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Study Guide

by: Savannah Webb

Study Guide PSYC 110 - 008

Savannah Webb

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About this Document

General Psychology -
Alexander Malik Khaddouma
Study Guide
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Popular in General Psychology -

Popular in Psychlogy

This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Savannah Webb on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 110 - 008 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Alexander Malik Khaddouma in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see General Psychology - in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


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Date Created: 02/23/16
Study Guide Sensation- detection of physical energy by sense organs Perception- brains interpretation of sense Sense Receptor Cells - Cell specialized for converting external stimuli into neural activity for a specific sensory system Transduction - Process of converting an external energy or substance into electrical neural activity - Sensation → *Transduction* → Perception Bottom Up Processing - Process by which a whole is constructed by parts Top Down - Conceptually driven processing influenced by beliefs and expectations - In real world we use both, this is called parallel processing Opponent Process Theory - Primary color: blue, green, red - After images result from inhibited color cells becoming excited when their opposing color is removed Classical Conditioning - Form of learning in which an organism come to respond to a previously neutral stimulus that has been paired with a stimulus that previously brought out an automatic response - Pavlov (physician, looked at dogs, assistants would go in and ring a bell every time they went in to feed them, and every time the bell rang more saliva would be produced) Operate Conditioning - Form of learning controlled by providing consequences for an organism’s behavior - Thorndike and Skinner - Thorndike Unconditional stimulus (without training) - Something that elicits an automatic response (e.g. food) Unconditional response - Automatic response to an unconditioned stimulus that does not need to be learned (e.g. tummy rumbling, salivation, feeling hungry) Conditioned stimulus - Something that comes to elicit automatic response after becoming associated with unconditioned stimulus Conditioned response - Response to unconditioned stimulus that is now elicited by conditioned stimulus Positive - Something is presented to the organism - E.g. sticker, spanking Negative - Something is taken away - E.g. stopping torture, taking away a toy, being grounded Reinforcement - Increases target behavior Punishment - Decreases target behavior Stimulus Generalization - Things that look like conditioned stimulus elicit conditioned response without training Stimulus Discrimination - Ability to differentiate between conditioned stimulus and similar stimuli Higher order conditioning - Pairing conditioned stimulus with other stimuli which come to elicit conditioned response - Weaker conditioned response the higher-order you go Acquisition - Learning - Pairing stimulus and response together Spontaneous Recovery - When the conditioned response to a conditioned stimulus comes back after a delay in exposure - E.g. smells that trigger memories or feelings Renewal Effect - When the conditioned response to a conditioned stimulus comes back when organism is placed in original environment in which learning occurred - E.g. old feelings returning when back home, better test performance in familiar environment Primary Reinforcer - Item or outcome that naturally increases the target behavior Secondary Reinforcer - Neutral object that becomes associated with a primary reinfrorcer Reinforcement schedules Fixed ratio - Reinforcement given after certain number of responses Fixed interval -Reinforcement given after certain amount of time has passed (behavior just needs to occur at least once) Variable ratio -Reinforcement given after unspecified number of responses -Strongest reinforcement schedule (e.g. gambling) Variable interval -Reinforcement given after unspecified amount of time has passed (behavior just needs to occur at least once) Context dependent learning -better retrieval when in same environmental conditions as when information was learned State dependent learning -better retrieval when in same physiological or psychological state as when information is learned Observable learning - Learning by watching others - Bandura’s bobo doll experiment (ex. ↑.. kid watching woman through glass beating up a doll so when the kid went in the kid also beat up the doll) Observational learning - Mirror neurons - activated both by doing a behavior and when observing a behavior Memory Long Term Memory - Relatively enduring retention of stored information regarding our facts, experiences, and skills Permastore - type of long-term memory that appears to be permanent - Often based on the meaning of the information, which helps it stuck Explicit -recalled with intention and effort -two kinds -semantic *knowledge of facts (e.g. capital of Tennessee) -episodic *knowledge of events in our lives (e.g. first kiss) Implicit -recalled without intention or effort, we don’t mean to remember it -two kinds -procedural *how to do thing (e.g. tie shoes, ride a bicycle) -priming *ability to detect a stimulus more easily and quickly after encountering a similar stimulus Sensory Memory - Perceptual information before it is passed on to short- term memory - Only briefly stored Consist of: - Iconic *things you see - Echoic *things you hear *last longer than iconic memory Short-term memory - Retains information for limited durations Encoding - Process of getting information into our memory banks - Requires focused attention on stimulus - Mnemonics helping with encoding -e.g. algebra mnemonic Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally Storage - Process of keeping information in memory - Schemas - organized knowledge structure or mental model that we’ve stored in memory Retrieval - Process of reactivating or reconstructing experiences from our memory stores 3 Kinds -recall *generating previously remembered information -recognition *selecting previously remembered information from an array of options -relearning *reacquiring knowledge that has been previously learned, but forgottern *quicker then learning for first time Retrieval cues help with retrieval -hints that make it easier to recall information Retroactive Interference - New information interferes with old information *e.g. learning a new language interferes with your vocabulary for your native language Proactive Interference - Old information interferes with new information *e.g. taking an old pathway home even though roads have changed Retrograde Amnesia - Loss of memories from our past Anterograde Amnesia - Inability to encode new memories from our experiences Infantile Amnesia - Inability of adults to remember personal experiences that took place before an early age Levels of Processing - i.e. assigning meaning to information Blackboard Readings - Stress and Memory - Zoophoria


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