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study guide for test 4,5,6

by: Ken Holbdy

study guide for test 4,5,6 PSYC2777

Marketplace > East Carolina University > PSYC2777 > study guide for test 4 5 6
Ken Holbdy

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these notes cover what will be on veitors exams
Ethnocultural Psychology
Nathaniel Vietor
Study Guide
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ken Holbdy on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC2777 at East Carolina University taught by Nathaniel Vietor in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 104 views.


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Date Created: 02/23/16
Test 4 Study Guide Chapter 12: Freud’s Psychosexual Stage Theory: Oral (issues of dependence on others for things such as food; fixations can result in clingy personality and oral habits), Anal (conflicts over  toilet training; fixations result in anal retentive or anal expulsive personalities), Phallic  (Oedipus Complex, castration anxiety, penis envy, identification with same sex parent),  Latent (urges driven underground), Genital (mature adult sexuality) Projective tests Inkblot test, Thematic Apperception Test. What are the id, ego, and superego, and how do they function? ID­ Pleasure principle: Wishful and illogical Ego­ reality principle: helps ID deal with reality Superego­ conscience: parental voice within the person that battles the ID. Know your defense mechanisms ­Repression ­Denial ­Regression: retreat to an earlier time ex. Older kid pee’s bed once a new baby comes  into the picture because he is used to being an only child. ­Projection: blame someone else for our action. ­Reaction formation: radically homophobic people turn urge or desire into opposite.  ­Sublimation: makes urges socially acceptable. Angry kid plays football. ­Displacement: punch hole in wall after argument with wife. Displace anger. ­Rationalization: justification The neo­Freudians: Adler, Horney, and Jung; what are their new ideas? Adler­ inferiority complex. Start comparing yourself to others. Horney­ feminist Freudian. No penis envy. No weak super ego in woman. Jung­ collective unconsciousness (ying/yang), archetypes (mother earth… father time),  anima/animus (feminism/masculine) Bandura’s Reciprocal Determinism: behavior, cognitive factors, and environment Interaction between behavior, cognitive factors, environment Self efficacy­ confidence from experience  Trait theories: Eysencks’ theory (extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism) and  also know the Big 5 ­Eysencks theory­ extraversion/introversion, neuroticism (high or low self stability),  psychoticism (mental illness). ­BIG 5:  Openess Conscientiousness (relaiability) Extraversion Agreeableness (likeable)  Neuroticism Humanistic Approach: Maslow (self­actualization) and Rogers (ideal self vs. actual  self) Maslow self actualization­ becoming the best you that you can become. Rogers ideal self vs. actual self­ ideal self is where we think we should be.  Chapter 3: What’s the difference between consciousness, pre­consciousness, and subconscious? Conscious­ current awareness Pre­conscious­ available but not currently conscious (tip of the tongue) Subconscious­ things that are there but difficult to retrieve. (we’re not always aware they  are there aka subliminal messages) What happens during REM sleep? Rapid eye movement Dreams occur. Paradoxical sleep. Why do we get jet lag? Circadian rhythm gets thrown off when traveling through different time zones. Know your sleep disorders (insomnia, narcolepsy, somnambulism, night terrors) Insomnia­ not being able to sleep Narcolepsy­ falling asleep uncontrollably Somnambulism­ sleep walking. Happens during nrem 3 Night terrors­ super nightmare What are some effects of chronic sleep deprivation? Decreased performance, stress, injury  Know your categories of drugs…examples from each category and what they do  (opiates, depressants, stimulants, and hallucinogens? Opiates­ morphine, heroin, codeine Depressants­ liq, tranqualizers Stimulants­ yay, crack, nicotine, caffeine Hallucinogens­ LSD, PCP, X, shrooms, Weed  What are some similarities and differences between hypnosis and meditation? Both are a deep state of relaxation. Hypnosis makes you more susceptible to ideas. Why do we dream? (and what would Freud say?) wish fulfillments of our unconscious  Freud: manifest vs. latent. Latent message would be the real message. Study Guide Test 5 Chapter 14: What is the DSM? - Diagnostic and statistic manual. Designed to make diagnostics valid and reliable. Define, Explain, or give an example of: -Agoraphobia: an anxiety disorder characterized by anxiety in situations where the sufferer perceives the environment to be dangerous, uncomfortable, or unsafe. Anxiety disorder, -PTSD: Posttraumatic stress disorder. Fear after a traumatic event happens, war shell shock. - Generalized anxiety disorder: anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense apprehensive and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal -OCD: obsessive-compulsive disorder: extreme perfectionist What is the difference between major depression and bipolar disorder? Major depression­ suicide, can lead to somatic issues (head/stomach ache) Bipolar disorder­ more genetic then depression. Manic depression List the four forms of schizophrenia­related symptoms and then either define, explain or  give an example of each  1. disorganized (thought and speech) 2. Catatonic­ Negative symptoms, wont talk wont walk 3. paranoid­ hallucinations and dilutions, self centered way of thinking. (the govt is after me) 4. undifferentiated­ unfitting into other categories  Define, Explain, or give an example of: 1. Dependent Personality Disorder­ loses self identification in relationship. They NEED  relationship or companionship. 2. Histrionic Personality Disorder­ dramatic, attention 3. Borderline Personality Disorder­ clingy, jealous, needy, close to the edge 4. Narcissistic Personality Disorder­ love yourself 5. Anti­social Personality Disorder­ serial killer personality, no remorse, no love,  manipulative. Define, Explain, or give an example of the following disorders usually diagnosed during  childhood: 1. ADHD­  lack of internal stimulant,  2. Conduct Disorder­ bad seed, child hood version of antisocial disorder  3. Autism­ lack of communication, bad posture. Bad temper tantrum  Chapter 15: Describe these four basic approaches to therapy 1. Humanistic­ client centered therapy… problems are not “disorders” but conflicts with  society and other people… therapist acts as a guide for the client (help me help you) 2. Behavioral­ behavior is driving force behind disorder… therapeutic techniques: classical  conditioning (desensitization/ aversion therapy), operant conditioning (token economy),  extinction therapy (flooding), modeling (social learning) 3. Cognitive­ rational emotive therapy (RET, Albert ellis)… unhealthy and irrational  internal dialogue is confronted to increase self worth.  4. Psychoanalytic­ dream analysis, free association(honest response within the first few  seconds).  What is the difference between transference and counter­transference? Transference­ Patient develops strong emotion to therapist  Counter transference­ opposite What is the difference between systematic desensitization and flooding? Systematic desensitization­ slowly and progressively desensitize some one to a fear Flooding­ full on attack of fear. Match the following (be able to “prescribe” these medications) 1. Anti­psychotics         3.  Anti­depressants 2. Anti­anxiety drugs     4.  Mood stabilizers  __4__Lithium           ___2 Valium  __2__Xanax              __3_Zoloft,  __3__Paxil                 __1_Thorazine  __1__Haldol             ___3_ Prozac What is a lobotomy and why would someone have received one? To try get rid of the flaws in there personality, mainly done on extremely violent people. NOT  GOOD. Destruction of frontal lobe where personality traits lye. What is electro­convulsive therapy (ECT), and why would someone have this?  Shock therapy. it Is done to cure old time nightmare. Study Guide for Test 6   Chapter 13: Define, explain, or give an example of the following: Social loafing­ individual efforts not evaluated in a group so we have the tendency to slack off  Social facilitation­ presence of others helps us perform better.  Foot­in­the­door­ start small then progress and grow from there Door­in­the­face­ start with large request then follow with small. (sympathy)  Lowballing­ to deliberately quote a price or estimate that is lower than the eventual cost Cognitive dissonance theory­ behavior changes our attitude/beliefs. We don’t like to be  hypocrites Self perception theory­ behavior determines attitude. Attitude formation( start without an  attitude Self­fulfilling prophecy­ a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true.  Bloomers study Bystander effect­ more people = less help. Diffusion of responsibility Deindividuation­ can be caused by groups, alcohol. Loss of morals What does Milgram’s study teach us?­ this study taught us that regular people can do bad  things under certain circumstances. Aka Nazis. Physical distance, emotional distance, and  institutional authority. What is the fundamental attribution error?­ overestimate disposition’s or traits and  underestimate situations. Mcdonalds worker is rude so we think she is always mean but could be  having a bad day. What is the lesson of Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison study?­ we become our roles. Example of  self fulfilling prophecy.  What’s the difference between normative social influence and informational social  influence?­  normative social influence is peer pressure while informational social influence is  Describe Sherif’s study of conflict at Robber’s Cave­ he put camp groups against each other  and this caused instant animosity and prejudice. Once it got too bad though he made them work  together which caused an superordinate goal.  Chapter 9 What’s the difference between fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence? What is a g­factor? What is the Wechler Adult Intelligence Scale? And what percentage of people have IQs 2 or  more standard deviations above the mean? What percentage of people have IQs 2 or more  standard deviations below the mean?  Describe the relationship between reliability and validity Reliability refers to how accurate a measurement is while validity refers to how true or how  correct a measurement is 


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