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Anatomy and Physiology Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Juliane Notetaker

Anatomy and Physiology Exam 2 Study Guide BIO 1004

Marketplace > Mississippi State University > Biology > BIO 1004 > Anatomy and Physiology Exam 2 Study Guide
Juliane Notetaker
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About this Document

This document contains a summary of all the notes from chapters 5-9.
Anatomy & Physiology
Jeffery Echols
Study Guide
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Juliane Notetaker on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1004 at Mississippi State University taught by Jeffery Echols in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology in Biology at Mississippi State University.


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Date Created: 02/23/16
Exam 2 Study Guide  Chapter 5 The Integumentary System o Summary: This chapter focuses on the layers of the skin and its function.      Key Points:  Function is to line or cover certain body parts  The skin is the largest organ in the human body  Layers   Epidermis is the outermost layer of skin and the thinnest layer and  does not have a direct blood supply o Stratum Basale (1  sublayer of Epidermis)  Deepest layer of the epidermis  Produces new cell by mitosis o Stratum Corneum (part of epidermis exposed to  environment)  Upper most layer  Hardened and waterproof due to protein (keratin)  Prevents mechanical damage and invasion by  bacteria  Dermis is the middle layer of skin, unlike the epidermis, is has a  blood supply o Subcutaneous Layer  Main function is insulation  Majority of this layer is made up of adipose tissue  (fat)  Maintains body heat of 98.6 degrees  Cushioning – prevents pain as you hit the ground  Accessory Structures of the Skin o Hair– produced by cells of epidermis / located in the dermis  Hair is composed mainly of protein called keratin o Nails– produced by cells of the epidermis  Made of keratin o Glands  Types of glands:  Sweat Glands  Apocrine Glands  Eccrine Glands  Sebaceous Glands  Mammary Glands  Functions of the Skin o Protection o Synthesis of Vitamin D o Sensory Reception and Communication o Regulation of Body Temperature  Disorders of the Skin o Athlete’s Foot  o Impetigo  o Eczema  o Psoriasis  o Dandruff  o Skin Cancer  Chapter 6 The Skeletal System o Summary: This chapter focuses on the skeleton and the types of bones and their  functions o Key Points:  Functions of the Bone  Supports body and organs  Protects  Produces blood cells  Storage area for mineral (calcium) salts  Muscle attachment  Anatomy of a Long Bone  Periosteum: is a layer of connective tissue on the outside of the  bone  Epiphysis: Ends (tips) of a long bone  Diaphysis: the shaft of a long bone  Medullary Cavity: the hallow portion of the diaphysis  Compact bone: 1 type of bone that makes up the long bone  Spongy Bone: stronger of the 2 types; located in the epiphysis  Growth and Development  Prenatal development: cartilage is slowly converted into bone by a  process called endochondral ossification; this process begins in  utero but is not complete until you hit your 20’s  Intramembranous ossification: bones form in place; no previous  cartilage model; most bones of the face are formed through  intramembranous ossification     Bone is continuously replaced throughout life, is living tissue, you  replace your entire skeleton every 6 months  Living Cells inside Bones  Osteoclasts  Osteoblasts  Osteocytes  Axial Skeleton: made up of the skull and spinal cord, as well as the ribs  and the sternum; connects to the vertebral   Cervical Vertebrae: Neck region, made up of 7 vertebrae’s  Thoracic: Found in the trunk region (torso); made up of 12  vertebrae’s  Lumbar: Found in the lower back; 5 vertebrae’s  Sacral: There are 5 vertebrae’s, hips are attached to the sacral  vertebrae   Coccyx: tailbone  Spinal cord runs on the outside of the vertebrae, it is surrounded by spines  Appendicular Skeleton: all bones other than the axial skeleton  Pelvic girdle includes the hips and legs  Pectoral Region: bones of the shoulders and arms  Fractures  Simple: clean break  Compound: bone protrudes through the skin  Partial: bone is broken lengthwise through the diaphysis  Greenstick: this is where the bone splinters rather than breaks  Impacted: where bone breaks and 2 ends of the break are forced  into one another  Comminuted: broken in several places  Spiral: twisted break (most common type of broken bone)  Chapter 7 Muscle System o Summary: This chapter focuses on the types of muscle, information on  contractions, and effects of steroids o Key Points:  Types of Muscles  Smooth: elliptical in shape; one nucleus per cell; no striations; ;  found in digestive track, circulatory system, reproductive systems;  it is found in other areas but large concentrations are in those  areas;  it can contract and relax; fatigues slowly but recovers  quickly   Cardiac: deep striations indicate strength; is the strongest; found in the heart; non­fatiguing  Skeletal: multiple nuclei per cell; mild striations (moderately  strong); physical activity influences the striations; quick to fatigue  and slow to recover; voluntary control; can either relax or contract  Terms  Myoglobin (chemical that is similar to hemoglobin) chemical  stored in muscle that carries oxygen; oxygen is required in muscle  contraction  Hemoglobin: Found in blood and carries oxygen  Antagonistic pairs: most muscles occur in antagonistic pairs; relax  and contract  Synengists: smaller muscles that work with a larger muscle group  Origin: the origin of the muscle is where it is attached to a  stationary bone  Insertion: the point of attachment to the moving bone  Functions of Skeletal Muscles  Moves bones  Stabilizes joints  Moves blood in veins  Moves lymph in lymphatic vessels  Maintain body temperature  Protects internal organs  Structure Largest to Smallest  Muscle: covered by connective tissue (fascia) which eventually  forms tissues  Muscle bundle: bundles of fibers  Muscle fiber: groups of myofibrils  Myofibrils: functional unit of the muscle  Myofibril: functional unit of the muscle, contains protein actin and  myosin  Muscle Contractions  The contraction of numerous myofibrils  Requires electrical stimulation from nervous tissue  Requires calcium  Requires ATP to force actin to slide past myosin  Glycogen: provides glucose for ATP production  Creatine Phosphate: aids in regeneration of ATP (fast)  Fermentation: production of ATP without the use of oxygen/leads  to a buildup of lactic acid in tissue  Atropy: the shrinkage of muscles due to non­use  Hypertrophy: enlargement of muscles due to increased number of  myofibrils  Steroids: specific group of hormones produced by males that allow for  faster muscle recovery  The good: they are commonly used to treat injuries and also  abused  The bad: abused quite often which can lead to injuries; not  necessarily muscle tissue; they can cause the testicles to shrink,  which may be irreversible in some; can cause hair to fall out; cause acne; can cause severe mood swings; symptoms may disappear  with the discontinued use of steroids  The sometimes really ugly: Female abuse of testosterone: they  become masculinized; breast tissue diminishes, the voice becomes  deeper (irreversible); hair loss; acne; increase in the size of the  external genitals (irreversible)  Slow twitch: provide endurance; slow to fatigue; darker in color  (myoglobin); greater blood supply; aerobic (consume large amounts of  oxygen)  Fast twitch muscle: provide explosive strength, quick to fatigue, light in  color (have a reduced amount of myoglobin), less blood supply, anaerobic  Chapter 8 The Nervous System o Summary: This chapter focuses on the nervous system, the types of nervous  systems, and parts of the brain and spine o Key Points:  Central Nervous System: Brain and spinal cord  Peripheral Nervous System: anything other than the brain and spinal cord  Working Unit of the Nervous System  Neurons: a cell that can generate or transmit an electrical impulse  Neuroglia cells: Support the neurons; they can provide protection;  physical support for nutrients;  Schwann Cells: surround the axons of some neurons; they produce  a protein called myelin which speeds up electrical impulses;   Oligodendrocytes: produce myelin on the axons of some neurons  3 Classes of Neurons  Sensory Neuron: associated with the sense organs  Motor Neuron: associated with the muscles  Interneurons: Found predominately in the brain; they receive info  from the sensory neurons; they perform integration on that  information  Brain Stem: Controls basic body functions; including heart rate, breathing  rates, vomiting, coughing, hiccups, and blood pressure; also controls some reflexes of the head and neck that are stimulated by auditory inputs and by visual inputs  Consists of 3 parts:  o Medulla o Midbrain   o Pons  Division of the Brain  Diencephalon: most of the diencephalons is hallow and filled with  fluid; the region is divided into 2 parts:  o Thalamus region: receives all inputs from the sense organs  and relays those inputs to other areas in the brain o Hypothalamus: controls appetite, body temperature, water  balance of the blood, blood pressure, sexual activity, serves as a link between the nervous system and the endocrine  system, it controls the pituitary glands.   Cerebellum: 2nd largest region of the brain, main function control  of skeletal muscle, it controls antagonistic pairs of skeletal  muscles, it ensures that one member of the antagonistic pair  relaxes while the other one contracts; it controls muscle tone,  controls posture  Cerebrum: largest portion of the human brain, divided into right  and left hemispheres that are interconnected, controls conscious  thought, dreams, memory  Spinal Cord: the spinal cord mainly controls skeletal muscle; serves as a  connecting point for peripheral nerves  Meninges: are several layers of connective tissue that surround and protect the brain and spinal cord; retains fluid against the brain and the spinal  cord; acts as a shock absorber  Ventricles: are hallow regions of the brain and spinal cord; there are 4  ventricles within the brain; all 4 ventricles produce cerebrospinal fluid;  this fluid fills the ventricles and support the brain;   Peripheral Nervous System  Somatic Nervous System: a division of the Peripheral nervous  system; consists of Cranial nerves o Cranial nerves: are found mainly in the head; they are  associated mainly with the sense organs o vegus nerve: occurs in pairs, not connected to spinal cord;  branches and connects to the internal organs o Spinal Nervers: occur in pairs, connect directly to the spinal cord, control skeletal muscle  Autonomic Nervous System: a division of the peripheral nervous  system; can be divided into the 2 parts o Parasympathetic Division: controls the body under normal  conditions; mainly influences smooth muscle and endocrine gland o Sympathetic Division:  fight or flight; controls the body  during times of stress; causes the release of adrenaline;  increases heart rate, increases breathing rate  Chapter 9 The Sensory System o Summary: This chapter focuses on the types of receptors that are in this system, it  also includes descriptions of the structures of the eye and ear o Key Points:   General Receptors  Neurons: found throughout the entire body, in the skin and the  internal organs, some are concentrated in the muscles and joints.  General Receptors detect temperature; detects pressure; detect  pain, one found in the skin and other in the internal organs  Chemoreceptors: Sensitive to chemicals; when chemoreceptors are  exposed to a very specific chemical, they generate an electrical response  which travels to the brain  Olfactory Cells: chemoreceptors found in the nasal cavity, extremely  sensitive to chemicals, the oldest of the senses  Photoreceptors: sensitive to light; eyes; stimulated by light causing them  to product an  electrical impulse that travels to the brain, the brain itself  interprets the impulse  Structure of the Eye:  Retina: inner lining of the eye; contains the photoreceptors  Stereoscopic Vision  Optic Nerve: cranial nerve, connects eye to brain  Fovea: indentation in the retina; contains 90% of the  photoreceptors responsible for color vision  Choroid Layer: middle layer of tissue surrounding the eye; it  absorbs stray light rays  Sclera: outer layer of the eye; the white of the eye.  Cornea is an extension of the sclera; front of the eye  Pupil: a hole in the eye which allows light to pass through  Iris: the colored muscle of the eye that controls the size of the pupil  Lens: a hardened portion behind the pupil; focuses light on the  retina   The eye is divided into 2 regions: both are hollow and filled with fluid;   Anterior Cavity: between the lens and the cornea (filled with fluid  called aqueous humor: has a consistency of water)  Posterior Cavity: from the lens to the retina; filled with victrious  humor; has the consistency of jello; it is clear; commonly has  hardened areas which are called floaters  Mechanoreceptors: stimulated by pressure, causes them to generate an  electrical impulse, impulse travels to the brain, brain determines what the  information is involved with sense of touch, involved in sense of hearing.  Structures of the Ear:  Outer Ear: Pinna (cone­shaped, outer fleshy part of ear,  concentrates pressure waves)  Ear Canal: conducts pressure waves to the middle ear  Tympanum: ear drum; it vibrates in the presence of pressure waves  Middle Ear: infections occur here, consists of 3 small bones  (malleus, incus, and stapes), they connect the tympanum to the  inner ear  Eustachian Tube: hollow tube, connects the middle ear to the  throat, drains excess fluid from the middle ear; bacteria may begin  to grow if fluid accumulates in the middle ear, and an ear infection  is caused  Inner Ear:   Cochlea: snail­shaped; fluid filled, lined with mechanoreceptors,  vibrations from the middle ear transfer to the cochlea where they  stimulate the mechanoreceptors  Semicircular Canals: there are 3; partially filled with fluid, they are lined with mechanoreceptors, they are responsible for balance


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