Study Guide for Exam 2
Study Guide for Exam 2 Bio 1070
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This page Study Guide was uploaded by Gabrielle Tarlano on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 1070 at Wright State University taught by Amy Wissman in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Health and Disease in Biology at Wright State University.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Health and Disease Exam 2 Chapters 5 8 Chapter 5 Heredity and Disease Gene a sequence of DNA that encode proteins Allele different forms of a gene Genotype a particular combination of gene variants Phenotype the way in which a gene is expressed Homozygous when alleles of a gene are identical Heterozygous when alleles of a gene are identical Karyotype chromosomes are photographed during metaphase cut out and arranged into homologous pairs Homologous matching chromosomes 1 from each parent Dominant the type of allele that masks the phenotype of another recessive allele Recessive the type of allele that its effects are only seen in a homozygous person Autosomes vs sex chromosomes and how many of each in body Autosome any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome 44 in the human body Sex chromosome a chromosome involved with determining the sex of an organism typically one of two kinds Mitosis somatic cells for growth of body only makes 2 daughter cells diploid Meiosis all sex cells to produce gametes sexual reproduction makes 4 daughter cells haploid Be able to perform a basic Punnett square Punnett square a diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross or breeding experiment Understand concept of heredity3 basic transmission patterns with example diseases Heredity The study of how traits are passed on from parents to offspring Nondisjunction homologous chromosomes don39t separate in either meiosis 1 or 2 and leads to gametes with incorrect numbers of chromosomes Know what 39congenital39 disease means 0 Birth defect or anomaly condition exiting at or before birth Chapter 6 Cardiovascular System Background all our cells need a fresh supply of oxygen 0 Oxygen is carried on red blood cells Attached to hemoglobin 0 Cells use oxygen and generate carbon dioxide 0 Heart is the pump that moves blood through the closed circuit vascular system blood vessels Normal structure and function heart and blood vessels Cardiovascular system heartamp vessels arteries veins capillaries Vessel walls 0 Arteries carry blood away from the heart oxygen rich thick muscular with elastic tissue takes force of heart contraction O Veins deliver blood to the heart oxygen poor thinner walls larger lumen less elastic some veins have valves 0 Capillaries tiny vessels connecting arteries and veins deliver oxygen and nutrients to tissues 02 and c02 exchange very thin walls very thin vessel 2 main divisions 0 Pulmonary circuit caries blood from heart to lungs for gas exchange 02c02 0 Systemic circuit pumps blood form heart to all organstissues of the body Heart layers 0 Pericardium serous membrane covers heart 0 Myocardium think muscular layer 0 Endocardium smooth inner lining 4 chambers 0 Right and left atria 2 superior chambers Receive blood returning to heart From systemic cir and lungs 0 Right and left ventricles 2 inferior chambers Pump blood into arteries pulmonary amp aorta Heart Valves 0 Ensure one way blood flow 0 Atrioventricular AV valves control ow from atria to ventricles Right AV valve has 3 cusps tricuspid valve Left AV valve has 2 cusps mitral bicuspid valve lamb O Semilunar valves control ow into great arteries Pulmonary from right ventricle into pulmonary trunk Aortic form left ventricle into aorta Flow of blood through heart and vessels Heart lungs 0 rich heart pumped out aorta branches into arteries branch into arterioles Capillaries OZC02 exchanged Venules merge into veins venae cavae 02 poor blood to heart Conduction system of the heart Myogenic heartbeat originates within heart Autorhymthmic depolarize spontaneously Conduction system 0 SA node pacemaker initiates heartbeat sets heart rate 0 AV node electrical gateway to ventricles 0 AV bundle pathway from AV node 0 Right and left bundle branches 0 Purkinje bers Diseases covered amp terms Valvular diseases Mitral stenosis mitral valve opening is narrow Mitral regurgitation mitral valve doesn39t close properly blood ows back into atrium during ventricular contraction Coronary circulation blood vessels of heart wall nourish cardiac muscle Chapter 7 Blood Flow Cardiac rhythm Normal sinus rhythm set by SA node starts electrical impulse to contract Abnormal Ectopic foci region of spontaneous ring not SA mode Arrhythmia abnormal cardiac rhythm Heart block failure of conduction system Heart Rate Pulse heart rate beatsminute Adults 6080 Heart rate in uenced by MS and hormones Tachycardia persistent resting adult HRgt 100 Stress anxiety drugs heart disease increase in body temp Bradycardia persistent resting adult HRlt6O Common in sleep and endurance trained athletes Blood pressure Systole Most pressure exerted on vessel walls Heart contracting Diastole Least pressure on vessel walls Heart relaxed Blood ows from the right ventricle to the lung to be oxygenated Arteries carry blood away from the heart Components of blood plasma and formed elements and their basic functions Understand blood diseases covered Auscultation listening ECG electrical recording Echocardiography ultrasound valves chambers flow Stress test exercise tolerance Cardiac catheterization Cath into heart sample blood from chamber X rays amp arteriography contrast dye of the heart and great vessels Blood tests Chapter 8 Respiratory System Know the anatomy and function of the respiratory system Anatomical parts Nose and nasal cavity Pharynx throat Nasopharynx oropharynx laryngopharynx Larynx voice box Trachea windpipe Primary and secondary bronchi and bronchioles within the lungs Alveoli air sacs within the lungs FuncUons Provide extensive gas exchange surface area between air and circulating blood Moves air to and from exchange surfaces of lungs Protects respiratory surfaces from outside environment Produces sounds speaking singing Participates in olfactory sense smell Know the respiratory membrane The thin membrane of alveoli where gas exchange takes place 3 parts 0 Squamous epithelial lining of alveolus O Endothelial cells lining an adjacent capillary O Fused basal laminae between alveolar and endothelial cells In ammation of Lobules also called pneumonia causes uid to leak into alveoli compromises function of respiratory membrane Pleural Cavities amp pleural membranes 2 cavities each hold a lung amp is lined with a serious membrane 0 The Pleura consists of 2 layers Parietal pleura Visceral pleura Pleural uid lubricates space between 2 layers Understand gaseous exchange between the respiratory system and the blood Understand the diseases covered Sx for respiratory diseases Dyspnea Tachypnea Cough hemoptysis Cyanosis Apnea Upper Respiratory Diseases Common cold acute in ammation of mucous membrane lining the upper respiratory track 200 plus strains of rhino viruses no immunity contagious Tonsillitis upper respiratory infected with pathogen leads to difficulty swallowing redness and pain in the throat Pharyngitis can be strep throat a pharyngitis caused by streptococcus bacteria throat culture or rapid screening test antibiotics needed control the infection sequelae Lower Respiratory Diseases In uenza acute viral infectionmany strains can destroy the protective respiratory epithelium bacterial infection can lead to ammonia treatment u vaccines Tami u antivirals Bronchial Asthma hypersensitivity to various allergens triggers constriction of smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles mucus adds to the obstruction stale air becomes trapped wheezing sound Treatment bronchodilators puffers Chronic obstructive pulmonary Disease COPD chronic bronchitis emphysema quotcystic fibrosisquot Bronchitis in ammation of bronchi acute 23 weeks chronic years and lining of the bronchi becomes swollen Etiology smoking fumes viruses or bacteria Emphysema chronic lung destruction alveolar walls break down and fuse trappedstale air etiology heavy cigarette smoking Pneumonia acute in ammation of the lungs with in ammatory exudate reduces oxygen intake Pleurisy in ammation of the membranes that line the chest wall and surround the lungs pain with breathing infection or trauma Tuberculosis chronic infectious disease necrosis of vital lung tissue etiology bacterium mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission sputum expelled in the cough or infected person Cystic Fibrosis affects the exocrine glands of the body excessively viscous mucus secretion hereditary recessive gene carried by each parent sx wheezing cough and thick sputum dx sweat test
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