Test 1 Study Guide
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Test 1 Study Guide Overview and Major Issues: 1. Psychological explanations of behavior – relates a behavior to the activity of the brain and other organs, it deals with the machinery of the body like the chemical reactions that enable hormones to influence brain activity and the routes by which brain activity controls muscle contractions 2. Ontogenetic explanations – describes how a structure or behavior develops, including the influences of genes, nutrition, experiences, and their interactions, for example the ability to inhibit impulses develops gradually from infancy through the teenage years, reflecting gradual maturation of the frontal parts of the brain 3. Sensitive period – time early in development when experiences have a particularly strong and enduring influence 4. Evolutionary explanations – reconstructs the evolutionary history of a structure or behavior, the characteristic features of an animal are almost always modifications of something found in ancestral species, for example bat wings are modified arms 5. Functional explanations – describes why a structure or behavior evolved as it did, within a small isolated population, a gene can spread by accident through a process called genetic drift, for example a dominant male with many offspring spreads all his genes, including some that helped him become dominant and other genes that were irrelevant or disadvantageous 6. Mind-brain relationship – question about the relationship between mental experience and brain activity, given a universe composed of matter and energy why is there such thing as consciousness? 7. Dualism – opposite of monism, the idea that minds are one type of substance and matter is another 8. Monism – opposite of dualism, mental activity and certain types of brain activity are inseparable, the idea that the universe consists of only one type of being, more widely supported 9. Electrical stimulation of brain – stimulation of a neuron or neural network in the brain through direct or indirect excitation of its cell membrane by using an electric current 10. Ethics of animal research – animals can be given intense, repeated, inescapable shocks 11. Nativism – the view that certain skills or abilities are native or hard-wired into the brain at birth 12. Empiricism – theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience 13. Doctrine of localization – known as the specific localization thesis, the belief that specific areas in the brain control specific behavior events, supported by Gall and Broca, Broca’s experiment on a mute patient, Broca’s area (motor speech) 14. Anti-localization – the brain operates more or less as a whole in control of its behavior, the different parts of the brain work together to achieve a common goal, Wernicke and Lashley supported, Wernicke’s area (sensory speech), motor and sensory areas must work together to listen, respond, and understand properly 15. Phrenology – Gall linked the sizes of different parts of the brain which he determined by measuring bumps – protuberances, along the surface of the skull with personality traits 16. Chromosomes – genes come in pairs because they are aligned along chromosomes, strands of genes, that also come in pairs, a gene is part of a chromosome composed of the double stranded molecule DNA, humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 22 of which are autosomes and 1 is the sex chromosome 17. Genes – inheritance occurs through genes, units of heredity that maintain their structural identity from one generation to another 18. DNA – deoxyribonucleic acid, double stranded molecule consisting of chromosomes, self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms, carrier of genetic information 19. Mitosis – a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, ordinary cells 20. Meiosis – a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes, sex cells 21. Messenger RNA – large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression 22. Mutation – a permanent alteration in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene, such that the sequence differs from what is found in most people 23. Enzymes – biological catalysts that regulate chemical reactions in the body 24. Proteins – composed of one or more long chains of amino acids and are an essential part of all living organisms, organic compounds containing nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen 25. PKU – phenylketonuria, a genetic inability to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine, causes the amino acid to turn to acid and destroy brain cells, can cause mental retardation if diet is not properly controlled, shows the relationship between nature and nurture 26. Recessive – one that shows effects only in the homozygous condition 27. Dominant – gene that shows a strong effect in either the homozygous or heterozygous condition 28. Sex-limited genes – gene that exerts its effects primarily in one sex because of activation by androgens and estrogens, although members of both sexes may have the gene 29. Sex-linked genes – gene on either the X or Y chromosome 30. Evolution – a change over generations in the frequencies of various genes in a population Chapter 1 – Nerve Cells and Nerve Impulses 1. Neurons – cells that receive information and transmit it to other cells over long distances 2. Glial cells – type of cell in the nervous system that do not conduct impulses over long distances 3. Protoplasm – the colorless material comprising the living part of a cell, including the cytoplasm, nucleus, and other organelles 4. Cytoplasm – the cell substance between the cell membrane and the nucleus containing the cytosol, organelles, cytoskeleton, not the nucleus 5. Nucleus – the structure in the cell that contains the chromosomes 6. Mitochondria – where respiration and energy production occur, contains enzymes important and responsible for cell metabolism 7. Ribosomes – consists of RNA, found in the cytoplasm, bind mRNA and tRNA to synthesize polypeptides and proteins 8. Endoplasmic reticulum – a network of membranous tubules within the cytoplasm continuous with the nuclear membrane, involved in protein and lipid synthesis 9. ATP – adenosine triphosphate, molecule the body uses to store and release energy 10. ADP – adenosine diphosphate, adenosine and two phosphate groups that is formed in living cells as an intermediate between ATP and AMP and that is reversibly converted to ATP for the sorting of energy by the addition of a high energy phosphate group 11. Energy cycle 12. Cell body – structure containing the nucleus, ribosomes, and mitochondria 13. Soma – the cell body, structure containing the nucleus, ribosomes, and mitochondria 14. Dendrites – branching fibers from a neuron that receive information from other neurons 15. Axon – thin fiber of constant diameter, the neuron’s information sender 16. Axon hillock – a specialized part of the cell body or soma of a neuron that connects to the axon, allows neural impulses to move from the soma down the axon, responsible for summating the graded inputs from the dendrites and producing action potentials 17. Myelin sheath – insulating covering that surrounds an axon, is discontinuous at the notes of Ranvier, increases the speed at which a nerve impulse can travel along an axon 18. Axonal endings – between the axon ending and the dendrite of the next neuron, where helps carry messages away from the cell body 19. Synapses – a specialized gap as a point of communication between two neurons 20. Sensory neurons – neuron that is highly sensitive to a specific type of stimulation 21. Interneurons – neuron whose axons and dendrites are all confined within a given structure 22. Motor neurons – neuron that receives excitation from other neurons and conducts impulses to a muscle 23. Unipolar neuron - type of neuron in which only one protoplasmic process, neurite, extends from the cell body 24. Bipolar neurons – type of neuron which has two extensions, specialized sensory neurons for the transmission of special senses, part of the sensory pathways for smell, sight, taste, hearing, and vestibular functions 25. Multipolar neurons – type of neuron that possesses a single, usually long, axon and many dendrites allowing for the integration of a great deal of information from other neurons 26. Afferent neurons – in the PNS, an afferent nerve fiber is the nerve fiber or axon of an afferent or sensory neuron, it is a long projection extending far from the nerve cell body that carries nerve impulses from sensory receptors to sense organs toward the CNS, brings information into a structure 27. Efferent neurons – conducting cells that carry information from the CNS to muscles and organs throughout the body, they carry electrical impulses that tell the organs and muscles what to do, carries information away from the structure 28. Intrinsic neurons – neuron whose axons and dendrites are all confined within a given structure 29. Oligodendrocytes – glia cells that build myelin sheaths, CNS 30. Astrocytes – star shaped glia cell that synchronize the activity of the axons, CNS, form scars when neurons degenerate not allowing them to regenerate, are in the blood brain barrier 31. Microglia – cells that remove waste material and other microorganism from the nervous system 32. Schwann cells – glia cells that build myelin sheaths, can guide the regenerating axon back to its original connection, PNS 33. Satellite cells – provide mechanical support, precursors to skeletal muscle cells 34. Blood brain barrier – mechanism that excludes most chemicals from the brain, contains specific transport proteins that determine which substances can cross the barrier, enzymes may degrade or alter substances prior to passage, contains tight junctions that restrict movement of substances between the endothelial cells 35. Endothelial cells along capillaries 36. Membrane of astrocytes 37. Active transport system – a protein-mediated process that expends energy to enable a molecule to cross a membrane 38. Resting potential – the difference in voltage when the neuron inside the membrane has a slightly negative electrical potential with respect to the outside, mainly because of negatively charged proteins inside the cell, -70 mv, the gates are closed 39. Polarization – a difference in electrical charge between the inside and outside of the cell 40. Sodium-potassium pump – a protein complex, repeatedly transports three sodium ions out of the cell while drawing two potassium ions into it, is an active transport so it requires energy, because of the pump sodium ions are more than 10x more concentrated outside the membrane than inside, and potassium ions are more concentrated inside than outside, effective due to its selective permeability of the membrane 41. Selective permeability – of the membrane, some chemicals pass through it more freely than others do, oxygen, carbon dioxide, urea, and water cross freely through channels that are always open, ions such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride cross through the membrane channels (or gates) that are sometimes open and sometimes close, when the membrane is at rest the sodium and potassium channels are closed permitting almost no flow of sodium and only a small flow of potassium, certain types of stimulation can open these channels permitting freer flow of both ions 42. Active channels – gated channel, closed during resting state, controlled by voltage specific ions channels for each ion, determine membrane permeability during the action potential, gates are controlled by the electrical charge or voltage across the membrane, 30+ mv, gates are open 43. Passive channels – always open, some channels for each sodium and potassium, determine membrane permeability during the resting potential, there are more passive channels for potassium than for sodium, the membrane is more permeable to potassium 44. Concentration gradient – the difference in distribution of of ions across the membrane, sodium is more concentrated outside of the cell and potassium is more concentrated inside the cell 45. Electrical gradient – difference in electrical charges between the inside and outside of the cell, also known as polarization 46. Action potential – messages sent by axons a. When an area of the axon membrane reaches its threshold of excitation, sodium channels and potassium channels open b. At first, the opening of potassium channels produces little effect c. Opening sodium channels lets sodium ions rush into the axon d. Positive charge flows down the axon and opens voltage-gated sodium channels at the next point e. At the peak of the action potential, the sodium gates snap shut. They remain closed for the next mili-second or so, despite the depolarization of the membrane f. Because the voltage gated potassium channels remain open, potassium ions flow out of the axon, returning the membrane toward its original depolarization g. A few mili-seconds later, the voltage-dependent potassium channels close 47. Absolute refractory period – lasts 1 mili-second, the membrane cannot produce an action potential, regardless of the stimulation 48. Relative refractory period – lasts 2-4 mili-seconds, a stronger than usual stimulus is necessary to initiate an action potential, it depends on if the sodium channels are closed and potassium is flowing out of the cell at a faster than usual rate, when all this occurs the neuron skips the recovery state 49. Firing state – neuron is depolarized 50. Depolarization – to reduce polarization toward zero across a membrane 51. Recovery state – neuron is repolarized 52. Hyperpolarization – neuron is at -90 mili-volts 53. Propagation of action potential – describes the transmission of an an action potential down the axon 54. Domino effect – occurs in unmyelinated axons, changes in permeability along the membrane take place in a sequential pattern and produce the sodium movement point by point along the membrane, the neural impulse is a wave of depolarization along the neural membrane 55. Salutatory conduction – the jumping of action potentials from node to node, provides rapid conduction of impulses and conserves energy by having the myelinated axon only admitting sodium at its nodes 56. Nodes of Ranvier – a gap in the myelin sheath of a nerve, between adjacent Schwann cells, action potentials travel from one location in the cell to another, but ion flow across the membrane occurs only at the notes of Ranvier, as a result, the action potential signal jumps along the axon, from node to node, rather than propagating smoothly, as they do in axons that lack a myelin sheath 57. Graded potentials – when a local neuron receives information from other neurons, it has a graded potential, a membrane potential that varies in its magnitude in proportion to the intensity of the stimulus 58. Decremental potentials – a potential whose strength decreases as it travels farther from the point of stimulation 59. All or none rule – principle that the amplitude and velocity of an action potential are independent of the stimulus that initiated it, as long as the stimulus reaches the threshold 60. Non decremental potentials – an action potential that does not change or decrease in size or strength 61. Wallerian degeneration – when an axon is severed, the first part to go is its detached end, deprived of chemicals produced by Nissl substance, the detached end has no way or maintaining itself and soon dies 62. Retrograde degeneration – the next part of the neuron to break down is the part of the axon that remains attached to the soma, this stage usually coincides with the deterioration of Nissl substances in the soma and dendrites (chromatolysis), retrograde degenerationde cannot be reversed in the CNS, can in the PNS with the help of Schwann cells, in the CNS the axon encounters resistance from the blood brain barrier’s astrocytes and they cannot regenerate due to the scars produced by the astrocytes 63. Chromatolysis – process where neurotransmitters are released into the synapse, more calcium ions = a greater degree of exocytosis, there are three stages: 1. Move to – when calcium comes into axon endings after neural impulse, synaptic vesicles move to the membrane 2. Fuse to – and fuse with inner membrane and 3. Rupture – membrane ruptures so neurotransmitters are released into the synapse and look to bind to their receptor sites 64. Nissl substance – a large granular body found in neurons, these granules are the site of protein synthesis 65. Axonal sprouting – a process where fine nerve processes – sprouts – grow out from the intact axons to re-innervate downward muscle fibers, thereby the sprouting sustains the nerve supply to muscles and, in turn, the ability to move 66. SSRI – drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin in the presynaptic terminal Chapter 2 – Synapses 1. Reflex – 1. Are a circuit from a sensory neuron to muscle response. 2. Automatic muscular response to stimuli 2. Temporal summation – sensory summation that involves the addition of single stimuli over a short period of time 3. Spatial summation – sensory summation that involves stimulation of several spatially separated neurons at the same time 4. EPSP – excitatory postsynaptic potential, is a postsynaptic potential that makes the neuron more likely to fire an action potential, a graded potential, sodium is involved, when potassium increases a positive charge is created 5. IPSP – inhibitory postsynaptic potential, a kind of synaptic neuron less likely to generate an action potential, a graded potential, chloride is involved, when potassium increases a negative charge is created 6. Spontaneous firing rate – action potential discharge rate in the absence of current injection or stimulus 7. Inhibitory neurotransmitters – binding of neurotransmitters inhibits the postsynaptic neuron 8. Excitatory neurotransmitters – binding of neurotransmitters excites or allows, the postsynaptic neuron 9. Dopamine – neurotransmitter that is formed during the synthesis of norepinephrine and is essential to the normal functioning of the central nervous system, reduction of dopamine can cause Parkinson’s disease 10. Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) – a chemical messenger that is widely distributed in the brain, natural function is to reduce the activity of the neurons to which it binds, may control fear and anxiety experienced when neurons are overexcited 11. Glutamate – an amino acid that functions as an excitatory neurotransmitter 12. Acetylcholine (Ach) – CNS – acts as a neuro modulator PNS – activates muscles and is a major neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system 13. Norepinephrine (NE) – neurotransmitter, affects many organs in the body, the sympathetic nervous system triggers the “fight or flight” response 14. Epinephrine (Epi) – hormone secreted by the medulla of the adrenal glands, strong emotions such as fear and anger cause Epi to be released into the bloodstream which causes an increase in heart rate, muscle strength, blood pressure, and sugar metabolism 15. Serotonin (5-HT) – a compound present in blood platelets and serum that constricts the blood vessels and acts as a neurotransmitter, is involved in the control of pain perception, the sleep-wake cycle, and mood 16. Synaptic vesicles – in the neuron, store various neurotransmitters that are released at the synapse, the release is regulated by a voltage- dependent calcium channel, vesicles are essential for propagating nerve impulses between neurons and are constantly recreated by the cell 17. Presynaptic neuron – a neuron from the axon terminal of which an electrical impulse is transmitted across a synaptic cleft to the cell body or one or more dendrites of a postsynaptic neuron by the release of a chemical neurotransmitter 18. Postsynaptic neuron – a neuron to the cell body or dendrite of which an electrical impulse is transmitted across a synaptic cleft by the release of a chemical neurotransmitter from the axon terminal of a presynaptic neuron 19. Auto receptor – type of receptor located in the membrane of presynaptic nerve cells, it serves as part of a negative feedback loop in neurotransmitters or hormones released by the neuron on which the auto receptor sits 20. Modulation neurons – a neuron that uses one or more neurotransmitters to regulate diverse populations of neurons, they diffuse through large areas of the nervous system affecting multiple neurons, major neuromodulators in the CNS include dopamine, serotonin, Ach, and norepinephrine 21. Receptor sites – a molecular site or the docking part on the surface, or within a cell, usually involving proteins that are capable of recognizing and binding with specific molecules 22. Binding – a region on a protein which specific ions and molecules may form a chemical bond and form a reaction within the body 23. Reuptake – the absorption by a presynaptic nerve ending of a neurotransmitter that it has secreted 24. Antagonist – a substance that interferes with or inhibits the physiological action of another 25. Agonist – a substance that initiates a physiological response when combined with a receptor 26. Affinity – an attraction or force between particles that causes them to combine, as the attraction between an antigen and an antibody 27. Efficacy – describes the relative intensity with which agonists vary in the response they produce even when they occupy the same number of receptors with the same affinity 28. Nucleus accumbens – forms part of the basal ganglia, each hemisphere has one, has a significant role in the cognitive processing of aversion, motivation, pleasure, reward, and reinforcement, think addiction 29. Ionotropic effects –can be applied to the effect of a transmitter substance or hormone on its target, the transmitter or hormone activates or deactivates ionotropic receptors, the effect can either be positive or negative, specifically a depolarization or a hyperpolarization respectively, forms an ion channel pore 30. Metabotropic effects – type of membrane receptor that acts through a secondary messenger, metabotropic receptors are indirectly linked with ion channels on the plasma membrane or the cell through signal transduction mechanisms 31. Second messenger – a substance whose release within a cell is promoted by a hormone that brings about a response by the cell 32. Cyclic AMP – a cyclic form of adenosine monophosphate that plays a major role in controlling many enzyme-catalyzed processes in living cells 33. Psychoactive drugs – psychotropic substance, a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where is alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior 34. Depressants – a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal of stimulation in various areas of the brain 35. Stimulants – psychostimulants, psychoactive drugs that induce temporary improvements in either mental or physical functions or both, effects may include enhanced alertness, wakefulness, and locomotion 36. Opiates – narcotic sedatives that depress activity of the central nervous system, reduce pain, and induce sleep, side effects may include over-sedation, nausea, and constipation 37. Psychedelic (hallucinogenic drugs) – a drug that causes hallucinations (profound distortions in a person’s perception of reality) side effects are seeing images, hearing sounds, and feeling sensations that seem real but do not exist 38. Antipsychotic drugs – a medication that is believed to be effecting in the treatment of psychosis for disorders such as schizophrenia Chapter 3 – Anatomy and Research Methods 1. CNS – central nervous system, include the brain and spinal cord 2. PNS – peripheral nervous system, part of the nervous system that consists of the nerves and ganglia on the outside of the brain and spinal cord 3. Autonomic nervous system – ANS, balances the body’s smooth muscle tone, blood pressure, temperature, fluid composition, state of digestion, metabolic activity, and sexual activation 4. Sympathetic nervous system – ANS, the part of the nervous system responsible for control of bodily functions not consciously directed, such as breathing, the heartbeat, and digestive processes 5. Parasympathetic nervous system 6. Spinal nerves – a mixed nerve which carries motor, sensory, and autonomic signals between the spinal cord and the body, in the human there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves, one on each side of the vertebral column 7. Cranial nerves – each of twelve pairs of nerves that arise directly from the brain, not from the spinal cord, and pass through separate apertures in the skull, once one takes the anatomy final very good vacations are heavenly a. Olfactory b. Optic c. Oculomotor d. Trochlear e. Trigeminal f. Abducens g. Facial h. Vestibulocochlear i. Glossopharyngeal j. Vagus k. Accessory l. Hypoglossal 8. Brain – organ of soft nervous tissue contained in the skull of vertebrates, functioning as the coordinating center of sensation and intellectual and nervous activity 9. Spinal cord – the cylindrical bundle of nerve fibers and associated tissue that is enclosed in the spine and connects nearly all parts of the body to the brain, with which it forms the CNS 10. Meninges – the three membranes that line the skull and vertebral canal and enclose the brain and spinal cord 11. Meningitis –inflammation of the meninges caused by viral or bacterial infection and marked by intense headache and fever, sensitivity to light, and muscular rigidity, leading to convulsions, delirium, and death 12. Dura mater – the tough outermost membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord 13. Arachnoid – a fine, delicate membrane, the middle of the three membranes or meninges that surround the brain and spinal cord, situated between the dura mater and the pia mater 14. Pia mater – the delicate innermost membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord 15. Subarachnoid space – the interval between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater, it is occupied by a delicate connective tissue trabecular and intercommunicating channels containing CSF 16. CSF – cerebrospinal fluid, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spine, it is produced in choroid plexuses of the ventricles of the brain, it acts as a cushion or buffer for the brain’s cortex, providing basic mechanical and immunological protection to the brain inside the skull 17. Hydrocephalus – a condition in which fluid accumulates in the brain, typically in young children, enlarging the head and sometimes causing brain damage 18. Choroid plexus – a network of blood vessels in each ventricle of the brain, it is derived from the pia mater and produces the cerebrospinal fluid 19. Ventricles – a hollow part or cavity in an organ, like each of the four connected fluid-filled cavities in the center of the brain 20. Bell-Magendie Law – the finding that the anterior spinal nerve roots contain only motor fibers and posterior roots only sensory fibers that nerve impulses are conducted in only one direction in each case 21. Dorsal – of, on, or relating to the upper side or back of an animal, plant, or organ 22. Ventral – of, on, or relating to the underside of an animal or plant; abdominal 23. Anterior – nearer the front, especially situated in the front of the body or nearer to the head 24. Posterior – further back in position; of or nearer the rear or hind end, especially of the body or part of it 25. Lateral – of, at, toward, or from the side or sides 26. Medial – situated in the middle, or near the median plane of the body or midline of an organ 27. Horizontal – parallel to the ground, separates the superior from the inferior, the head from the feet 28. Coronal – perpendicular to the ground, which separates the anterior from the posterior, the front from the back, and the ventral from the dorsal 29. Sagittal plane – perpendicular to the ground, which separates left from right, the midsagittal plane is the specific sagittal plane that is exactly in the middle of the body 30. Gray matter – the darker tissue of the brain and spinal cord, consisting mainly of nerve cell bodies and branching dendrites 31. White matter – composed of bundles of myelinated nerve cell processes (or axons), which connect various grey matter areas of the brain to each other, and carry nerve impulses between neurons, myelin acts as an insulator, increasing the speed of transmission of all nerve signals 32. Nuclei – plural of nucleus, the central and most important part of an object, movement, or group, form the basis for its activity and growth 33. Tracts – a system or organs and tissues that together perform a specialized function 34. Hindbrain – the lower part of the brainstem, comprising the cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata 35. Brain stem – central trunk of the brain, consists of the medulla oblongata, pons, and the midbrain, and continuing downward from the spinal cord 36. Medulla – the inner region of an organ or tissue, especially when it is distinguishable from the outer region or cortex 37. Pons – the part of the brainstem that links the medulla oblongata and the thalamus 38. Reticulum formation – a network or nerve pathways in the brainstem connecting the spinal cord, cerebrum, and cerebellum, and mediating the overall level of consciousness 39. Raphe nuclei – a moderate-size cluster or nuclei found in the brain stem, their function is to release serotonin to the rest of the brain, SSRI’s are believed to act in these nuclei, as well as at their targets 40. Locus coeruleus – the principal site for brain synthesis of norepinephrine 41. Cerebellum – the part of the brain at the back of the skull in vertebrates, its function is to coordinate and regulate muscular activity 42. Midbrain – a small central part of the brainstem, serves in motor movement, particularly movements of the eye, and in auditory and visual processing 43. Superior colliculi – plays a role in helping orient the head and eyes to all types of sensory stimuli 44. Inferior colliculi – principal midbrain nucleus of the auditory pathway and receives input from several peripheral brainstem nuclei in the auditory pathway, as well as inputs from the auditory cortex 45. Substantia nigra – plays an important role in reward, addiction, and movement 46. Red nucleus – structure in the rostral midbrain involved in motor coordination, contains iron which is why it is red 47. Forebrain – the anterior part of the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, the thalamus, and the hypothalamus 48. Hypothalamus – a region of the forebrain below the thalamus that coordinates both the ANS and the activity of the pituitary, controlling body temperature, thirst, hunger, and other homeostatic systems, and involved in sleep and emotional activity 49. Thalamus – either of two masses of gray matter lying between the cerebral hemispheres on either side of the third ventricle, relaying sensory information and acting as a center for pain perception 50. Basal ganglia – a group of structures linked to the thalamus in the base of the brain and involved in coordination of movement 51. Caudate nucleus – the upper of the two gray nuclei of the corpus straitum in the cerebrum of the brain 52. Putamen – forms part of the basal ganglia, is connected to the substantia nigra, main function is to regulate movements and influence various types of learning, employs GABA and Ach 53. Globus pallidus – structure in the brain involved in the regulation of voluntary movement, is part of the basal ganglia, and helps regulate movements that occur on the subconscious level 54. Hippocampus – part of the limbic system – the region that regulates emotions, is associated mainly with memory, mostly long- term memory, also plays an important role in spatial navigation 55. Limbia system – primary structures include the amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, and cingulate gyrus, the amygdala is the emotion center of the brain, while the hippocampus plays an essential role in the formation of new memories about past experiences 56. Gyrus – a ridge or fold between two clefts on the cerebral surface of the brain 57. Sulcus – a groove or furrow on the surface of the brain 58. Fissure – a deep fold in the cerebral cortex that involves the entire thickness of the brain 59. Cerebral cortex – outer later of the cerebrum, composed of folded gray matter and playing in important role in consciousness 60. Frontal lobes – each of the paired lobes of the brain lying immediately behind the forehead, including areas concerned with behavior, learning, personality, and voluntary movement 61. Parietal lobes – either of the paired lobes of the brain at the top of the head, including areas concerned with the reception and correlation of sensory information 62. Occipital lobs – the rearmost lobe in each cerebral hemisphere of the brain 63. Temporal lobes – each of the paired lobes of the brain lying beneath the temples, including areas concerned with the understanding of speech 64. Central sulcus – a fold in the cerebral cortex in the brains or vertebrates, also called the central fissure 65. Postcentral gyrus – prominent structure in the parietal love of the human brain, is the location of the primary somatosensory cortex, the main sensory area for the sense of touch 66. Precentral gyrus - primary motor area, controls the voluntary movements of skeletal muscles; cell bodies of the pyramidal tract are found on this gyrus 67. Stereotaxic instrument – an apparatus attached to the head, used to localize precisely an area in the brain by means of coordinates related to intracerebral structures, to study a specific area under the cortex 68. Brain atlas – composed of serial sections along different anatomical planes of the healthy or diseased developing human brain where each relevant brain structure is assigned a number of coordinates to define its outline or volume, 3D map of the brain 69. CT or CAT – computerized tomography, computerized axial tomography, takes a picture of the brain or other part of the body 70. MRI, NMR – magnetic response image, picture of the brain or body, only spatial image 71. PET – positron emission tomography, shows which parts of the brain are most active during information processing, injection of radioactive glucose helps this (is able to pass through the blood brain barrier) 72. EEG – electroencephalogram, records brain waves, wave length, records electrical activity of the brain 73. fMRI – functional magnetic response image, spatial and temporal image, shows what parts are functioning before and after the others, more advances, studies behavior, which parts process information 74. Stimulation – to rouse action or increased activity, excite, to temporarily increase the activity of something in the body 75. Recording –showing the electrical waves occurring in the brain 76. Lesion – a region in an organ or tissue that has suffered damage through injury or disease
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