  been  an  attempt  to  deter  poachers  but  it  doesn’t  really  work.     Elephant  tusks:  they  are  very  vulnerable  as  a  species,  poaching  for  ivory  by  rich  Chinese   as  a  status  symbol  and  catholic  Filipinos  as  a  religious  facet   Whales:  they  were  hunted  for  their  meat  and  oil  especially  in  the  1800s,  the  IWC  put  a   ban  on  it  in  1946  yet  Norway  and  Japan  continued  to  allow  whaling  for  they  say,   scientific  research  in  Japan  and  Minke  whales  in  Norway  but  they  are  in  exclusive   economic  zones  for  Norway.         Management  of  fisheries  in  the  U.S.:  depends  on  zoning,  first  3-­‐mile  zone  is  regulated  by   state  government,  200-­‐miles  is  the  country’s  exclusive  economic  zone  regulated  by  the   federal  government,  beyond  200  miles  it  is  international  water,  regional  fisheries   management  organization  regulates  species  that  move  great  distances  (ex.  Bluefin  tuna)   BOFFFF  hypothesis:  the  big  old  fat  fecund  female  fish  hypothesis,  larger  fish  are  older,   female,  and  more  reproductive.    So  when  people  want  the  bigger  the  better,  they  are   eliminating  the  very  important  fish  out  of  populations  and  it  sends  them  into  a  decline.   Blue  fin  tuna:  meat  and  skin  are  very  valuable  to  humans;  they  are  fished  so  often  that   their  population  is  collapsing.    It  is  the  same  phenomenon  as  with  the  American  buffalo.     With  increased  power  of  fishing  technology,  shadowy  network  of  international   companies,  negligence  of  management  and  indifference  to  outcome  they  are  declining.     Because  they  live  in  the  sea,  humans  don’t  see  it  as  cruelty  as  we  would  with  a  land   mammal.    There  is  an  annual  legal  take  limit  of  32,000  metric  tons  but  the  actual   numbers  run  closer  to  60,000.      


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