Anatomy and Physiology Exam 2 Study Guide
Anatomy and Physiology Exam 2 Study Guide BIO 1004
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Juliane Notetaker on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1004 at Mississippi State University taught by Jeffery Echols in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology in Biology at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 5 The Integumentary System o Summary: This chapter focuses on the layers of the skin and its function. Key Points: Function is to line or cover certain body parts The skin is the largest organ in the human body Layers Epidermis is the outermost layer of skin and the thinnest layer and does not have a direct blood supply o Stratum Basale (1 sublayer of Epidermis) Deepest layer of the epidermis Produces new cell by mitosis o Stratum Corneum (part of epidermis exposed to environment) Upper most layer Hardened and waterproof due to protein (keratin) Prevents mechanical damage and invasion by bacteria Dermis is the middle layer of skin, unlike the epidermis, is has a blood supply o Subcutaneous Layer Main function is insulation Majority of this layer is made up of adipose tissue (fat) Maintains body heat of 98.6 degrees Cushioning – prevents pain as you hit the ground Accessory Structures of the Skin o Hair– produced by cells of epidermis / located in the dermis Hair is composed mainly of protein called keratin o Nails– produced by cells of the epidermis Made of keratin o Glands Types of glands: Sweat Glands Apocrine Glands Eccrine Glands Sebaceous Glands Mammary Glands Functions of the Skin o Protection o Synthesis of Vitamin D o Sensory Reception and Communication o Regulation of Body Temperature Disorders of the Skin o Athlete’s Foot o Impetigo o Eczema o Psoriasis o Dandruff o Skin Cancer Chapter 6 The Skeletal System o Summary: This chapter focuses on the skeleton and the types of bones and their functions o Key Points: Functions of the Bone Supports body and organs Protects Produces blood cells Storage area for mineral (calcium) salts Muscle attachment Anatomy of a Long Bone Periosteum: is a layer of connective tissue on the outside of the bone Epiphysis: Ends (tips) of a long bone Diaphysis: the shaft of a long bone Medullary Cavity: the hallow portion of the diaphysis Compact bone: 1 type of bone that makes up the long bone Spongy Bone: stronger of the 2 types; located in the epiphysis Growth and Development Prenatal development: cartilage is slowly converted into bone by a process called endochondral ossification; this process begins in utero but is not complete until you hit your 20’s Intramembranous ossification: bones form in place; no previous cartilage model; most bones of the face are formed through intramembranous ossification Bone is continuously replaced throughout life, is living tissue, you replace your entire skeleton every 6 months Living Cells inside Bones Osteoclasts Osteoblasts Osteocytes Axial Skeleton: made up of the skull and spinal cord, as well as the ribs and the sternum; connects to the vertebral Cervical Vertebrae: Neck region, made up of 7 vertebrae’s Thoracic: Found in the trunk region (torso); made up of 12 vertebrae’s Lumbar: Found in the lower back; 5 vertebrae’s Sacral: There are 5 vertebrae’s, hips are attached to the sacral vertebrae Coccyx: tailbone Spinal cord runs on the outside of the vertebrae, it is surrounded by spines Appendicular Skeleton: all bones other than the axial skeleton Pelvic girdle includes the hips and legs Pectoral Region: bones of the shoulders and arms Fractures Simple: clean break Compound: bone protrudes through the skin Partial: bone is broken lengthwise through the diaphysis Greenstick: this is where the bone splinters rather than breaks Impacted: where bone breaks and 2 ends of the break are forced into one another Comminuted: broken in several places Spiral: twisted break (most common type of broken bone) Chapter 7 Muscle System o Summary: This chapter focuses on the types of muscle, information on contractions, and effects of steroids o Key Points: Types of Muscles Smooth: elliptical in shape; one nucleus per cell; no striations; ; found in digestive track, circulatory system, reproductive systems; it is found in other areas but large concentrations are in those areas; it can contract and relax; fatigues slowly but recovers quickly Cardiac: deep striations indicate strength; is the strongest; found in the heart; nonfatiguing Skeletal: multiple nuclei per cell; mild striations (moderately strong); physical activity influences the striations; quick to fatigue and slow to recover; voluntary control; can either relax or contract Terms Myoglobin (chemical that is similar to hemoglobin) chemical stored in muscle that carries oxygen; oxygen is required in muscle contraction Hemoglobin: Found in blood and carries oxygen Antagonistic pairs: most muscles occur in antagonistic pairs; relax and contract Synengists: smaller muscles that work with a larger muscle group Origin: the origin of the muscle is where it is attached to a stationary bone Insertion: the point of attachment to the moving bone Functions of Skeletal Muscles Moves bones Stabilizes joints Moves blood in veins Moves lymph in lymphatic vessels Maintain body temperature Protects internal organs Structure Largest to Smallest Muscle: covered by connective tissue (fascia) which eventually forms tissues Muscle bundle: bundles of fibers Muscle fiber: groups of myofibrils Myofibrils: functional unit of the muscle Myofibril: functional unit of the muscle, contains protein actin and myosin Muscle Contractions The contraction of numerous myofibrils Requires electrical stimulation from nervous tissue Requires calcium Requires ATP to force actin to slide past myosin Glycogen: provides glucose for ATP production Creatine Phosphate: aids in regeneration of ATP (fast) Fermentation: production of ATP without the use of oxygen/leads to a buildup of lactic acid in tissue Atropy: the shrinkage of muscles due to nonuse Hypertrophy: enlargement of muscles due to increased number of myofibrils Steroids: specific group of hormones produced by males that allow for faster muscle recovery The good: they are commonly used to treat injuries and also abused The bad: abused quite often which can lead to injuries; not necessarily muscle tissue; they can cause the testicles to shrink, which may be irreversible in some; can cause hair to fall out; cause acne; can cause severe mood swings; symptoms may disappear with the discontinued use of steroids The sometimes really ugly: Female abuse of testosterone: they become masculinized; breast tissue diminishes, the voice becomes deeper (irreversible); hair loss; acne; increase in the size of the external genitals (irreversible) Slow twitch: provide endurance; slow to fatigue; darker in color (myoglobin); greater blood supply; aerobic (consume large amounts of oxygen) Fast twitch muscle: provide explosive strength, quick to fatigue, light in color (have a reduced amount of myoglobin), less blood supply, anaerobic Chapter 8 The Nervous System o Summary: This chapter focuses on the nervous system, the types of nervous systems, and parts of the brain and spine o Key Points: Central Nervous System: Brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System: anything other than the brain and spinal cord Working Unit of the Nervous System Neurons: a cell that can generate or transmit an electrical impulse Neuroglia cells: Support the neurons; they can provide protection; physical support for nutrients; Schwann Cells: surround the axons of some neurons; they produce a protein called myelin which speeds up electrical impulses; Oligodendrocytes: produce myelin on the axons of some neurons 3 Classes of Neurons Sensory Neuron: associated with the sense organs Motor Neuron: associated with the muscles Interneurons: Found predominately in the brain; they receive info from the sensory neurons; they perform integration on that information Brain Stem: Controls basic body functions; including heart rate, breathing rates, vomiting, coughing, hiccups, and blood pressure; also controls some reflexes of the head and neck that are stimulated by auditory inputs and by visual inputs Consists of 3 parts: o Medulla o Midbrain o Pons Division of the Brain Diencephalon: most of the diencephalons is hallow and filled with fluid; the region is divided into 2 parts: o Thalamus region: receives all inputs from the sense organs and relays those inputs to other areas in the brain o Hypothalamus: controls appetite, body temperature, water balance of the blood, blood pressure, sexual activity, serves as a link between the nervous system and the endocrine system, it controls the pituitary glands. Cerebellum: 2nd largest region of the brain, main function control of skeletal muscle, it controls antagonistic pairs of skeletal muscles, it ensures that one member of the antagonistic pair relaxes while the other one contracts; it controls muscle tone, controls posture Cerebrum: largest portion of the human brain, divided into right and left hemispheres that are interconnected, controls conscious thought, dreams, memory Spinal Cord: the spinal cord mainly controls skeletal muscle; serves as a connecting point for peripheral nerves Meninges: are several layers of connective tissue that surround and protect the brain and spinal cord; retains fluid against the brain and the spinal cord; acts as a shock absorber Ventricles: are hallow regions of the brain and spinal cord; there are 4 ventricles within the brain; all 4 ventricles produce cerebrospinal fluid; this fluid fills the ventricles and support the brain; Peripheral Nervous System Somatic Nervous System: a division of the Peripheral nervous system; consists of Cranial nerves o Cranial nerves: are found mainly in the head; they are associated mainly with the sense organs o vegus nerve: occurs in pairs, not connected to spinal cord; branches and connects to the internal organs o Spinal Nervers: occur in pairs, connect directly to the spinal cord, control skeletal muscle Autonomic Nervous System: a division of the peripheral nervous system; can be divided into the 2 parts o Parasympathetic Division: controls the body under normal conditions; mainly influences smooth muscle and endocrine gland o Sympathetic Division: fight or flight; controls the body during times of stress; causes the release of adrenaline; increases heart rate, increases breathing rate Chapter 9 The Sensory System o Summary: This chapter focuses on the types of receptors that are in this system, it also includes descriptions of the structures of the eye and ear o Key Points: General Receptors Neurons: found throughout the entire body, in the skin and the internal organs, some are concentrated in the muscles and joints. General Receptors detect temperature; detects pressure; detect pain, one found in the skin and other in the internal organs Chemoreceptors: Sensitive to chemicals; when chemoreceptors are exposed to a very specific chemical, they generate an electrical response which travels to the brain Olfactory Cells: chemoreceptors found in the nasal cavity, extremely sensitive to chemicals, the oldest of the senses Photoreceptors: sensitive to light; eyes; stimulated by light causing them to product an electrical impulse that travels to the brain, the brain itself interprets the impulse Structure of the Eye: Retina: inner lining of the eye; contains the photoreceptors Stereoscopic Vision Optic Nerve: cranial nerve, connects eye to brain Fovea: indentation in the retina; contains 90% of the photoreceptors responsible for color vision Choroid Layer: middle layer of tissue surrounding the eye; it absorbs stray light rays Sclera: outer layer of the eye; the white of the eye. Cornea is an extension of the sclera; front of the eye Pupil: a hole in the eye which allows light to pass through Iris: the colored muscle of the eye that controls the size of the pupil Lens: a hardened portion behind the pupil; focuses light on the retina The eye is divided into 2 regions: both are hollow and filled with fluid; Anterior Cavity: between the lens and the cornea (filled with fluid called aqueous humor: has a consistency of water) Posterior Cavity: from the lens to the retina; filled with victrious humor; has the consistency of jello; it is clear; commonly has hardened areas which are called floaters Mechanoreceptors: stimulated by pressure, causes them to generate an electrical impulse, impulse travels to the brain, brain determines what the information is involved with sense of touch, involved in sense of hearing. Structures of the Ear: Outer Ear: Pinna (coneshaped, outer fleshy part of ear, concentrates pressure waves) Ear Canal: conducts pressure waves to the middle ear Tympanum: ear drum; it vibrates in the presence of pressure waves Middle Ear: infections occur here, consists of 3 small bones (malleus, incus, and stapes), they connect the tympanum to the inner ear Eustachian Tube: hollow tube, connects the middle ear to the throat, drains excess fluid from the middle ear; bacteria may begin to grow if fluid accumulates in the middle ear, and an ear infection is caused Inner Ear: Cochlea: snailshaped; fluid filled, lined with mechanoreceptors, vibrations from the middle ear transfer to the cochlea where they stimulate the mechanoreceptors Semicircular Canals: there are 3; partially filled with fluid, they are lined with mechanoreceptors, they are responsible for balance
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