SOC 101 STUDY GUIDE
SOC 101 STUDY GUIDE soc 101
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This page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexis Fulton on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to soc 101 at University of Kentucky taught by Christopher Huggins in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 239 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Introduction to Sociology through the Wire Exam 1 Study Guide Methods of social research Qualitative 0 Deals with descriptions 0 Data can be observed but not measured 0 Colors textures smells tastes appearance beauty etc Quantitative 0 Deals with numbers 0 Data which can be measured 0 Length height area volume weight speed time temperature humidity sound levels cost members ages etc Research process 0 Identify the problem 0 Design test 0 Collect data 0 Analyze data TheoriesPerspectives of Sociology Symbolic interaction theory Rational choice Functionalist Con ict paradigm Sociological imagination Private troubles vs Public issues 0 Ex joblessness war marriage drinking amp driving discrimination Ethics of research Research may affect the lives of participants and researchers Protection from harm pdvacy Culture the knowledge customs and objects associated with a group of people makes society unique way of life shared by a group of people provides a guideline for carrying out tasks Cultural Universals Adaptations to meet essential human needs such as people39s need for food shelter and clothing Ethnocentrism and Cultural relativism Ethnocentrism o Tendency to assume that one s own culture and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others Cultural relativism 0 Evaluation of a people39s behavior from the perspective of their own culture Norms folkways taboos Norms o De nite principles expectations or rules of behavior that people of a given society or culture are expected to observe Folkways 0 Rules about ordinary matters Taboos 0 Rules about serious and unusual situations Rape child molestation racism SancUons Rewards or punishments Subcultures and countercultures Subcultures o A segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of customs rules and traditions that differs from the pattern of the larger society Countercultures o Opposes certain aspects of the larger culture Socialization agents of socialization Socialization o The lifelong process of learning to become a member of the social world Agents of socialization o Mechanism through which the self learns the beliefs values and behaviors of the culture Importance of various agents change over the life course Development of the self Piaget o Sensorimotor stage senses o Preoperational stage language 0 Concrete operational stage real world 0 Formal operational stage abstract Lookingglass self Emphasize that the self is the product of our social interactions with other people Generalized other Refers to the attitudes viewpoints and expectations of society as a whole that a child takes into account in his or her behavior Impression management The effort to control or in uence other people39s perceptions Most common type of impression management is selfpresentation Lifecourse Looks closely at the social factors that in uence people throughout their lives from birth to death Social structure Organized pattern of relationships and institutions that help compromise society Social interaction 2 or more individuals purposefully relating to each other Dramaturgy Like you39re putting on a stage play a performance Roles vs statuses role con ict and role strain Roles vs statuses o Roles Behavioral obligations of status 0 Status Positions Role con ict 0 Tension BETWEEN the roles of two statuses Role Strain o Tension WITHIN one status Groups in vs out primary vs secondary reference group Groups 0 Any number of people with similar norms values and expectations who interact with one another on a regular basis ln Vs Out Groups 0 ln Any group or category to which people feel they belong 0 Out Group or category to which people feel they do not belong Primary vs Secondary groups 0 Primary Refers to a small group characterized by intimate face to face association and cooperation Ex Family 0 Secondary Formal impersonal group in which there is little social intimacy or mutual understanding 0 Ex large lectures Reference groups 0 Any group that individuals use as a standard in evaluating themselves and their own behavior Organizations and bureaucracies Organizations 0 Groups of 15 people tend to develop a formal structure Bureaucracies o A component of formal organization in which rules and hierarchical ranking are used to achieve ef ciency Emile Durkheim Made many pioneering contributions to sociology 0 Including his important theoretical work on suicide lnsistence that behavior must be understood within a larger social context not just in individualistic terms Durkheim developed a fundamental thesis to help understand all forms of society Max Weber To fully comprehend behavior we must learn the subjective meanings people attach to their actions Created concept of ideal type 0 Construct madeup model that serves as a measuring rod against which actual cases can be evaluated Karl Marx Communist Manifesto o Argued that the masses of people who have no resources over their labor should unite to ght for the overthrow of capitalist societies Marx amp Engels argued that the working class needed to overthrow the existing class system Marx emphasized the group identi cations and associations that in uence an individual39s place in society Charles Horton Cooley Preferred to use the sociological perspective to look rst at smaller units 0 Intimate face to face groups such as families gangs and friendship networks 0 Saw these groups as the seedbeds of society in the sense that they shape people39s ideals beliefs values and social nature George Herbert Mead Best known for his theory of the self According to him the self begins as the privileged center of a person39s world Erving Goffman Suggested that many of our daily activities involve attempts to convey impressions of who we are Ferdinand Tonnies Gemeinschaft community is typical of rural life Gesellschaft is an ideal type characteristic of modern urban life Gerhard Lenski Sees human societies as undergoing a process of change characterized by a dominant pattern known as sociocultural evolution 0 Refers to long term social trends resulting from the interplay of continuity innovation and selection In his view a society39s level of technology is critical to the way it is organized
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