Exam One Study Guide
Exam One Study Guide BIO 227
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Miri Taple on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 227 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Lisa Needles in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 52 views.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Wildlife Conservation Biology Key Concepts Exam One-‐ answers 1. Context: the human footprint Global population: current size: 7.349 billion, annual growth rate 1.2 % (78 million added per year) 3 most populous nations in the world, U.S. rank: 1. China 2. India 3. U.S.A majority of global growth is occurring: developing nations estimated global population by 2050: 9 billion, most of the growth will occur in developing nations consumption “ecological footprint” US average v. world average: U.S.A-‐ 24 acres World-‐ 5.4 acres with our standard of living all over the world how many planets would we need to sustain life: personally, 4.5 planets 2. Biological diversity Biodiversity: variation of life at all scales, the variety and variability of life Wildlife: free ranging, non-‐domesticated Conservationist: someone who advocates or practices the sensible and careful use of natural resources Preservationist: advocates allowing some places and some creatures to exist without significant human interference Environmentalist: someone who is concerned about the impact of people on environmental quality Ecologist: studies the relationships between organisms and their environment Gifford Pinchot: utilitarian leader, believed in the sustainable use of resources, people will not deplete it because they will limit consumption John Muir: spiritual leader, “romantic-‐transcendental preservation ethic” emphasizes non-‐consumptive use of resources. This is the root of state and national parks where you cannot extract resources at all. Keeping areas intact, also human centered “anthropocentric” yet non-‐consumptive Aldo Leopold: conservation biology leader, arose from the science field of ecology. It is the application of various biological disciplines toward the goal of preserving biological diversity. It is an applied science and a crisis discipline, implies that biological diversity can and should be conserved. Two primary traditions of conservation in North America: utilitarian tradition-‐ resource conservation ethic and spiritual or scenic tradition-‐ romantic transcendental preservation ethic Instrumental v. intrinsic value: instrumental-‐ consumptive and non-‐consumptive, intrinsic-‐ irrespective of humans Consumptive v. non-‐consumptive: consumptive-‐ food, medicine, engineering… non-‐ consumptive-‐ recreational, spiritual, and service Ecological services: pollination, pest control, erosion control Willingness to pay v. “compensation value”: how much would you be willing to pay v. how much should you be compensated for the loss of a system, service Richness: number of species Evenness: abundance Endemism: unique Overlap: same species in several areas Weight factors, native v. non-‐native, rare v. common, etc: these are facets that hold precedence for conservation Spatial scale, alpha, beta, and gamma diversity: alpha-‐ how many in a site, beta-‐ how does species composition vary across multiple areas (turnover), gamma-‐ cumulative total biodiversity across multiple areas within a region, # species within a state, country, etc. Biological species concept and its shortcomings: BSC-‐ groups of actually or potentially interbreeding populations which are reproductively isolated from such other groups. Shortcomings-‐ asexual, chronospecies, species that hybridize easily (plants) Number of species that have been described by science: 1.9 million Taxon that has the most known species: insects How do vertebrates compare to other taxa in terms of species richness: more rich? How many species probably exist: 5-‐8 million Methods used to estimate global species diversity: Relationship between body size and species diversity: inverse relationship, the bigger the size, the lower the diversity. This is because there are less large animals, they are k-‐ selected. 4 main terrestrial biogeographic patterns of richness and endemism: SAIL… structural complexity, area, isolation, and latitude Rappaport’s Rule: as latitude decreases, geographic ranges of individuals shrink Species area curve: it is an S-‐curve, logarithmic because there is a carrying capacity so it can’t be a J-‐curve, exponential, species cannot grow forever. Isolation and endemism: islands, due to their isolation, have higher endemism Madagascar case study: Madagascar is a biodiversity hotspot, it has been isolated for more than 70 million years, so most species are endemic to the island. Biodiversity in the U.S. California has the most species and the most endemic species, it is a biodiversity hotspot. Hawaii has the highest proportion of endemic species California floristic province: it is on the coast, it has 48 % endemic plant species, it is a small area with a lot of species richness 3. Population concepts Population: multiple individuals of the same species in the same general geographic location 1. Organism 2. Population 3. Community 4. Ecosystem 5. Biosphere 4 emergent properties of populations: 1. Quantity 2. Composition 3. Special extent 4. Dynamics “zones of physiological tolerance”: all organisms have optimal environmental conditions, departure from these conditions causes reduction in fitness, high fitness = low stress, low fitness = high stress change in population over time is a net result of these four processes: birth rate, death rate, immigration, and emigration k-‐selected: long life span, late age of first reproduction, few offspring with large investment in each, low juvenile mortality r-‐selected: short lifespan, early age of first reproduction, many offspring with little investment in each, high juvenile mortality carrying capacity: the general capacity of habitat to support wildlife, realized population growth rate is proportional to the environment’s carrying capacity Allee effect/ extinction vortex: when small populations have lower fitness populations that fall below a certain “critical minimum” may have diminished survival and reproduction. Extinction vortex: small population… reduced fitness… smaller population 4. External threats and intrinsic vulnerabilities 4 main factors that cause species to become endangered: habitat destruction, exotic species introduced/ disease, overexploitation, ecological linkages/ cascading effect 5 intrinsic characteristics that make species susceptible to external threats: resource for humans or compete with humans for a resource, specialists, k-‐selected, endemic to islands, small and/or restricted population characteristics of cheetahs that make them especially vulnerable to extinction: they are rare and growing rarer, hunters shoot them for sport and poachers capture them for exotic trade, the cheetah is designed for speed and so they become a monetary or status symbol wolves in North America: elk and wolves are tied together in a predator prey relationship; one cannot survive without the other. When wolves were eliminated from Yellowstone national park the elk population went way over its carrying capacity creating issues for themselves and for the Yellowstone environment. Wolves live in cooperative social “packs” and dogs came from the domestication of wolves, reflective of human traits. Hunters that want to hunt elks want the wolves dead because they are competition. Others want to save wolves for various reasons. Wolves are portrayed as being a threat but they really aren’t. wolves were eradicated from Yellowstone in 1926, listed as endangered in 1974, and 1975 began the process of restoring them. In Jan. 1995 they were reintroduced to Yellowstone, captured from Alberta. They are an apex predator, top of the food chain, and a keystone species, they have a big impact on their environment. 5. Overexploitation Overexploitation: increase in direct human caused mortality of a species to an extent that threatens its viability 4 major types of exploitation: subsistence (bush meat), recreational (hunting), incidental (by catch), commercial (seafood/timber) how can recreational hunting benefit a species: it creates a user group that is interested in conserving a certain species, or they can’t hunt it anymore. They control the population size so that species do not go over their carrying capacity, the “user pays” for licenses in which the funds go to conservation two largest ($) international industries in harvested biological products: timber and seafood general pattern of commercial use of (renewable) natural resources: Garret Hardin’s “Tragedy of the Commons”: especially prevalent for fisheries, it says that if there is a limited resource that everyone will go as quickly as they can in any way possible to get their share, and the most of it that they can. Commercial extinction: fishing down the food chain, can change the whole system, annual shark harvest is destroying shark populations in brutal and unnecessary ways, timber industry destroys habitat, etc. Commodity v. collector value: commodity-‐ as object becomes rarer people are unwilling to pay more, extraction becomes more difficult and less profitable, leads to supply switching. Collector-‐ as object becomes rarer people are willing to pay more, creates market incentive, rarity leads to greater prices/ greater profits, can easily lead to extinction Management implications: there are only simple bans in place which just creates a black market for the illegal pet trade, the management should rather look at every stage of the process and put bans on it. Rhino horns: when depleted they become more valuable, medicinal or status value, more rhinos are being poached now in Africa than ever before, removal of the rhino horn has been an attempt to deter poachers but it doesn’t really work. Elephant tusks: they are very vulnerable as a species, poaching for ivory by rich Chinese as a status symbol and catholic Filipinos as a religious facet Whales: they were hunted for their meat and oil especially in the 1800s, the IWC put a ban on it in 1946 yet Norway and Japan continued to allow whaling for they say, scientific research in Japan and Minke whales in Norway but they are in exclusive economic zones for Norway. Management of fisheries in the U.S.: depends on zoning, first 3-‐mile zone is regulated by state government, 200-‐miles is the country’s exclusive economic zone regulated by the federal government, beyond 200 miles it is international water, regional fisheries management organization regulates species that move great distances (ex. Bluefin tuna) BOFFFF hypothesis: the big old fat fecund female fish hypothesis, larger fish are older, female, and more reproductive. So when people want the bigger the better, they are eliminating the very important fish out of populations and it sends them into a decline. Blue fin tuna: meat and skin are very valuable to humans; they are fished so often that their population is collapsing. It is the same phenomenon as with the American buffalo. With increased power of fishing technology, shadowy network of international companies, negligence of management and indifference to outcome they are declining. Because they live in the sea, humans don’t see it as cruelty as we would with a land mammal. There is an annual legal take limit of 32,000 metric tons but the actual numbers run closer to 60,000.
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