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UT / Psychology / PSYC 110 / What does sensory mean?

What does sensory mean?

What does sensory mean?

Description

School: University of Tennessee - Knoxville
Department: Psychology
Course: General Psychology -
Professor: Alexander khaddouma
Term: Fall 2015
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Study Guide
Description: 2/8-2/22
Uploaded: 02/24/2016
4 Pages 106 Views 1 Unlocks
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Study Guide


What does sensory mean?



Sensation- detection of physical energy by sense organs  

Perception- brains interpretation of sense

Sense Receptor Cells

- Cell specialized for converting external stimuli into neural activity for a  specific sensory system

Transduction  

- Process of converting an external energy or substance into electrical neural  activity  

- Sensation → *Transduction* → Perception

Bottom Up Processing  

- Process by which a whole is constructed by parts

Top Down

- Conceptually driven processing influenced by beliefs and expectations  - In real world we use both, this is called parallel processing Opponent Process Theory  

- Primary color: blue, green, red

- After images result from inhibited color cells becoming excited when their  opposing color is removed


What is an example of a conditioned response?



Classical Conditioning

- Form of learning in which an organism come to respond to a previously  neutral stimulus that has been paired with a stimulus that previously brought out an automatic response

- Pavlov (physician, looked at dogs, assistants would go in and ring a bell every time they went in to feed them, and every time the bell rang more saliva would be  produced)

Operate Conditioning  

- Form of learning controlled by providing consequences for an organism’s  behavior

- Thorndike and Skinner

- Thorndike

Unconditional stimulus (without training)

- Something that elicits an automatic response (e.g. food)

Unconditional response  

- Automatic response to an unconditioned stimulus that does not need to be  learned (e.g. tummy rumbling, salivation, feeling hungry)


What is the theory of operant conditioning?



Conditioned stimulus  

- Something that comes to elicit automatic response after becoming associated with unconditioned stimulus

Conditioned response  We also discuss several other topics like In which type of product market does this firm sell?

- Response to unconditioned stimulus that is now elicited by conditioned  stimulus

Positive  

- Something is presented to the organism

- E.g. sticker, spanking

Negative  

- Something is taken away

- E.g. stopping torture, taking away a toy, being grounded

Reinforcement

- Increases target behavior

Punishment  

- Decreases target behavior

Stimulus Generalization

- Things that look like conditioned stimulus elicit conditioned response without  training  

Stimulus Discrimination

- Ability to differentiate between conditioned stimulus and similar stimuli Higher order conditioning  

- Pairing conditioned stimulus with other stimuli which come to elicit  conditioned response  

- Weaker conditioned response the higher-order you go If you want to learn more check out What is opiates?

Acquisition

- Learning

- Pairing stimulus and response together  

Spontaneous Recovery  

- When the conditioned response to a conditioned stimulus comes back after a  delay in exposure

- E.g. smells that trigger memories or feelings  

Renewal Effect

- When the conditioned response to a conditioned stimulus comes back when  organism is placed in original environment in which learning occurred  - E.g. old feelings returning when back home, better test performance in  familiar environment

Primary Reinforcer

- Item or outcome that naturally increases the target behavior Secondary Reinforcer

- Neutral object that becomes associated with a primary reinfrorcer Reinforcement schedules  

Fixed ratio

- Reinforcement given after certain number of responses

Fixed interval  

-Reinforcement given after certain amount of time has passed (behavior just  needs to occur at least once)

Variable ratio

-Reinforcement given after unspecified number of responses

-Strongest reinforcement schedule (e.g. gambling)

Variable interval  Don't forget about the age old question of What are the three types of financial management?

-Reinforcement given after unspecified amount of time has passed (behavior  just needs to occur at least once)

Context dependent learning

-better retrieval when in same environmental conditions as when information was  learned

State dependent learning

-better retrieval when in same physiological or psychological state as when  information is learned

Observable learning  

- Learning by watching others

- Bandura’s bobo doll experiment

(ex. ↑.. kid watching woman through glass beating up a doll so when the kid went in the kid also beat up the doll) If you want to learn more check out How would one know if a molecule has london dispersion forces?

Observational learning

- Mirror neurons

- activated both by doing a behavior and when observing a behavior Memory

Long Term Memory

- Relatively enduring retention of stored information regarding our facts,  experiences, and skills

Permastore

- type of long-term memory that appears to be permanent - Often based on the meaning of the information, which helps it stuck Explicit

-recalled with intention and effort

-two kinds

 -semantic

 *knowledge of facts

(e.g. capital of Tennessee)

-episodic  

 *knowledge of events in our lives

(e.g. first kiss)

Implicit

-recalled without intention or effort, we don’t mean to remember it -two kinds If you want to learn more check out What is the bond structures that have been used in the high-yield bond market ?

-procedural

 *how to do thing

(e.g. tie shoes, ride a bicycle)

-priming

 *ability to detect a stimulus more easily and quickly after encountering a similar  stimulus

Sensory Memory  

- Perceptual information before it is passed on to short- term memory - Only briefly stored  If you want to learn more check out What are his concerns?

Consist of:

- Iconic

*things you see

- Echoic

*things you hear

*last longer than iconic memory

Short-term memory

- Retains information for limited durations

Encoding

- Process of getting information into our memory banks

- Requires focused attention on stimulus

- Mnemonics helping with encoding

-e.g. algebra mnemonic Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally

Storage

- Process of keeping information in memory  

- Schemas

- organized knowledge structure or mental model that we’ve stored in  memory  

Retrieval

- Process of reactivating or reconstructing experiences from our memory stores  3 Kinds

-recall

 *generating previously remembered information

-recognition

 *selecting previously remembered information from an array of options -relearning

 *reacquiring knowledge that has been previously learned, but forgottern  *quicker then learning for first time

Retrieval cues help with retrieval

-hints that make it easier to recall information

Retroactive Interference  

- New information interferes with old information

*e.g. learning a new language interferes with your vocabulary for your native  language

Proactive Interference  

- Old information interferes with new information

*e.g. taking an old pathway home even though roads have changed Retrograde Amnesia  

- Loss of memories from our past

Anterograde Amnesia

- Inability to encode new memories from our experiences

Infantile Amnesia

- Inability of adults to remember personal experiences that took place before  an early age

Levels of Processing

- i.e. assigning meaning to information

Blackboard Readings

- Stress and Memory

- Zoophoria

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