Study Guide for Final Exam
Study Guide for Final Exam BIO 227
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Miri Taple on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 227 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Lisa Needles in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Final Review 12/2/15 What two things determine the human impact? • Human population size • Per capita resource use o Multiply them together o 7.1 billion human population currently, China, India, USA in order of population size o human population growth occurring quickest in developing nations, especially in tropics o ecological footprint: impact of a person on environment based on lifestyle Wildlife = free ranging vertebrates, especially terrestrial birds and mammals Biological diversity = variation of life at all scales Ecosystem = biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment Genetic diversity = genetic variability within a species (ex. Lack there of with Tasmanian devils, cheetahs, and bananas) Biodiversity: a. instrumental values (benefit to humans) a. consumptive b. non-consumptive i. recreational ii. spiritual iii. service b. intrinsic value (irrespective of humans) a. how to quantify = willingness to pay approach or compensation approach, may yield very different values for the same species Wildlife management = implies human manipulation and requires planning Management is not about managing the species but rather managing human actions in correlation with the species. Conservation traditions/ ethics: • utilitarian, resource conservation ethic: Gifford Pinchot, use resources in sustainable way to continue extracting. (ex. Forestry, can’t cut down all forests, don’t hunt all deer) • spiritual or scenic tradition: John Muir, emphasizes non-consumptive use of resources • conservation biology, arose from science of field of ecology. Application of various disciplines with goal of preserving biological diversity: Aldo Leopold History of wildlife management in North America • wilderness act, wild and scenic rivers act, endangered species act, marine mammal protection act, convention on international trade in endangered species, etc. to protect non-game species Biodiversity measurement: • richness • evenness • spatial scales of biological diversity: alpha (how many are there of the species), beta (turnover, how species composition varies over different areas), and gamma diversity (cumulative total biodiversity across multiple areas within a region). • Biological species concept: groups of actually or potentially interbreeding populations, which are reproductively isolated from other such groups. o There are shortcomings: asexual species, chronospecies (fossil record), can’t use with taxa that hybridize easily. o Of all species that have been described: insects make up the most o Size and body mass inversely proportional to how many species are in that group 4 fundamental patterns of species richness: 1. Latitude: richness increases and latitude decreases 2. Area: larger areas have more species 3. Structural complexity: richness increases with structural complexity of the environment 4. Isolation: isolated areas have lower richness but higher endemism Rappaport’s rule: as latitude decreases, the geographic ranges of individual species shrink steadily. Implications of species-area curve: -doubling the area = 10% increase in species -10 x increase in area = 2 x increase in species -50% reduction in area = 10% reduction of species -90% reduction in area = 50% reduction of species population: zones of physiological tolerance: optimal environmental conditions, departure from these conditions causes reduction in fitness. • Migration, dormancy (hibernation) • Population level controlled by: birth rate, death rate, immigration, and emigration • Factors that contribute to the “potential for reproduction”: fecundity, number of reproductive bouts, maturity time or age of first reproduction • K-selected (slow growing, ex. Elephants) v. R-selected (fast growing, ex. Rats) • Allee effect: critical minimum, when small populations have lower fitness, populations that fall below a certain critical minimum, may have diminished survival and reproduction, can lead to extinction vortex. 4 main causes of species imperilment 1. Habitat destruction 2. Exotic species/ diseases 3. Overexploitation 4. Ecological linkages/ cascading effect a. Intrinsic characteristics to a species more vulnerable: Resource for humans, specialists, k-selected, endemic to islands, small or restricted populations Benefits of recreational hunting: creates a user group, user pays, habitat protection for game species Types of exploitation of resources: a. Subsistence b. Recreational c. Incidental d. commercial Overexploitation in marine ecosystems: • BOFFFF hypothesis: old fish are bigger, bigger fish have more eggs, more eggs mean more offspring, by targeting big female fish, you decrease the population even more. • Marine protected areas: closed to fishing or fishing and other take activities are restricted. • Area-based turf: (smaller fishing villages) you give someone the right to fish a certain portion of the area and they have to manage that specific area. • Individual transferable quotas: government or organization gives you a number of fish you can take, keeps people from running out to get all the fish they can. • Other threats to ocean biodiversity: estuaries and bays, pollution, dead zones, harmful algal blooms, changes to beaches, global climate change. Habitat destruction, degradation, and fragmentation: Destruction: diminished quality overall Degradation: reduced fitness but can still use some areas Fragmentation: large habitat patch broken up into fragments Source-sink dynamics: High quality patches: sources, net outflow of individuals Low quality patches: sinks, net inflow of individuals Sink populations are maintained not by reproduction but by immigration from source populations Habitat provides: food, water cover, special needs Edge effect: a. Microclimate b. Disturbance c. Predation from exotic or weedy species Exotic, introduced, established, and invasive species • Introduced: accident, intentional (domesticated, sport, biological control, acclimatization) • Traits of successful invasion o Weedy species o Larger groups o Islands are vulnerable • Problematic invasive species: feral and house cats • Feral pigs in Channel Islands, led to decline of island fox populations Pollution, type of habitat degradation: a. Classic pollution-trash b. Other kinds: nutrient, persistent, hormone mimics Bioaccumulation and bio magnification Atrazine use Metapopulations: Habitat occurs in patches, between patches is the matrix Each patch has a local deme with its own dynamics Demes are connected 1. Patchy population (cattails) 2. Core satellite (bay checker spot butterfly) 3. Stepping stone • Resiliency to extinction: Size of demes, number of demes, connectedness between demes, etc. • A single species: proportion of occupied patches in a metapopulation represents balance between immigration and extinction of patch level populations (demes) • Island isolation and island size- large islands close to mainland will have the most species • Number of species in habitat patch is a balance between the area of the patch and its isolation from other patches of the same kind. (same as island phenomenon) • Land-bridge islands: patches of habitat that once were connected to mainland or each other but have become isolated and fragmented, undergo relaxation- loss of species over time. Determine population size: Census: complete count of individuals Area-based sampling (C/(AxP)) and mark-recapture (N= (Mn)/m Ways to determine ecology of species: Radio collars, GPS collars, PIT tags, bird bands, ear tags, marking with numbers Intensive management techniques: a. Double clutching b. Head-starting c. Cross-fostering d. Captive breeding e. De-extinction Extinction debt: initially these new islands temporarily have more species than they can support. The difference (current amount – equilibrium amount) = extinction debt Principles of reserve design: 1. Bigger is better than smaller 2. 1 big reserve is better than several smaller 3. closer is better than spread out 4. clumped is better than linear 5. connected is better than not 6. circular is better than linear 7. buffer zones are better than not
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