SOCI 2013 - 007, Exam #1 Study Guide
SOCI 2013 - 007, Exam #1 Study Guide SOCI 2013 007
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SOCI 2013 007
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Popular in Sociology
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOCI 2013 007 at University of Arkansas taught by Stefanie Collier in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 208 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at University of Arkansas.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Sociology Exam #1 Study Guide Chapter One – The Sociological Perspective and Research Process Started with Comte – positivism Harriet Martineal translated Comte’s ideas in English and essentially came up with the word Sociology Founding fathers of Sociology o Marx and Durkheim Classical Sociologists o Comte – positivism o Martineal – translated Comte o Spencer – social Darwinism o Marx – political writings on capitalism and communism, distance between rich and poor is wrong o Weber – Bureaucracy (iron cage) o Durkheim – studied suicide ratings o Simmel – Anti-positivism o Chicago School – brought sociology to the US o Park – urbanization = sadness o Mead – symbolic interactions (everything we say and do affects us) o Addams – social work, founded ASA o DuBois – double consciousness “the vail” Functionalism o Sociologists Parsons – grand theory Merton – manifest and latent functions o Theory Society functions and is stable and it works some jobs are worth more than others EX: doctors – society would hope that this job is taken seriously and requires highly specialized training Only a limited number of people possess these skills EX: not everyone can handle blood or enjoy and excel in all the classes required to become a doctor Learning these skills takes years of training and experience EX: great debt, stress, horrible hours, no income for at least 8 years Motivate people by offering power, prestige and money EX: when you hear of a doctor you think of medical or educational which then you think rich o Leads to social inequality inequality is good for socityits functionl inevitable Conflict Theory o Sociologists Mills – power elite and “sociological imagination” Feminism – patriarchy o Theory No measure showing one job or person is more important than another Many capable people have been denied opportunity EX: doctors used to be 90% men and 10% women and now it is 50/50 Rewards are out of proportion EX: a CEO gets paid way more than baseline worker … whose work contributes more to society Motivation once basic needs are met Always wanting more Desire to become your own boss Pride – desire to be better Desire to give input o Inevitably leads to hostility, conflict, disfunction and no motivation Symbolic Interactionism o Sociologists Mead – generalized other – not treat everyone equally Blumer – construction of social reality o Not really testable o Based on personal interactions and day to day behavior o Doesn’t apply to stratification or inequalities Post Modernism o Perpetual incompleteness pluralism in social realities o Basically trying to find out all the information that has been looked at and discussed in all time and prove it right or wrong Social Research 1. Select and Define a Research Problem 2. Review Previous Research 3. Formulate Hypothesis 4. Develop Research Design – quantitative or qualitative research 5. Collect and Analyze Data 6. Draw conclusions and Report Findings Chapter Two – Culture Material Culture – cultural artifacts, physical or tangible things Non-material culture – customs or behaviors or trends, intangible things Cultural Universals – appearance, activities, social institutions, customary practices Symbols Language Values Norms – established rules or behavior or standards of conduct Folkways – informal norms, EX: wearing deodorant Mores – strongly held norms, comes with consequences Values Norms Folkways/Mores/Laws Technology Cultural Diversity Subculture – set of people who have similar distinguishing things that set them apart Counterculture – groups that strongly reject dominant social values/norms Functionalist Theory o Serves a significant function o Cohesive force – glue of society Conflict Theory o Helps to create and sustain the privileged position of the powerful Symbolic Interactionism o People create, maintain and change culture as they live Postmodernism o We should discuss cultures at the same time rather than just a single culture o We simulate what we watch on TV or see on the computer Chapter Three – Socialization Socialization = a lifelong process occurring through social interaction with everyone Basic survival needs o Food o Water o Shelter Social Isolation o Harlow’s Experiment – maternal separation, dependency needs and social isolation experiments on monkeys o Anna – little girl found tied to a small chair in a dark storage room for her first five years of her life with little to no food, absolutely no talking or caressing or attention o Genie – locked in a room for 13 years without talking, barely any food or water, tied to a chair o All of these proved that growing up without the essential social skills made them incapable of functioning in society in someway Symbolic Interactionist View o Self-concept is the totality of our beliefs and feelings Cooley’s Looking Glass Self o Way in which a person’s way of self is based off of others perception of them Mead’s Role Taking o Assuming the identity of another, significant other, I & Me or generalized other o Role Models Functionalist View o Primary Socialization Starts at birth Parents = teacher Sense of self begins Learn to speak and be a part of something bigger – society o Secondary Socialization Learns from teachers and peers Branch out of the house o Tertiary Socialization Adults who have to adapt to something they never knew before Learn to deal with certain ways people may treat you that you never knew before Conflict Theory View o False consciousness Reality of how much class affects social class Agents of Socialization o Family o Peers o School o Mass media o Religion Gender socialization o Begins before you are even born o When parents know – name, hobbies, colors are all decided Racial Socialization o Specific messages and practices that concern the nature of ones race o Relate to identity, social class and intrapersonal relationships Chapter Four – Social Structure & Interaction in Everyday Life Social structure o Complex framework of societal institutions and social practices that make up a society o Organize and establish limits on behavior Social Interaction o Process where people act toward or respond to others o Foundation for all relationships and groups in society Status – socially defined position in a group or society characterized by a certain expectation or duty o Status set – all the statuses a person has over a time o Ascribed status – social position given at birth or received involuntarily later in life o Achieved status – social position that a person assumes voluntarily o Master status – the most important status a person obtains Role – a set of behavioral expectations associated with a given status o Expectation – a way a role should be played o Performance – how the role is played o Conflict – incompatible role demands on a person with more than 2 statuses o Strain – incompatible role demands on a person’s single status o Exit – disengaging from a role Groups o Social – 2 or more people who interact frequently o Primary – small less specialized group where members are in face to face emotion based interaction o Secondary – large more specialized group where members are in impersonal, goal orientated interaction Societies o Hunting and Gathering o Pastoral – based on technology that supports the domestication of large animals to provide food o Agrarian – technology of large scale farming to provide food o Industrial o Postindustrial – technology supports a service and information based economy Solidarity o Mechanical – Durkheim’s term for social cohesion of pre-industrial societies, minimal division of labor o Organic – Durkheim’s term for social cohesion of industrial societies, people preform very specialized tasks and feel united by mutual dependence Gemeinschaft – traditional society based on personal bonds of friendship Gesellschaft – large urban society based on impersonal and specialized relationships Ethnomethodology – study of commonsense knowledge that people use to understand the situations in which they are in
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