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Study Guide for Final Exam

by: Miri Taple

Study Guide for Final Exam BIO 227

Miri Taple
Cal Poly

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About this Document

This covers all of the material from the quarter in a study guide format
Wildlife Conservation Biology
Dr. Lisa Needles
Study Guide
Bio, Wildlife conservation
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Miri Taple on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 227 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Lisa Needles in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views.


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Date Created: 02/23/16
Final  Review  12/2/15   What  two  things  determine  the  human  impact?   •   Human  population  size   •   Per  capita  resource  use   o   Multiply  them  together     o   7.1  billion  human  population  currently,  China,  India,  USA  in  order  of   population  size   o   human  population  growth  occurring  quickest  in  developing  nations,   especially  in  tropics   o   ecological  footprint:  impact  of  a  person  on  environment  based  on  lifestyle   Wildlife  =  free  ranging  vertebrates,  especially  terrestrial  birds  and  mammals     Biological  diversity  =  variation  of  life  at  all  scales     Ecosystem  =  biological  community  of  interacting  organisms  and  their  physical   environment     Genetic  diversity  =  genetic  variability  within  a  species  (ex.  Lack  there  of  with  Tasmanian   devils,  cheetahs,  and  bananas)     Biodiversity:   a.   instrumental  values  (benefit  to  humans)   a.   consumptive     b.   non-­consumptive     i.   recreational     ii.   spiritual     iii.   service     b.   intrinsic  value  (irrespective  of  humans)   a.   how  to  quantify  =  willingness  to  pay  approach  or  compensation  approach,   may  yield  very  different  values  for  the  same  species     Wildlife  management  =  implies  human  manipulation  and  requires  planning     Management  is  not  about  managing  the  species  but  rather  managing  human  actions  in   correlation  with  the  species.   Conservation  traditions/  ethics:   •   utilitarian,  resource  conservation  ethic:    Gifford  Pinchot,  use  resources  in   sustainable  way  to  continue  extracting.    (ex.  Forestry,  can’t  cut  down  all  forests,   don’t  hunt  all  deer)   •   spiritual  or  scenic  tradition:  John  Muir,  emphasizes  non-­consumptive  use  of   resources   •   conservation  biology,  arose  from  science  of  field  of  ecology.    Application  of   various  disciplines  with  goal  of  preserving  biological  diversity:    Aldo  Leopold     History  of  wildlife  management  in  North  America   •   wilderness  act,  wild  and  scenic  rivers  act,  endangered  species  act,  marine   mammal  protection  act,  convention  on  international  trade  in  endangered  species,   etc.    to  protect  non-­game  species   Biodiversity  measurement:   •   richness   •   evenness   •   spatial  scales  of  biological  diversity:  alpha  (how  many  are  there  of  the  species),   beta  (turnover,  how  species  composition  varies  over  different  areas),  and  gamma   diversity  (cumulative  total  biodiversity  across  multiple  areas  within  a  region).   •   Biological  species  concept:    groups  of  actually  or  potentially  interbreeding   populations,  which  are  reproductively  isolated  from  other  such  groups.       o   There  are  shortcomings:  asexual  species,  chronospecies  (fossil  record),   can’t  use  with  taxa  that  hybridize  easily.   o   Of  all  species  that  have  been  described:  insects  make  up  the  most     o   Size  and  body  mass  inversely  proportional  to  how  many  species  are  in   that  group   4  fundamental  patterns  of  species  richness:   1.   Latitude:  richness  increases  and  latitude  decreases   2.   Area:  larger  areas  have  more  species     3.   Structural  complexity:    richness  increases  with  structural  complexity  of  the   environment     4.   Isolation:    isolated  areas  have  lower  richness  but  higher  endemism   Rappaport’s  rule:  as  latitude  decreases,  the  geographic  ranges  of  individual  species   shrink  steadily.   Implications  of  species-­area  curve:    -­doubling  the  area  =  10%  increase  in  species   -­10  x  increase  in  area  =  2  x  increase  in  species     -­50%  reduction  in  area  =  10%  reduction  of  species   -­90%  reduction  in  area  =  50%  reduction  of  species   population:   zones  of  physiological  tolerance:  optimal  environmental  conditions,  departure  from   these  conditions  causes  reduction  in  fitness.       •   Migration,  dormancy  (hibernation)   •   Population  level  controlled  by:  birth  rate,  death  rate,  immigration,  and  emigration     •   Factors  that  contribute  to  the  “potential  for  reproduction”:    fecundity,  number  of   reproductive  bouts,  maturity  time  or  age  of  first  reproduction     •   K-­selected  (slow  growing,  ex.  Elephants)  v.  R-­selected  (fast  growing,  ex.  Rats)   •   Allee  effect:  critical  minimum,  when  small  populations  have  lower  fitness,   populations  that  fall  below  a  certain  critical  minimum,  may  have  diminished   survival  and  reproduction,  can  lead  to  extinction  vortex.       4  main  causes  of  species  imperilment     1.   Habitat  destruction     2.   Exotic  species/  diseases   3.   Overexploitation     4.   Ecological  linkages/  cascading  effect   a.   Intrinsic  characteristics  to  a  species  more  vulnerable:    Resource  for   humans,  specialists,  k-­selected,  endemic  to  islands,  small  or  restricted   populations   Benefits  of  recreational  hunting:    creates  a  user  group,  user  pays,  habitat  protection  for   game  species   Types  of  exploitation  of  resources:   a.   Subsistence     b.   Recreational     c.   Incidental     d.   commercial     Overexploitation  in  marine  ecosystems:   •   BOFFFF  hypothesis:  old  fish  are  bigger,  bigger  fish  have  more  eggs,  more  eggs   mean  more  offspring,  by  targeting  big  female  fish,  you  decrease  the  population   even  more.   •   Marine  protected  areas:  closed  to  fishing  or  fishing  and  other  take  activities  are   restricted.       •   Area-­based  turf:  (smaller  fishing  villages)  you  give  someone  the  right  to  fish  a   certain  portion  of  the  area  and  they  have  to  manage  that  specific  area.   •   Individual  transferable  quotas:    government  or  organization  gives  you  a  number   of  fish  you  can  take,  keeps  people  from  running  out  to  get  all  the  fish  they  can.       •   Other  threats  to  ocean  biodiversity:    estuaries  and  bays,  pollution,  dead  zones,   harmful  algal  blooms,  changes  to  beaches,  global  climate  change.   Habitat  destruction,  degradation,  and  fragmentation:   Destruction:  diminished  quality  overall   Degradation:    reduced  fitness  but  can  still  use  some  areas   Fragmentation:    large  habitat  patch  broken  up  into  fragments   Source-­sink  dynamics:   High  quality  patches:  sources,  net  outflow  of  individuals     Low  quality  patches:  sinks,  net  inflow  of  individuals       Sink  populations  are  maintained  not  by  reproduction  but  by  immigration  from  source   populations     Habitat  provides:  food,  water  cover,  special  needs     Edge  effect:       a.   Microclimate     b.   Disturbance   c.   Predation  from  exotic  or  weedy  species     Exotic,  introduced,  established,  and  invasive  species     •   Introduced:  accident,  intentional  (domesticated,  sport,  biological  control,   acclimatization)   •   Traits  of  successful  invasion   o   Weedy  species   o   Larger  groups     o   Islands  are  vulnerable     •   Problematic  invasive  species:  feral  and  house  cats     •   Feral  pigs  in  Channel  Islands,  led  to  decline  of  island  fox  populations     Pollution,  type  of  habitat  degradation:   a.   Classic  pollution-­trash     b.   Other  kinds:    nutrient,  persistent,  hormone  mimics   Bioaccumulation  and  bio  magnification   Atrazine  use   Metapopulations:   Habitat  occurs  in  patches,  between  patches  is  the  matrix   Each  patch  has  a  local  deme  with  its  own  dynamics   Demes  are  connected     1.   Patchy  population  (cattails)   2.   Core  satellite  (bay  checker  spot  butterfly)   3.   Stepping  stone     •   Resiliency  to  extinction:     Size  of  demes,  number  of  demes,  connectedness  between  demes,  etc.       •   A  single  species:  proportion  of  occupied  patches  in  a  metapopulation  represents   balance  between  immigration  and  extinction  of  patch  level  populations  (demes)       •   Island  isolation  and  island  size-­  large  islands  close  to  mainland  will  have  the   most  species   •   Number  of  species  in  habitat  patch  is  a  balance  between  the  area  of  the  patch   and  its  isolation  from  other  patches  of  the  same  kind.  (same  as  island   phenomenon)   •   Land-­bridge  islands:  patches  of  habitat  that  once  were  connected  to  mainland  or   each  other  but  have  become  isolated  and  fragmented,  undergo  relaxation-­  loss   of  species  over  time.   Determine  population  size:   Census:  complete  count  of  individuals     Area-­based  sampling  (C/(AxP))  and  mark-­recapture  (N=  (Mn)/m   Ways  to  determine  ecology  of  species:   Radio  collars,  GPS  collars,  PIT  tags,  bird  bands,  ear  tags,  marking  with  numbers   Intensive  management  techniques:   a.   Double  clutching     b.   Head-­starting   c.   Cross-­fostering   d.   Captive  breeding   e.   De-­extinction     Extinction  debt:  initially  these  new  islands  temporarily  have  more  species  than  they   can  support.    The  difference  (current  amount  –  equilibrium  amount)  =  extinction  debt   Principles  of  reserve  design:   1.   Bigger  is  better  than  smaller   2.   1  big  reserve  is  better  than  several  smaller     3.   closer  is  better  than  spread  out     4.   clumped  is  better  than  linear   5.   connected  is  better  than  not   6.   circular  is  better  than  linear   7.   buffer  zones  are  better  than  not              


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