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UA / Sociology / SOCI 2013 / What is the postmodern theory?

What is the postmodern theory?

What is the postmodern theory?


School: University of Arkansas
Department: Sociology
Course: General Sociology
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: sociology, Culture, Functionalist, Post Modernism, Symbolic Interactionism, Conflict Theory, Society, and research methods
Cost: 50
Name: SOCI 2013 - 007, Exam #1 Study Guide
Description: Here is an outline of what our first exam will be covering.
Uploaded: 02/24/2016
5 Pages 163 Views 2 Unlocks

Sociology Exam #1 Study Guide

What is the postmodern theory?

Chapter One – The Sociological Perspective and Research Process 

∙ Started with Comte – positivism  

∙ Harriet Martineal translated Comte’s ideas in English and essentially came up with the word Sociology

∙ Founding fathers of Sociology

o Marx and Durkheim

∙ Classical Sociologists  

o Comte – positivism

o Martineal – translated Comte

o Spencer – social Darwinism

o Marx – political writings on capitalism and communism, distance between rich  and poor is wrong

o Weber – Bureaucracy (iron cage)

o Durkheim – studied suicide ratings

What does symbolic interactionist perspective mean?

If you want to learn more check out What is an example of a conditioned response?

o Simmel – Anti-positivism

o Chicago School – brought sociology to the US We also discuss several other topics like In which type of product market does this firm sell?

o Park – urbanization = sadness

o Mead – symbolic interactions (everything we say and do affects us)

o Addams – social work, founded ASA

o DuBois – double consciousness “the vail”

∙ Functionalism  

o Sociologists

▪ Parsons – grand theory

▪ Merton – manifest and latent functions

o Theory

▪ Society functions and is stable and it works

▪ some jobs are worth more than others

What is mead's theory?

❖ EX: doctors – society would hope that this job is taken seriously  

and requires highly specialized training

▪ Only a limited number of people possess these skills

❖ EX: not everyone can handle blood or enjoy and excel in all the  

classes required to become a doctor

▪ Learning these skills takes years of training and experience

❖ EX: great debt, stress, horrible hours, no income for at least 8 years

▪ Motivate people by offering power, prestige and money If you want to learn more check out What is subliminal perception in psychology?

❖ EX: when you hear of a doctor you think of medical or educational  

which then you think rich

o Leads to social inequality ???? inequality is good for society ???? its functional ???? inevitable

∙ Conflict Theory  

o Sociologists

▪ Mills – power elite and “sociological imagination”

▪ Feminism – patriarchy

o Theory

▪ No measure showing one job or person is more important than another ▪ Many capable people have been denied opportunity

❖ EX: doctors used to be 90% men and 10% women and now it is  


▪ Rewards are out of proportion

❖ EX: a CEO gets paid way more than baseline worker … whose  

work contributes more to society

▪ Motivation once basic needs are met

❖ Always wanting more

❖ Desire to become your own boss

❖ Pride – desire to be better Don't forget about the age old question of What are the four models of financing health care?

❖ Desire to give input

o Inevitably leads to hostility, conflict, disfunction and no motivation ∙ Symbolic Interactionism

o Sociologists

▪ Mead – generalized other – not treat everyone equally

▪ Blumer – construction of social reality

o Not really testable

o Based on personal interactions and day to day behavior

o Doesn’t apply to stratification or inequalities If you want to learn more check out What is newman projection formula?

∙ Post Modernism

o Perpetual incompleteness pluralism in social realities

o Basically trying to find out all the information that has been looked at and  discussed in all time and prove it right or wrong

∙ Social Research

1. Select and Define a Research Problem

2. Review Previous Research

3. Formulate Hypothesis

4. Develop Research Design – quantitative or qualitative research

5. Collect and Analyze Data

6. Draw conclusions and Report Findings

Chapter Two – Culture  

∙ Material Culture – cultural artifacts, physical or tangible things Don't forget about the age old question of What are the differences in trading activities between equities and corporate bonds?

∙ Non-material culture – customs or behaviors or trends, intangible things ∙ Cultural Universals – appearance, activities, social institutions, customary practices ∙ Symbols  

∙ Language

∙ Values

∙ Norms – established rules or behavior or standards of conduct

∙ Folkways – informal norms, EX: wearing deodorant

∙ Mores – strongly held norms, comes with consequences

∙ Values ???? Norms ???? Folkways/Mores/Laws

∙ Technology

∙ Cultural Diversity

∙ Subculture – set of people who have similar distinguishing things that set them apart ∙ Counterculture – groups that strongly reject dominant social values/norms ∙ Functionalist Theory  

o Serves a significant function

o Cohesive force – glue of society

∙ Conflict Theory

o Helps to create and sustain the privileged position of the powerful

∙ Symbolic Interactionism

o People create, maintain and change culture as they live

∙ Postmodernism

o We should discuss cultures at the same time rather than just a single culture o We simulate what we watch on TV or see on the computer

Chapter Three – Socialization 

∙ Socialization = a lifelong process occurring through social interaction with everyone ∙ Basic survival needs

o Food

o Water

o Shelter

∙ Social Isolation

o Harlow’s Experiment – maternal separation, dependency needs and social  isolation experiments on monkeys

o Anna – little girl found tied to a small chair in a dark storage room for her first  five years of her life with little to no food, absolutely no talking or caressing or  attention

o Genie – locked in a room for 13 years without talking, barely any food or water,  tied to a chair

o All of these proved that growing up without the essential social skills made them  incapable of functioning in society in someway

∙ Symbolic Interactionist View

o Self-concept is the totality of our beliefs and feelings

∙ Cooley’s Looking Glass Self

o Way in which a person’s way of self is based off of others perception of them ∙ Mead’s Role Taking

o Assuming the identity of another, significant other, I & Me or generalized other o Role Models

∙ Functionalist View

o Primary Socialization

▪ Starts at birth

▪ Parents = teacher

▪ Sense of self begins

▪ Learn to speak and be a part of something bigger – society

o Secondary Socialization

▪ Learns from teachers and peers

▪ Branch out of the house

o Tertiary Socialization

▪ Adults who have to adapt to something they never knew before

▪ Learn to deal with certain ways people may treat you that you never knew  before

∙ Conflict Theory View

o False consciousness

▪ Reality of how much class affects social class

∙ Agents of Socialization

o Family

o Peers

o School

o Mass media

o Religion

∙ Gender socialization

o Begins before you are even born

o When parents know – name, hobbies, colors are all decided

∙ Racial Socialization

o Specific messages and practices that concern the nature of ones race

o Relate to identity, social class and intrapersonal relationships

Chapter Four – Social Structure & Interaction in Everyday Life 

∙ Social structure

o Complex framework of societal institutions and social practices that make up a  society  

o Organize and establish limits on behavior

∙ Social Interaction

o Process where people act toward or respond to others

o Foundation for all relationships and groups in society

∙ Status – socially defined position in a group or society characterized by a certain  expectation or duty

o Status set – all the statuses a person has over a time

o Ascribed status – social position given at birth or received involuntarily later in  life

o Achieved status – social position that a person assumes voluntarily

o Master status – the most important status a person obtains

∙ Role – a set of behavioral expectations associated with a given status  o Expectation – a way a role should be played

o Performance – how the role is played

o Conflict – incompatible role demands on a person with more than 2 statuses o Strain – incompatible role demands on a person’s single status

o Exit – disengaging from a role

∙ Groups

o Social – 2 or more people who interact frequently

o Primary – small less specialized group where members are in face to face emotion  based interaction

o Secondary – large more specialized group where members are in impersonal, goal  orientated interaction

∙ Societies

o Hunting and Gathering

o Pastoral – based on technology that supports the domestication of large animals to  provide food

o Agrarian – technology of large scale farming to provide food

o Industrial

o Postindustrial – technology supports a service and information based economy ∙ Solidarity

o Mechanical – Durkheim’s term for social cohesion of pre-industrial societies,  minimal division of labor

o Organic – Durkheim’s term for social cohesion of industrial societies, people  preform very specialized tasks and feel united by mutual dependence

∙ Gemeinschaft – traditional society based on personal bonds of friendship ∙ Gesellschaft – large urban society based on impersonal and specialized relationships  ∙ Ethnomethodology – study of commonsense knowledge that people use to understand the situations in which they are in

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