Exam Two Study Guide
Exam Two Study Guide BIO 227
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Miri Taple on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 227 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Lisa Needles in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 38 views.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Bio 227: Wildlife Conservation Biology Fall 2015 Concept List: Exam 2 (covering material since Exam 1) This is intended as a guide to the major concepts presented to date. If there’s something here you don’t know or isn’t familiar, you should check your notes, talk to your fellow students, or see me at office hours. I’ve tried to make this as detailed as possible, but there’s no guarantee that every vocab word or concept is on this list. You are responsible for all of the material presented so far in class although this exam will primarily be on the topics covered since the last midterm. You should understand specific terms, general concepts, and have a basic familiarity with certain examples and case studies noted in lecture. Also see the readings for key concepts. Zoo To You (be sure to get notes from this if you missed it – the material is definitely fair game for quiz / exam) Overexploitation Understand the examples of overexploitation given in class and through your readings. Invasive Species Know the differences between exotic, invasive, established, introduced • Exotic: introduced in some human way and they may or may not end up being problematic • Invasive: worst for biodiversity, causes ecological, economic, or health problem • Introduced: exotic species released into the wild How do invasive species get to a place? Know the examples given in class and through your readings and text • By accident: ballast water or stowaways on ships • Intentionally: domesticated animals/plants, sport animals/fish, biological control, and acclimatization societies What effect do invasive species have? Why are we concerned about them? • Direct effects upon native species: competition, predation, hybridization, etc. indirect effects upon native species: changing ecosystems of properties… hydrology, fire, regime, etc. What are traits of successful invasive species? • “weedy” species, larger groups, island invading species. Know the examples given in class, through your readings and text regarding the effects and management of invasive species. Bio 227: Wildlife Conservation Biology Fall 2015 What are the general management strategies for invasive species. • Prevention, early detection, control and management, restoration Disease and Conservation What kind of diversity is most important for resiliency to disease? • Genetic What does the Irish Potato Famine have in common with bananas and Tasmanian Devils? • They all have to do with having low genetic diversity, therefore, if one disease strikes them the entire population is susceptible. Why is Avian Malaria such a problem for birds endemic to Hawaii? Why are island species so susceptible to exotic disease? • Niches are not fully utilized, the species there have adapted to being without predators and therefore are extremely vulnerable when a new predator is introduced; they have no defense against them. key case studies: American Chestnut, Tasmanian Devil Facial Tumor Disease, Hawaiian endemic birds and mosquitoes, Chytridiomycosis (frogs); • American chestnut: disease brought in by Chinese chestnut- had immunity to chestnut blight but American chestnut did not. • Tasmanian devil: no genetic diversity within the species. Facial tumor disease that they came across is infectious. The tumors are genetically identical, spread by biting and they don’t have an immune response. • Hawaiian endemic species: exotic mosquitoes feed on native Hawaiian birds, since humans have colonized Hawaii, a great portion of the endemic species have gone extinct. • Chytridiomycosis (frogs): fungus that affects frogs major threat to amphibians world wide. - White Nose Syndrome: What is WNS, and what kinds of organisms are primarily affected by WNS? Where and when was it first discovered? Why is it usually fatal? • White nose syndrome in bats. Caused by cold blooding fungus. Spots where there is no fur, the fungus appears. It attacks bats while they are hibernating & causes starvation and dehydration. Changes their behavior, irritation causes arousal of activity when they should be hibernating. Typically found on the east coast but is spreading westward. Habitat concepts definitions: destruction vs degradation vs loss • Degradation: diminished quality for a given species; manifests as a reduction in fitness • Destruction: degradation to the point of unusuability; loss • Fragmentation: breaking into discontinuous pieces or parts Bio 227: Wildlife Conservation Biology Fall 2015 What is “habitat”? What are the criteria for determining “good habitat” for an organism? Is local population size a good criterion (why or why not?) • Habitat is organism specific, it is the sum of the specific resources that are needed by the organism. Population density is an unreliable indicator of habitat quality. Good habitat: 1. Within the organism’s “physiological tolerances” 2. Meets the organism’s critical life needs 3. Low abundance of competitors, predators, etc. Understand “source” and “sink” patches. Understand which of the 4 fundamental population fluxes (birth, death, immigration, emigration) are important for maintaining populations in these kinds of areas. • “high quality patches” are sources net outflow, “low quality patches” are sinks net inflow What kinds of resources are necessary for most wildlife (vertebrate) species? • Food, water, cover, special needs Understand the 2 kinds of “cover” or “shelter”, and that “cover” does not necessarily mean “concealment” • Protective for harsh environments and escape or concealment so as to be inaccessible to predators What are “special needs”? Know an example or two presented in lecture. • Slop category for all that don’t fit into other categories, ex. Dirt baths or display grounds for reproduction Habitat degradation / Pollution examples of habitat degradation: loss of essential habitat elements, successional stage, fire regimes, pollution / toxins, light and noise, etc. • Ex. Snags: standing dead trees, very important habitat element for some species (defines an old growth forest) spotted owls need late successional forests but Kirkland’s warblers need early successional forests, depends on the species. Where is Midway Island and why is it relevant to conservation? What kinds of animals there are primarily affected, and by what kind of pollution? • Great pacific garbage patch, not just from the coast, inland trash travels down rivers and into the ocean. Micro plastics that cannot be seen don’t degrade but rather infinitely break down. Albatross chicks eat the plastic particles and are becoming globally endangered. Ocean Bio 227: Wildlife Conservation Biology Fall 2015 currents have a particular pattern that bring the trash to this certain area. This is an example of “classic pollution” What causes “eutrophication”? What is the result? Why do fish die? What does this have to do with the Gulf of Mexico? • Too many nutrients added to the water through fertilizers, when the plant growth starts to decay they use a lot of oxygen creating a dead zone Old adage: “_dilution?_____ is the solution to pollution” – why is this often wrong? Where does mercury come from in North America? In the tropics? • Primary source is emissions in coal burning power plants, illegal gold mines are a localized source as well. Know the difference between “bioaccumulation” and “biomagnification” • Bioaccumulation: increase in concentration of a pollutant from the environment to the first organism in a food chain • Bio magnification: increase in concentration of a pollutant from one link in a food chain to another Why should pregnant women, nursing mothers, and young kids not eat tuna and mackerel, but they can eat all the anchovies and shellfish they want? • Because they need to beware of mercury What was DDT used for? What wildlife species were primarily affected, and how? • An insecticide, bald eagles primarily affected through bio magnification and bioaccumulation Who was Rachel Carlson and what was her significance? • She wrote silent spring and made people aware of the effects of DDT What is Atrazine used for? What does it do to frogs (and potentially also to humans)? Why is this potentially harmful to species’ fitness? • Used as a pesticide on corn, it causes plexus in frogs which is feminization, transforming testosterone into estrogen What is a “hormone”? • a regulatory substance produced in an organism and transported in tissue fluids such as blood or sap to stimulate specific cells or tissues into action. Be able to compare and contrast (similarities and differences) Atrazine’s effects upon frogs (and potentially humans), and the effect of plastic trash upon Albatrosses on Midway Island. Bio 227: Wildlife Conservation Biology Fall 2015 • Both pollutants, one causes feminization in frogs the other is an accumulation of small plastic parts that get into sea animals and it only degrades into smaller parts. Understand the varied effects of atrazine on other organisms and how it works. • Breast cancer in humans is regulated by estrogen, atrazine being an estrogen mimic turns on aromatase, a breast cancer progressor. Habitat Destruction and Fragmentation In terms of percent loss of original habitat, how does our local habitat (Mediterranean forest and woodland) compare to Tropical Rain Forest? • Topical rainforests more being utilized now, Mediterranean forests have already lost a lot. Why is destruction of Tropical Forest (both rain forest and dry forest) a global concern? • Because forests in general are habitat to an array of species, therefore, the loss of a forest means the loss of many species. What 3 things happen to a habitat as a result of habitat destruction? Using the Species Area curve: In general, a 50% loss of area results in _10_% species loss? How about a 90% loss of area? 50% What are “edge effects”? (know examples of abiotic and biotic factors) • The boundary between natural habitats and developed or disturbed land “interior” vs “edge” species What key factors determine the intensity of edge effects on a patch? • Shape, size, contrast Fragmentation: gaps, expansion of gaps, switching of matrix to be disturbed; remnant patches. What are the top 3 factors (in order) causing habitat destruction and fragmentation for species listed under the Endangered Species Act? • Agriculture, land conversion for commercial development, water development Understand the impacts of habitat destruction and fragmentation and the examples that we discussed in class. Metapopulations • Metapopulation: An interconnected network of habitat patches, each with its own local population dynamics patch, matrix, connectivity, dispersal, extirpation, colonization / migration rate, rescue effect, deme 1. Habitat occurs in patches. Between patches is the matrix, which is uninhabitable but not impermeable. Bio 227: Wildlife Conservation Biology Fall 2015 2. Each patch has a local population (“deme”), with its own dynamics: Carrying Capacity, population size, and probability of extinction. 3. Demes are connected by dispersal (migration). If a deme is extirpated, the patch can be re- colonized by immigrants from another patch. “Rescue Effect” 3 main types of metapopulations: know the characteristics of each, and be able to illustrate • Patchy population: patches vary in size and shape, migration is very high; if one population goes extinct it will quickly be filled in again by immigration, virtually all patches are populated. Cattails are a good example. • Core-satellite (or mainland-island, or source-sink): satellites receive dispersers from core, dispersal from satellite to core or from satellite to satellite is very rare. Persistence of the core population is what maintains the whole system. Example is the bay checker spot butterfly: extinction in small patches is common and can be reversed when isolation is minimal. • Stepping stone: patches are connected sequentially, like links in a chain. Local extinction is easily recolonized by adjacent patches (resiliency) however, loss of a connection between links in the chain results in much lower resiliency and two isolated populations. Key to metapopulation persistence: a balance between demic extinction and colonization • Single species: the proportion of occupied patches in a metapopulation represents a balance between colonization (immigration) and extinction of patch level populations (demes) metapopulation theory. • Multiple species: the number of species on an island represents the balance between colonization (immigration) and extinction (extirpation) processes. Equilibrium theory of island biogeography. 4 factors that provide metapopulation resiliency -- that is, reduce the probability that all demes go extinct simultaneously.. What management recommendations flow logically from each factor? • Size of demes: keep local populations big, and maintain the big populations • Number of demes: maintain the individual patches, even the unoccupied patches • Connectedness between demes: maintain connectivity • Independence of demes: keep the populations independent Key case studies: Bay Checkerspot Butterfly; California Bighorn Sheep Island biogeography: Be able to summarize the 2 dynamic processes that are balanced, and the 2 characteristics of the patch that cause these processes to vary. • Island isolation: determines how many species can arrive on the island. The number of species on an island is a balance between isolation and area. Islands that are close to the Bio 227: Wildlife Conservation Biology Fall 2015 mainland will be easy to reach by lots of species. Islands that are very far from the mainland will be very difficult to reach. • Island size: determines how many of these species can persist on the island. Large islands will likely have many habitats and support large populations. Small islands will have few habitat types and support smaller populations. • Therefore: large island close to the mainland will usually have the most species, whereas small islands far from the mainland will have the least species. Understand how the number of species on an island is similar to the carrying capacity of a habitat. • Isolation and size of an island as well as a fragment of land work in the same way. They create a balance where the bigger and closer to the mainland (or another patch) the more successful in species they will be. “Land bridge islands” – what are they, and how do they differ from primary succession (ecological communities starting from scratch) on oceanic islands? • Patches of habitat that once were connected to mainland or each other but have become fragmented and isolated What is “relaxation”? What is “extinction debt?” • Relaxation: loss of species over time, larger and less isolated areas should have less of this than small and isolated areas. • Extinction debt: Initially these new islands temporarily have more species than they can support. The difference (current amount-equilibrium amount) = extinction debt Know 2 terrestrial tests of these concepts: Lago Guri (Venezuela) and the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments (Brazil) projects. • Nature Reserves Know the 7 key principles of reserve design, and be able to relate each one back to the landscape processes that affect biodiversity. • Bigger is better than smaller • 1 big reserve is better than many small reserves of the same total area *SLOSS controversial • closer is better than spread out • clumped is better than linear • connected is better than not • circular is better than linear • buffer zones are better than not Bio 227: Wildlife Conservation Biology Fall 2015 Which principle was the most controversial? What was the “SLOSS” debate? • Single large or several small? Anatomy of a reserve network: cores, corridors, buffers - be able to explain role of each What is an “umbrella species”? What kinds of species are usually umbrella species, and why? • Ensuring their conservation provides a protective “umbrella” for all the other species in the ecosystem • Usually focused on large mammalian carnivores o Large body size o Low density o Highly mobile o Predators are at the top of the food chain and are highly vulnerable to changes in ecosystems. Maintaining large predators requires maintaining sufficient populations of prey species and environments. Nature Reserves in the USA • national parks: national park service • national forests: U.S. forest service • wildlife refuges: U.S. fish and wildlife service • wilderness areas: no specific agency • other publicly owned natural land… national grasslands (bureau of land management) and military bases (department of defense) Approximately what proportion of the US land area is “federal land”? • 29% What are the top 5 federal land-management agencies? Know the top 3 agencies in order. • Bureau of land management • U.S. forest service • U.S. fish and wildlife service • National park service • Department of defense What part or region of the country has the most federal land? • West Coast What US state has the most federal land (as a proportion of the state’s area)? • Alaska What proportion of California is federally-owned land? • 45.3% Bio 227: Wildlife Conservation Biology Fall 2015 What are the main management priorities for national parks? national forests / grasslands? wildlife refuges? wilderness? Know which agency manages each of these. •
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