Concept List Study Guide for Quiz Two
Concept List Study Guide for Quiz Two BIO 227
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Miri Taple on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 227 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Lisa Needles in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Bio 227: Wildlife Conservation Biology Fall 2015 Concept List: Quiz 2 (covering material since Exam 1) This is intended as a guide to the major concepts presented to date. If there’s something here you don’t know or isn’t familiar, you should check your notes, talk to your fellow students, or see me at office hours. I’ve tried to make this as detailed as possible, but there’s no guarantee that every vocab word or concept is on this list. You should understand specific terms, general concepts, and have a basic familiarity with certain examples and case studies noted in lecture. Also see the readings for key concepts. Invasive Species Know the differences between exotic, invasive, established, introduced • Exotic: introduced in some human way and they may or may not end up being problematic • Invasive: worst for biodiversity, causes ecological, economic, or health problems • Introduced: exotic species released into the wild How do invasive species get to a place? Know the examples given in class and through your readings and text • By accident: ballast water or stowaways on ships • Intentionally: domesticated animals/plants, sport animals/fish, biological control, and acclimatization societies What effect do invasive species have? Why are we concerned about them? • Direct effects upon native species: competition, predation, hybridization, etc. indirect effects upon native species: changing ecosystems of properties… hydrology, fire, regime, etc. What are traits of successful invasive species? • “weedy” species, larger groups, island invading species. Know the examples given in class, through your readings and text regarding the effects and management of invasive species. What are the general management strategies for invasive species. • Prevention, early detection, control and management, restoration Disease and Conservation What kind of diversity is most important for resiliency to disease? • Genetic Bio 227: Wildlife Conservation Biology Fall 2015 What does the Irish Potato Famine have in common with bananas and Tasmanian Devils? • The species have low genetic diversity Why is Avian Malaria such a problem for birds endemic to Hawaii? Why are island species so susceptible to exotic disease? key case studies: American Chestnut, Tasmanian Devil Facial Tumor Disease, Hawaiian endemic birds and mosquitoes, Chytridiomycosis (frogs); - White Nose Syndrome: What is WNS, and what kinds of organisms are primarily affected by WNS? Where and when was it first discovered? Why is it usually fatal? Habitat concepts definitions: destruction vs degradation vs fragmentation • Degradation: diminished quality for a given species; manifests as a reduction in fitness • Destruction: degradation to the point of unusuability; loss • Fragmentation: breaking into discontinuous pieces or parts What is “habitat”? What are the criteria for determining “good habitat” for an organism? Is local population size a good criterion (why or why not?) • Habitat is organism specific, it is the sum of the specific resources that are needed by the organism. Population density is an unreliable indicator of habitat quality. Good habitat: 1. Within the organism’s “physiological tolerances” 2. Meets the organism’s critical life needs 3. Low abundance of competitors, predators, etc. Understand “source” and “sink” patches. Understand which of the 4 fundamental population fluxes (birth, death, immigration, emigration) are important for maintaining populations in these kinds of areas. • “high quality patches” are sources net outflow, “low quality patches” are sinks net inflow What kinds of resources are necessary for most wildlife (vertebrate) species? • Food, water, cover, special needs Understand the 2 kinds of “cover” or “shelter”, and that “cover” does not necessarily mean “concealment” • Protective for harsh environments and escape or concealment so as to be inaccessible to predators What are “special needs”? Know an example or two presented in lecture. • Slop category for all that don’t fit into other categories, ex. Dirt baths or display grounds for reproduction Habitat degradation / Pollution Bio 227: Wildlife Conservation Biology Fall 2015 examples of habitat degradation: loss of essential habitat elements, successional stage, fire regimes, pollution / toxins, light and noise, etc. Where is Midway Island and why is it relevant to conservation? What kinds of animals there are primarily affected, and by what kind of pollution? What causes “eutrophication”? What is the result? Why do fish die? What does this have to do with the Gulf of Mexico? • Too many nutrients added to the water through fertilizers, when the plant growth starts to decay they use a lot of oxygen creating a dead zone Where does mercury come from in North America? In the tropics? • Primary source is emissions in coal burning power plants, illegal gold mines are a localized source as well. Know the difference between “bioaccumulation” and “biomagnification” Why should pregnant women, nursing mothers, and young kids not eat tuna and mackerel, but they can eat all the anchovies and shellfish they want? • Because they may contain mercury What was DDT used for? What wildlife species were primarily affected, and how? • An insecticide, bald eagles primarily affected through bio magnification and bioaccumulation Who was Rachel Carlson and what was her significance? • She wrote silent spring and made people aware of the effects of DDT What is Atrazine used for? What does it do to frogs (and potentially also to humans)? Why is this potentially harmful to species’ fitness? • Used as a pesticide on corn, it causes plexus in frogs which is feminization, transforming testosterone into estrogen What is an estrogen mimic? How have chemicals changed populations of amphibians, fish and reptiles? Be able to compare and contrast (similarities and differences) Atrazine’s effects upon frogs (and potentially humans), and the effect of plastic trash upon Albatrosses on Midway Island. • Both pollutants, one causes feminization in frogs the other is an accumulation of small plastic parts that get into sea animals and it only degrades into smaller parts. Habitat Destruction, degradation and Fragmentation In terms of percent loss of original habitat, how does our local habitat (Mediterranean forest and woodland) compare to Tropical Rain Forest? • Topical rainforests more being utilized now, Mediterranean forests have already lost a lot. Bio 227: Wildlife Conservation Biology Fall 2015 Why is destruction of Tropical Forest (both rain forest and dry forest) a global concern? Using the Species Area curve: In general, a 50% loss of area results in _10_% species loss? How about a 90% loss of area? 50% loss in species What are “edge effects”? (know examples of abiotic and biotic factors) • The boundary between natural habitats and developed or disturbed land “interior” vs “edge” species What key factors determine the intensity of edge effects on a patch? • Shape, size, contrast Fragmentation: gaps, expansion of gaps, switching of matrix to be disturbed; remnant patches. What are the top 3 factors (in order) causing habitat destruction and fragmentation for species listed under the Endangered Species Act? • Agriculture, land conversion for commercial development, water development Be able to give examples of habitat destruction and how it affects different species talked about in class, in readings and from your text. Be able to give examples of habitat degradation and how it can affect different species.
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