Concept List Study Guide for Quiz Three
Concept List Study Guide for Quiz Three BIO 227
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Miri Taple on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 227 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Lisa Needles in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Bio 227: Wildlife Conservation Biology Fall 2015 Concept List: Quiz 3 (covering material since Exam 2) This is intended as a guide to the major concepts presented to date. If there’s something here you don’t know or isn’t familiar, you should check your notes, talk to your fellow students, or see me at office hours. I’ve tried to make this as detailed as possible, but there’s no guarantee that every vocab word or concept is on this list. You should understand specific terms, general concepts, and have a basic familiarity with certain examples and case studies noted in lecture. Also see the readings for key concepts. Recovering species What is meant by a species being recovered. What are the key steps to recovery? • Self sustaining population, resumed their ecological roles, fully functional members of their ecological community • Key steps to recovery: document that the species is truly declining, study its basic ecology and natural history, identify the factors causing its decline, address or correct these factors What are techniques used by biologists to determine the current population of a species? Be able to calculate the two ways (mark recapture and area based sampling) to estimate populations. • Census or estimation (2 types: area-‐‑based sampling, mark and recapture) • Area based: count number of individuals in a random subset of the total area… estimated population size = (total number of individuals counted)/((proportion of study area surveyed) x (probability of detection)) o C/ (A x P) • Mark-‐‑ recapture: N = (Mn) / m o N = estimated size of whole population o M = number of individuals in first sample (marked and then released) o n = size of second sample o m = number of previously marked individuals in the second sample (recaptures) Understand what factors may influence population estimates. • What techniques do biologists use to learn about the ecology of a species? • Distribution and geographic range • Demographic information • Resource utilization What are techniques used to mark animals in mark /recapture population estimations. • Bird bands, mammal ear tags, passive integrated transponder (PIT tag), natural markings What are techniques used to estimate populations in area based sampling. • Aerial sampling for Florida manatees, whale transects How can the factors that are causing the decline of a threatened species be ascertained? Bio 227: Wildlife Conservation Biology Fall 2015 • Brainstorm all likely potential causes focusing on the usual suspects: habitat destruction, over harvesting, exotic species, disease • Measure each factor where the species still persists and where it has been eradicated or highly reduced • Develop hypotheses for the cause of the decline • Test hypotheses using manipulations and experiments Understand the examples provided in class of the reasons for the decline of the species. • California condor: lead bullets, cause of decline… captive breeding program • Red wolf: breeds with coyotes and now only in North Carolina, managed heavily • Mariana crow: habitat destruction, cause of decline Endangered Species Act What species are protected under the endangered species act? • Any living organism, all species of plants and animals except pest insects Know the different types of designations. • Endangered: in danger of extinction • Threatened: likely to become endangered Know what is meant by a “species” (what can be listed) under the endangered species act. • Can include subspecies, varieties, and for vertebrates, distinct populations Know roughly how many domestic and foreign species are listed and how many of those are plants vs. animals. • 2,141 species listed: 1,516 US (71%), 625 foreign (29%), more plants than animals Know the examples given in class regarding different taxonomic groupings that are listed. • Distinct population segments of southern resident killer whales • Distinct population segments of pacific steelhead Understand how species are listed and who is responsible for the management of those species. • Species are listed when a) management agency proposes them or b) public petition • Responsible for the management of the species: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and National Marine Fisheries Service Understand how the ESA protects endangered and threatened species. • No federal actions may jeopardize the survival of listed species • No person can take species • Government must develop a recovery plan for each listed species Understand what CITES is and how the ESA implements protection for internationally endangered species. • Has to do with international species, ESA implements US participation in CITES Bio 227: Wildlife Conservation Biology Fall 2015 • CITES = Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, also known as the Washington Convention) is a multilateral treaty to protect endangered plants and animals. Understand how species get listed, opposition to listing them and where the most species are listed. Understand the protections afforded for listed species. Understand how many species have recovered and the arguments for and against the effectiveness of the ESA. • 58 species have been delisted, 30 of them recovered, 10 went extinct, 18 removed because the original listing was erroneous • critics: less than 1 % of listed species have been recovered o emergency room medicine o species-‐‑ specific approach instead of communities or “functioning ecosystems” o conflict with private landowners • defendants: less than 1 % of species listed have gone extinct Recovery Understand the five techniques talked about in class for recovery of endangered species. What are the benefits and limitations of each? • Double clutching: removing first egg to make the bird lay another egg and increase rate of survival • Head starting: allows survival rate of young to be higher than in the natural environment • Cross-‐‑ fostering: take young and have them raised by another close species. Can be a problem because of imprinting and sometimes the then adult birds don’t know who to mate with • Captive breeding: good because it temporarily removes the population from threats in the environment, there are research possibilities, and it promotes public education, awareness of conservation issues. Problem because it is hard to establish a self-‐‑sustaining captive population, they are usually small and therefore at risk for genetic effects, it leads to domestication, and diseases and other factors related to high density occur. • De-‐‑extinction… Of these techniques, which were used for the Channel Island Fox? • Captive breeding was primarily used What is de-‐‑extinction? What species are currently being considered for de-‐‑ extinction. How does the process work? What arguments are made for and against de-‐‑extinction. • Use of DNA to make an extinct species come back to life • Critics: it uses the funds that are needed to conserve suffering populations right now, the science isn’t there yet and its very expensive, unforeseen consequences, the animal has no ecological role anymore, concern for animal welfare, risks outweigh benefits Bio 227: Wildlife Conservation Biology Fall 2015 • Defendants: it can help conservation it does not inhibit it, good techniques already exist, people have said in the past that science that seemed questionable wouldn’t work but has, it would reverse our mistakes *Also make sure you have done the readings and understand the key concepts from the readings.
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