study guide for test 4,5,6
study guide for test 4,5,6 PSYC2777
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ken Holbdy on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC2777 at East Carolina University taught by Nathaniel Vietor in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 104 views.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Test 4 Study Guide Chapter 12: Freud’s Psychosexual Stage Theory: Oral (issues of dependence on others for things such as food; fixations can result in clingy personality and oral habits), Anal (conflicts over toilet training; fixations result in anal retentive or anal expulsive personalities), Phallic (Oedipus Complex, castration anxiety, penis envy, identification with same sex parent), Latent (urges driven underground), Genital (mature adult sexuality) Projective tests Inkblot test, Thematic Apperception Test. What are the id, ego, and superego, and how do they function? ID Pleasure principle: Wishful and illogical Ego reality principle: helps ID deal with reality Superego conscience: parental voice within the person that battles the ID. Know your defense mechanisms Repression Denial Regression: retreat to an earlier time ex. Older kid pee’s bed once a new baby comes into the picture because he is used to being an only child. Projection: blame someone else for our action. Reaction formation: radically homophobic people turn urge or desire into opposite. Sublimation: makes urges socially acceptable. Angry kid plays football. Displacement: punch hole in wall after argument with wife. Displace anger. Rationalization: justification The neoFreudians: Adler, Horney, and Jung; what are their new ideas? Adler inferiority complex. Start comparing yourself to others. Horney feminist Freudian. No penis envy. No weak super ego in woman. Jung collective unconsciousness (ying/yang), archetypes (mother earth… father time), anima/animus (feminism/masculine) Bandura’s Reciprocal Determinism: behavior, cognitive factors, and environment Interaction between behavior, cognitive factors, environment Self efficacy confidence from experience Trait theories: Eysencks’ theory (extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism) and also know the Big 5 Eysencks theory extraversion/introversion, neuroticism (high or low self stability), psychoticism (mental illness). BIG 5: Openess Conscientiousness (relaiability) Extraversion Agreeableness (likeable) Neuroticism Humanistic Approach: Maslow (selfactualization) and Rogers (ideal self vs. actual self) Maslow self actualization becoming the best you that you can become. Rogers ideal self vs. actual self ideal self is where we think we should be. Chapter 3: What’s the difference between consciousness, preconsciousness, and subconscious? Conscious current awareness Preconscious available but not currently conscious (tip of the tongue) Subconscious things that are there but difficult to retrieve. (we’re not always aware they are there aka subliminal messages) What happens during REM sleep? Rapid eye movement Dreams occur. Paradoxical sleep. Why do we get jet lag? Circadian rhythm gets thrown off when traveling through different time zones. Know your sleep disorders (insomnia, narcolepsy, somnambulism, night terrors) Insomnia not being able to sleep Narcolepsy falling asleep uncontrollably Somnambulism sleep walking. Happens during nrem 3 Night terrors super nightmare What are some effects of chronic sleep deprivation? Decreased performance, stress, injury Know your categories of drugs…examples from each category and what they do (opiates, depressants, stimulants, and hallucinogens? Opiates morphine, heroin, codeine Depressants liq, tranqualizers Stimulants yay, crack, nicotine, caffeine Hallucinogens LSD, PCP, X, shrooms, Weed What are some similarities and differences between hypnosis and meditation? Both are a deep state of relaxation. Hypnosis makes you more susceptible to ideas. Why do we dream? (and what would Freud say?) wish fulfillments of our unconscious Freud: manifest vs. latent. Latent message would be the real message. Study Guide Test 5 Chapter 14: What is the DSM? - Diagnostic and statistic manual. Designed to make diagnostics valid and reliable. Define, Explain, or give an example of: -Agoraphobia: an anxiety disorder characterized by anxiety in situations where the sufferer perceives the environment to be dangerous, uncomfortable, or unsafe. Anxiety disorder, -PTSD: Posttraumatic stress disorder. Fear after a traumatic event happens, war shell shock. - Generalized anxiety disorder: anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense apprehensive and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal -OCD: obsessive-compulsive disorder: extreme perfectionist What is the difference between major depression and bipolar disorder? Major depression suicide, can lead to somatic issues (head/stomach ache) Bipolar disorder more genetic then depression. Manic depression List the four forms of schizophreniarelated symptoms and then either define, explain or give an example of each 1. disorganized (thought and speech) 2. Catatonic Negative symptoms, wont talk wont walk 3. paranoid hallucinations and dilutions, self centered way of thinking. (the govt is after me) 4. undifferentiated unfitting into other categories Define, Explain, or give an example of: 1. Dependent Personality Disorder loses self identification in relationship. They NEED relationship or companionship. 2. Histrionic Personality Disorder dramatic, attention 3. Borderline Personality Disorder clingy, jealous, needy, close to the edge 4. Narcissistic Personality Disorder love yourself 5. Antisocial Personality Disorder serial killer personality, no remorse, no love, manipulative. Define, Explain, or give an example of the following disorders usually diagnosed during childhood: 1. ADHD lack of internal stimulant, 2. Conduct Disorder bad seed, child hood version of antisocial disorder 3. Autism lack of communication, bad posture. Bad temper tantrum Chapter 15: Describe these four basic approaches to therapy 1. Humanistic client centered therapy… problems are not “disorders” but conflicts with society and other people… therapist acts as a guide for the client (help me help you) 2. Behavioral behavior is driving force behind disorder… therapeutic techniques: classical conditioning (desensitization/ aversion therapy), operant conditioning (token economy), extinction therapy (flooding), modeling (social learning) 3. Cognitive rational emotive therapy (RET, Albert ellis)… unhealthy and irrational internal dialogue is confronted to increase self worth. 4. Psychoanalytic dream analysis, free association(honest response within the first few seconds). What is the difference between transference and countertransference? Transference Patient develops strong emotion to therapist Counter transference opposite What is the difference between systematic desensitization and flooding? Systematic desensitization slowly and progressively desensitize some one to a fear Flooding full on attack of fear. Match the following (be able to “prescribe” these medications) 1. Antipsychotics 3. Antidepressants 2. Antianxiety drugs 4. Mood stabilizers __4__Lithium ___2 Valium __2__Xanax __3_Zoloft, __3__Paxil __1_Thorazine __1__Haldol ___3_ Prozac What is a lobotomy and why would someone have received one? To try get rid of the flaws in there personality, mainly done on extremely violent people. NOT GOOD. Destruction of frontal lobe where personality traits lye. What is electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), and why would someone have this? Shock therapy. it Is done to cure old time nightmare. Study Guide for Test 6 Chapter 13: Define, explain, or give an example of the following: Social loafing individual efforts not evaluated in a group so we have the tendency to slack off Social facilitation presence of others helps us perform better. Footinthedoor start small then progress and grow from there Doorintheface start with large request then follow with small. (sympathy) Lowballing to deliberately quote a price or estimate that is lower than the eventual cost Cognitive dissonance theory behavior changes our attitude/beliefs. We don’t like to be hypocrites Self perception theory behavior determines attitude. Attitude formation( start without an attitude Selffulfilling prophecy a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true. Bloomers study Bystander effect more people = less help. Diffusion of responsibility Deindividuation can be caused by groups, alcohol. Loss of morals What does Milgram’s study teach us? this study taught us that regular people can do bad things under certain circumstances. Aka Nazis. Physical distance, emotional distance, and institutional authority. What is the fundamental attribution error? overestimate disposition’s or traits and underestimate situations. Mcdonalds worker is rude so we think she is always mean but could be having a bad day. What is the lesson of Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison study? we become our roles. Example of self fulfilling prophecy. What’s the difference between normative social influence and informational social influence? normative social influence is peer pressure while informational social influence is Describe Sherif’s study of conflict at Robber’s Cave he put camp groups against each other and this caused instant animosity and prejudice. Once it got too bad though he made them work together which caused an superordinate goal. Chapter 9 What’s the difference between fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence? What is a gfactor? What is the Wechler Adult Intelligence Scale? And what percentage of people have IQs 2 or more standard deviations above the mean? What percentage of people have IQs 2 or more standard deviations below the mean? Describe the relationship between reliability and validity Reliability refers to how accurate a measurement is while validity refers to how true or how correct a measurement is
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