Test 1 Notes
Popular in Social Psychology
Popular in Department
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Social Psychology 1/9 – 1/13 Social psychology – study of the psyche (human mind) modified by social o Psychology that focuses on interpersonal relationships, including your relationship with yourself o Study of thoughts, feelings, and actions of individuals as affected by the actual, imagined or implied presence of other persons o Emotions = causes of behavior o Loss of emotional feeling = loss of all actions o Implied presence, like God Science x => y o Scientific philosophy o X – variable o Y – variable o => arrow of causation o Tradition in science, we assume causality (events have causes) o Determinism – absolute causation and lawful patterns (theories) o Theories that are true based on evidence o Theories are judged on the basis of evidence o Evidence, data, etc. can explain everything and predict everything o Goal of science is to describe in order to explain in order to predict in order to control o We want to be able to control our world Chaos theory – no predictability possible o No certainty in particular events o Allows us to attain some notion of free will o Patterns mostly stable o Minor evens lead to and cause (=>) major effects Personality vs. situation o Causality – controlled by the individual, focus on the person, their attitudes, genetics, instinctive tendencies o Causality – controlled by situations, factors in the situation are more important, like the difference between the environment in a small or a large class size o We are biased in trying to find simple situations Cognitive bias – nature vs. nurture; emotion vs. logic (are we controlled by emotion or logic) o We act because of emotion and act to that in a logical way, but that logic can be distorted due to emotion o There are almost no absolutes, everything is complicated o Different people in the same situation will behave differently o There has to be an interaction between nature and nurture, emotion and logic, and personality and situation o False absolute – dynamic interaction between the two things, it changes over time o What we believe to be true changes overtime o Emotion is the enemy of logic Locus of control – your belief that you control your own outcomes o Internal – you control it, in your mind, you believe that o External – your outcomes are controlled by external “forces” you do not control what happens to you o Dynamic interaction example – college students today feel their control is more external, however it was not that way in the past, the changing of things overtime Social psychology history o First social psychology experiment by Triplett called social facilitation, the presence of other people changes how we act, example: people work more efficiently when surrounded by others, working in groups, BUT it can also be distractive The presence of other people does change our behavior, sometime it’s good, sometimes it’s bad o McDougall explained behavior in terms of instincts, biological response tied to natural selection, reflexes are hardwired, measure of arousal (later rejected) Curiosity, those who are more curious are more likely to survive, but we do have instincts and genetic programs, it is outside of our awareness why we do some things, and we justify it afterwards because we want to be in control and we believe we are in control o Sherif talked about norms and social influence, how you can convince a person of one thing or another o Kurt Lewin believed in a virtually created field, was a Jew during the rise of Hitler, prosecution of Jews got his attention, did applied psychology to get people to eat certain foods in abundance, focused on perception (the meaning people attach) and goals, example: it’s good to eat carrots, there is a lot of them, they are good for you, it is patriotic to eat carrots Cognitive theorist Gestalt theorist, psychological intentional actions Field theory – psychological reality-life space [B = f (p, e0] choices are based on perceptions action research as method Two types of research: basic and applied “Nothing is as practical as a good theory!” Behavior is a function of the interaction between our perceived factors in ourselves and the environment, always biased by our past experiences What’s in our mind right now = life space Change of intention based on change of logic, psychological, logic based upon physiological needs, whole model comes back to field theory, what you are perceiving in the moment QUIZ # 1 2 Social Psychology 1/15 – 1/20 Expansion of research but limited by sample bias, descriptive nature, ethical problems (deception studies), micro-focus Sample bias – categories like age, gender, education, any difference in the group Now there is a strong gender shift but limited ethnic diversity with a cognitive, biological, and evolutionary emphasis Research methods, all equally scientific, no best method, serve different purposes Research Method – Focus – Question Answered o Observational – description – what is the nature of the phenomenon? o Correlational – prediction – from knowing X, can we predict Y? o Experimental – causality – is variable X a cause of variable Y? Showing association NOT causality Archival data supports correlational research Aggression – the intent to cause injury Negative correlation, as one variable goes down, the other goes up Positive correlation, as one variable goes up, the other goes up The number for the correlation, shows how strong the relationship is, closer to one, is a strong relationship The sign for the correlation shows the direction for the correlation o Example: -.5 = stronger relationship than +.3 Operational definition – definition of the operations you use to convert a theoretical variable to one that is concrete Variable is theoretical or abstract QUIZ #2 Social Psychology 1/22 – 1/27 Anatomy of an experiment: o Subjects – Who are we going to study? What are we trying to understand? What group? Will help shape the experiment o If you want to survey a population, say the students of LU, you take a sample, that sample will hopefully represent your population well o Two types of samples: Stratified sample – names put in alphabetical order, pick th every 10 name Randomly assigned – lottery style, everyone’s name is put in a hat and you pick o Need to assign each subject to a group o Two groups: experimental and control group 3 o Independent variable – what are you testing for? The causal variable, the one you are manipulating. What you are hypothesizing for, is caused by this variable. Prediction based on your theory Example: experimental group: children are shown violent TV programs, control group: children are shown nonviolent TV programs o Also need to define what you are considering violence in TV o Dependent variable – the response from the independent variable, effects are measured here Example: levels of aggression in the children playing a video game, then you need to measure how aggressive they were o Also need to once again define what you consider as aggressive o Look at the data, is there a correlation? What is the difference between the experimental and control group’s results? o Is there a statistically significant result? Correlational methods – only associations among variables, not causality o Naturalistic/participant observation, surveys/archival research/ simulations Experiments – allow causal inferences, due to higher control o Random assignments to control confounding variables, experiment and control groups Independent, and dependent variables Statistical significance, generalizability, replication, experimental/mundane realism, laboratory/field/quasi experiments Field – high levels of mundane Lab – high levels of experimental realism because they can be controlled Quasi – is not a real experiment like comparing men to women Factors damaging research validity: o Sample bias, order effects, weak variables, social desirability/norm-based self presentation o Unintended demand characteristics o Experimenter bias/participant observer bias – manipulating the situation to get the result they want o Response sets – you are set (preprogramed – either by genetics or experience) to respond in a particular way o Acquiescence or “screw-you effect” – make you respond in a particular way, like in cases of child abuse, the children want to be good and go along with the abuse, do what the researchers want you to do o Availability bias – you don’t have the behavior (experience) 4 o Central tendency bias – people respond neutrally, in the middle, because people do not want to support their answers, most people are comfortable when they are in the average, the belly of the bell curve o Confirmation bias – as a researcher you’re looking for what you want to see, say 9/10 experiments failed, but you look at that one good outcome as what you wanted so you see the study as successful o Mood effects – SAD, the mood you are in affects your behavior, example of an unintended demand characteristic Corrective measures o Double-blind studies – an attempt to avoid any biases, like experimenter bias who may shape participant’s behavior to get their desired outcome (one that matches up to their hypothesis), also helps to not sway participants to not do what they think they are supposed to do o Counterbalancing of variables o Unobtrusive measures – paths that are naturally chosen by participants, no distortion in behavior o Deception – active lying/deception to manipulate participants, can be a very powerful manipulation, strong test of hypothesis, leave negative effects, causes people to perceive researches as being liars o Simulation – an effort to deal ethically and practically with potent variables o Replication – repetition of a study to test the quality of the results Social Psychology 1/27 – 2/5 Ethics in research Power use Cost (personal cost) vs. benefit issue o Example testing people’s willingness to cause harm to someone else just because they were told to, effected the people emotionally (not in a good way) o Participant benefits – could be knowledge, money (weak benefit), researcher’s job to present this benefit, not always done o Use of deception/cultural shift in acceptability o Possible psychological risks Invasion of privacy Triggering of powerful emotions Informed consent procedure o Freedom to choose to participate – freedom to leave the study at any time o Understanding of risks – full disclosure, may affect their willingness to participate 5 Ability to withdraw at any time Debriefing Anonymity vs. confidentiality Ethical review procedure QUIZ # 3 Self-concept – Who am I? We have built in tendencies that effect how we act without us even being aware of what they are Self-esteem – the value we put on ourselves, how good we think we are, systematic demand characteristics may sway a negative value of self, the things you answer when people ask: “Who are you?”, based on emotions, how you feel about yourself, how valuable you think you are Self-concept – the individual’s belief about him or her self including the person’s attributes and who and what the self is Perception – attaching meaning to experience based on prior experience, the meanings we attach depends on our past experiences, different people view the world differently due to their different experiences Egocentrism – centered on yourself, ego-centered, you think you’re the center of everything, anything that effects you becomes the center of what you look at Culture – an important environmental shaper, your culture affects how you behave, two major variables in terms of culture: individualism and collectivism Individualism – rights and focus on the individual, Darwinism – focus on survival of the individual, the struggle to dominate and be the best, think about team sports, we focus often on the individuals Collectivism – focus on the group, what is the best for the group, not the individual, choices are often made for the individuals (like by their parents) Multiple selves – how you see yourself, who are you? Who do you want to be? What is your ideal self? What do you see when you look in the mirror? Literally and figuratively, our self esteem is always vulnerable, perceived self, reality of what we are, what we want to be, past experience comes in, available role models come in, comparison of us to others, the ideal self and the perceived self are constructed by us o Central traits – the traits that define us, like gender, o Peripheral traits – things we like, shallow more easily changed, not important in shaping our behavior o Situationally-specific responses – some people are more sensitive or focused or concerned and think about different things more than others, how you judge or view different things Normative behavior – behavior according to a norm, what different groups value like conformity or individuality or competitiveness 6 o High/low impact o Responses: escape vs. conformity o Private/public self-consciousness – persuasion – public self- consciousness when you behave in a way that other people can see you, pride is when you live up to your standards, it only matters what you think, persuasion requires pressure put on people to change their behavior or change their mind, public pressure may increase results but only temporarily o Conscience – half of our ideal self, comes into play when you violate the rules, the part that tells you don’t do that, you’re a bad person because you did that, and punishes you with guilt and shame, associated with monitoring yourself, some people are more self aware o Self-monitoring (social sensitively and self-regulation) – self- regulation, regulating your self, behaving in a way that is consistent in what you want to be, feeling guilty Extremes ineffective over long term Self-fulfilling prophecy – prediction of the future, when we have a prophecy about how we feel about our self it changes our behavior, our view of the world affects how we act o Positive or negative cycles, success breeds success, we attach meaning to an experience based on a past experience o Self-efficacy (feedback from actions) – the extent or strength of one’s own ability to complete tasks and reach goals QUIZ 4 Learned helplessness – a condition in which a person suffers from a sense of powerlessness, arising from a traumatic event or persistent failure to succeed, giving up trying to escape a painful situation after repeatedly failing to escape, self perception Social Psychology 2/8 – 2/12 Social comparison – people have an innate drive to evaluate themselves, often in comparison to others, people make all kinds of judgements about themselves, and one of the key ways that we do this is through social comparison or analyzing the self in relation to others o Family style – role models, you want to be like your parents, gender roles are learned, think about the picture with the family (mother, father two girls, and a boy going to church – except the father, on Easter) o Sibling rivalry/PK’s 7 o Comparing upwards, and downwards, people with a weak self esteem and weak confidence compare themselves to people who are worse than them in a specific trait, it makes you feel good about yourself to compare downwards, we are programmed to find patterns, and to think logically, the frontal lobe is designed to make sense of the world, but our emotions and feelings of insecurity, weakness, and fear hold us back from being able to think logically o Relevance – comparison trait to self image – too much emotion, if the amount of emotional response exceeds what it normally should be, something else is going on, relationships are set off by minor things because of other problems that may be bothering you, and this obviously causes tension within the relationship because of the sudden outburst that is unrelated to the real problem Looking glass self – the eyes of other people, we evaluate ourselves by looking at how other people look at us, when other people see us in a favorable light that is a mirror that we use to draw conclusions about our self, we are not looking at our own behavior, we are looking at how others see us, powerful and legitimate when taken in balance, we do not see our self accurately, Social comparison both downward and upward is a key way that we see ourselves and how we respond We can aspire to be and imagine our self to be better than we are on traits that are important to us Social comparison o Downward vs. upward o Heroes – functions/limitations – we need heroes, we’re born cowards, we can overcome it only if we can imagine ourselves to be successful, heroes are an example and aspiration to what we can be capable of, heroes give us the strength and confidence we need to overcome difficult experiences, we look at them to see what they do, how they act, and that it is possible, careful not to loose ourselves in the “dream” or “fantasy” they are not our identities, just a point of comparison o Negative models – what is negative depends on who you are, you select heroes depending on your interests, don’t want to loose hope in being who you want to be, negative in context, we can’t automatically assume what kind of models are positive or negative, show us what not to do, works best if you have a clear identity of yourself, you and find role models on what not to do We are constantly comparing ourselves to other people to get clarity on who we are and who we want to be 8 Biases in self-perception – a bias is anything that distorts in thinking or behavior, attaching meaning to experience based on prior experience, tied in together with self-perception in this case, we use a point of comparison to judge our self and compare ourselves to other people Actor-observer bias in attribution/counter-factual thinking – attribution is the bottom line for human behavior, it is assigning a cause or causes to behavior, why do people do that, why do they do what they do – because it tells something about their personality, can be powerful to shaping the idea of what a person is all about o Counter – factual thinking – a distortion in thinking that makes us feel better, it is against the facts, we often think “well if I had only done this, then everything would have been different” we spend time looking at our behavior as if it could have gone a different way, we do it mostly with ourselves, “what if thinking”, we can avoid responsibility by thinking of alternate occurrences to think that it is not our fault Self-consistency bias – when you fail, who is responsible for that? What does that say about you? Not changing the views, you have of yourself, once you form an idea of yourself, you actively defend that image, it’s easier to live in the delusions and the false ideas because once you accept the truth you have to take actions to turn that around (think of people addicted to drugs, they think they are too weak to quit, but once they realize they can, they have to take some hard steps to change that and face their truths) o Bias – distortion in thinking, consistency – we force a bias even when it is wrong, when the facts contradict it, a bias in not recognizing complexity or change in not seeing ourselves in some way Biases are emotionally based and they are designed to make us feel good Dispositional Situational *Fundamental attribution error – an error in attribution (assign causes for the behavior) an error in assigning causes that is fundamental (basic), humans tend to assign causes to a person, anytime something happens we want to know who to blame – assigning personal responsibility, we make a lot of mistakes and we blame a lot of people without understanding how complex the situation really is, we tend to blame other people, but when it refers to ourselves it is a little bit more sensitive, you do not want to blame your self, people usually want to avoid responsibility and avoid painful attributions to ourselves 9 Emotion is the enemy of logic, emotion is the want to see ourselves in a positive light, if something good happens we take credit, if something bad happens we blame the situation Stereotype – attitudes about a group, a concept is formed by examining information and forming an idea, a stereotype is just a concept about a group, we do not have a lot of information, we assign all members of the group into the same category and the same characteristics o Attribution bias based on a stereotype – we assign cause based on the stereotype, short term thinking QUIZ 5 Temporal comparison – we don’t change our self image over time, we compare ourselves to when we were a child, we imagine our future, social comparison can be in real time or across time zones Self-enhancement bias o False-uniqueness – (false consensus effect) we see ourselves as more unique, or mores special, egocentrism, everybody thinks they are special and different, our thinking is centered on our self, we think we are above the rules, if you believe something, you assume every body else believes it (false consensus), o Intuition – the thinking process, when you are consciously thinking of something, it is in the center of your attention, intuition is just as logical but it is at a lower level of thinking/awareness, o Self-handicapping – when you purposely butting barriers in your way so that you are unable to achieve a good result, like not doing extra credit, you do not want to try, it is easier to operate at a low level, “that’s just the way I am” (situational attribution error) o Stereotype threat – when you activate the stereotype in the mind of those people who are targeted, it affects their behavior to act in accordance to the stereotype, targets of stereotype Positive illusion – curvilinear effect w/r benefit of excuses, tendency to overcome our fear of failure, a moderate amount of optimism gives you the strength to move forward o Optimism vs. pessimism – pessimism inhibits your willingness to act or try to do well o Fear is a good thing when rationally handled o Locus of control (internal vs. external) – internal, we believe that what happens to us is our doing, external, we believe that what happens to us is due to outside forces, luck, God, etc. if you 10 believe that everything is external, then potentially you will not act, you think that you do not have control, if you believe it is internal, you are more likely to act to create/change your own destiny or outcomes o These qualities are perceptions, conditions, we attach meaning to experience based on prior experience o Planning fallacy – a fallacy is a false perception, a false statement, always almost underestimate the difficulty, planners are optimistic, they are way off, example: building plans cost more than originally planned and take more time than originally planned o Defensive pessimism – “it will never work” “my vote won’t count” being pessimistic is a systematic system of not doing things, you have predictions for the future that are negative, defensive pessimism is when you do it to protect your own feelings and escape responsibility QUIZ 6 11
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