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Concept List Study Guide for Quiz Three

by: Miri Taple

Concept List Study Guide for Quiz Three BIO 227

Marketplace > California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo > BIO 227 > Concept List Study Guide for Quiz Three
Miri Taple
Cal Poly

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About this Document

This covers the material that will be in quiz 3.
Wildlife Conservation Biology
Dr. Lisa Needles
Study Guide
Bio, Wildlife conservation
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Miri Taple on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 227 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Lisa Needles in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views.


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Date Created: 02/23/16
Bio  227:  Wildlife  Conservation  Biology     Fall  2015     Concept  List:    Quiz  3  (covering  material  since  Exam  2)     This  is  intended  as  a  guide  to  the  major  concepts  presented  to  date.    If  there’s   something  here  you  don’t  know  or  isn’t  familiar,  you  should  check  your  notes,  talk  to   your  fellow  students,  or  see  me  at  office  hours.    I’ve  tried  to  make  this  as  detailed  as   possible,  but  there’s  no  guarantee  that  every  vocab  word  or  concept  is  on  this  list.     You  should  understand  specific  terms,  general  concepts,  and  have  a  basic  familiarity   with  certain  examples  and  case  studies  noted  in  lecture.    Also  see  the  readings  for   key  concepts.     Recovering  species   What  is  meant  by  a  species  being  recovered.  What  are  the  key  steps  to  recovery?     •   Self  sustaining  population,  resumed  their  ecological  roles,  fully  functional   members  of  their  ecological  community     •   Key  steps  to  recovery:  document  that  the  species  is  truly  declining,  study  its   basic  ecology  and  natural  history,  identify  the  factors  causing  its  decline,   address  or  correct  these  factors   What  are  techniques  used  by  biologists  to  determine  the  current  population  of  a   species?  Be  able  to  calculate  the  two  ways  (mark  recapture  and  area  based   sampling)  to  estimate  populations.     •   Census  or  estimation  (2  types:  area-­‐‑based  sampling,  mark  and  recapture)   •   Area  based:  count  number  of  individuals  in  a  random  subset  of  the  total   area…  estimated  population  size  =  (total  number  of  individuals   counted)/((proportion  of  study  area  surveyed)  x  (probability  of  detection))   o   C/  (A  x  P)   •   Mark-­‐‑  recapture:    N  =  (Mn)  /  m   o   N  =  estimated  size  of  whole  population     o   M  =  number  of  individuals  in  first  sample  (marked  and  then  released)   o   n  =  size  of  second  sample     o   m  =  number  of  previously  marked  individuals  in  the  second  sample   (recaptures)     Understand  what  factors  may  influence  population  estimates.     •     What  techniques  do  biologists  use  to  learn  about  the  ecology  of  a  species?     •   Distribution  and  geographic  range     •   Demographic  information     •   Resource  utilization     What  are  techniques  used  to  mark  animals  in  mark  /recapture  population   estimations.     •   Bird  bands,  mammal  ear  tags,  passive  integrated  transponder  (PIT  tag),   natural  markings     What  are  techniques  used  to  estimate  populations  in  area  based  sampling.     •   Aerial  sampling  for  Florida  manatees,  whale  transects     How  can  the  factors  that  are  causing  the  decline  of  a  threatened  species  be   ascertained?     Bio  227:  Wildlife  Conservation  Biology     Fall  2015     •   Brainstorm  all  likely  potential  causes  focusing  on  the  usual  suspects:  habitat   destruction,  over  harvesting,  exotic  species,  disease     •   Measure  each  factor  where  the  species  still  persists  and  where  it  has  been   eradicated  or  highly  reduced     •   Develop  hypotheses  for  the  cause  of  the  decline   •   Test  hypotheses  using  manipulations  and  experiments     Understand  the  examples  provided  in  class  of  the  reasons  for  the  decline  of  the   species.   •   California  condor:    lead  bullets,  cause  of  decline…  captive  breeding  program     •   Red  wolf:  breeds  with  coyotes  and  now  only  in  North  Carolina,  managed   heavily     •   Mariana  crow:    habitat  destruction,  cause  of  decline     Endangered  Species  Act   What  species  are  protected  under  the  endangered  species  act?     •   Any  living  organism,  all  species  of  plants  and  animals  except  pest  insects     Know  the  different  types  of  designations.     •   Endangered:    in  danger  of  extinction   •   Threatened:    likely  to  become  endangered     Know  what  is  meant  by  a  “species”  (what  can  be  listed)  under  the  endangered   species  act.     •   Can  include  subspecies,  varieties,  and  for  vertebrates,  distinct  populations     Know  roughly  how  many  domestic  and  foreign  species  are  listed  and  how  many  of   those  are  plants  vs.  animals.     •   2,141  species  listed:  1,516  US  (71%),  625  foreign  (29%),  more  plants  than   animals     Know  the  examples  given  in  class  regarding  different  taxonomic  groupings  that  are   listed.     •   Distinct  population  segments  of  southern  resident  killer  whales   •   Distinct  population  segments  of  pacific  steelhead     Understand  how  species  are  listed  and  who  is  responsible  for  the  management  of   those  species.     •   Species  are  listed  when  a)  management  agency  proposes  them  or  b)  public   petition   •   Responsible  for  the  management  of  the  species:  U.S.  Fish  and  Wildlife  Service   and  National  Marine  Fisheries  Service     Understand  how  the  ESA  protects  endangered  and  threatened  species.     •   No  federal  actions  may  jeopardize  the  survival  of  listed  species   •   No  person  can  take  species     •   Government  must  develop  a  recovery  plan  for  each  listed  species     Understand  what  CITES  is  and  how  the  ESA  implements  protection  for   internationally  endangered  species.     •   Has  to  do  with  international  species,  ESA  implements  US  participation  in   CITES     Bio  227:  Wildlife  Conservation  Biology     Fall  2015     •   CITES  =  Convention  on  International  Trade  in  Endangered  Species  of  Wild   Fauna  and  Flora,  also  known  as  the  Washington  Convention)  is  a  multilateral   treaty  to  protect  endangered  plants  and  animals.   Understand  how  species  get  listed,  opposition  to  listing  them  and  where  the  most   species  are  listed.  Understand  the  protections  afforded  for  listed  species.   Understand  how  many  species  have  recovered  and  the  arguments  for  and  against   the  effectiveness  of  the  ESA.   •   58  species  have  been  delisted,  30  of  them  recovered,  10  went  extinct,  18   removed  because  the  original  listing  was  erroneous     •   critics:  less  than  1  %  of  listed  species  have  been  recovered   o   emergency  room  medicine   o   species-­‐‑  specific  approach  instead  of  communities  or  “functioning   ecosystems”     o   conflict  with  private  landowners     •   defendants:    less  than  1  %  of  species  listed  have  gone  extinct       Recovery   Understand  the  five  techniques  talked  about  in  class  for  recovery  of  endangered   species.  What  are  the  benefits  and  limitations  of  each?     •   Double  clutching:  removing  first  egg  to  make  the  bird  lay  another  egg  and   increase  rate  of  survival   •   Head  starting:    allows  survival  rate  of  young  to  be  higher  than  in  the  natural   environment     •   Cross-­‐‑  fostering:    take  young  and  have  them  raised  by  another  close  species.     Can  be  a  problem  because  of  imprinting  and  sometimes  the  then  adult  birds   don’t  know  who  to  mate  with   •   Captive  breeding:    good  because  it  temporarily  removes  the  population  from   threats  in  the  environment,  there  are  research  possibilities,  and  it  promotes   public  education,  awareness  of  conservation  issues.      Problem  because  it  is   hard  to  establish  a  self-­‐‑sustaining  captive  population,  they  are  usually  small   and  therefore  at  risk  for  genetic  effects,  it  leads  to  domestication,  and   diseases  and  other  factors  related  to  high  density  occur.       •   De-­‐‑extinction…   Of  these  techniques,  which  were  used  for  the  Channel  Island  Fox?     •   Captive  breeding  was  primarily  used       What  is  de-­‐‑extinction?  What  species  are  currently  being  considered  for  de-­‐‑ extinction.  How  does  the  process  work?  What  arguments  are  made  for  and  against   de-­‐‑extinction.   •   Use  of  DNA  to  make  an  extinct  species  come  back  to  life     •   Critics:    it  uses  the  funds  that  are  needed  to  conserve  suffering  populations   right  now,  the  science  isn’t  there  yet  and  its  very  expensive,  unforeseen   consequences,  the  animal  has  no  ecological  role  anymore,  concern  for  animal   welfare,  risks  outweigh  benefits     Bio  227:  Wildlife  Conservation  Biology     Fall  2015     •   Defendants:    it  can  help  conservation  it  does  not  inhibit  it,  good  techniques   already  exist,  people  have  said  in  the  past  that  science  that  seemed   questionable  wouldn’t  work  but  has,  it  would  reverse  our  mistakes       *Also  make  sure  you  have  done  the  readings  and  understand  the  key  concepts  from   the  readings.  


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