Test #2 Study Guide GPY 235 Gutowsky
Test #2 Study Guide GPY 235 Gutowsky 11781 - GPY 235 - 02
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Klawr13 on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 11781 - GPY 235 - 02 at Grand Valley State University taught by Michael Gutowsky in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see World Regional Geography in Geography at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Test #2 Study Guide GPY235 Gutowsky East Asia Greenhouse Gases air pollution from industrialization that leads to environmental problems Ring of Fire NW part loosely borders Pacific Ocean Hydraulic Civilizations large state societies hypothesized to have arisen from the needs of massive irrigation systems - Drained marshes, constructed irrigation systems, reservoirs from lakes and levees to prevent flooding Endemic species native to area - Chinese alligator, white crane, Chinese sturgeon Tectonic activity caused the rising of the Himalayas (oceanic crust is thicker) Pastoralism farming, dependent on the environment and based on keeping herds of grazing animals - Yak, sheep, and goats Savannas tall grasses, lower latitude, close to the equator Massif mountainous block of Earth’s crust bound by faults or folds - Tibetan plateau = 965,000 squared miles Karst weathering and erosion of limestone Green Revolution new seeds that require lots of water and fertilizer but produce lots of food Asian Brown cloud ~2 mile thick layer of air pollution, burnt fossil fuels Keiretsu Japanese business network facilitated after WWII by the Japanese government in order to promote national recovery Great Leap Forward (Mao Zedong) Special economic zones cheap land and labor, tax breaks - SE coast (Xiamen, Shantou, Shenzhen, Hong Kong, Macao, Zhuhai) Child labor work in china, cheap labor Female infanticide abandoning girls, cannot carry on the family name 38 Parallel border between North and South Korea (most heavily militarized border) Asian Tigers South Korea economy (Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore) 1. What are the factors that contribute to the aridity of the Tibetan Plateau? elevation, elevated flat area 2. Discuss the features of the Tibetan Plateau. What process explains the topography of other regions? elevated flat area orographic effect: cuts off rain to west and northwest, cool summers and very cold winters Turfan depression 505 ft below sea level 3. What type of climate is in the northeast part of East Asia? Continental midlatitude 4. Describe the climate and vegetative characteristics of the southern and western parts of this region. Western: low precipitation = low vegetation, harsh, dry, arid climate Southern: tropical and humid, rice ponds and rice plants 5. Discuss total and per capita greenhouse gas emissions of the U.S., China, and Japan. Total carbon dioxide emissions (2006): China: 6.2 billion tons Increasingly urbanized and the transportation, construction, lifestyle demands associated with that U.S.: 5.8 billion tons Japan: 1.2 billion tons Now, carbon dioxide emissions per person (capita): U.S.: > 24 tons/year Japan: > 9 tons/year China: ~ 3 tons/year 6. What are the 2 most wellknown mountains of the Himalayas? Mt. Everest and K2 7. What 2 tectonic plates caused the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau? Indian Australian and Eurasian 8. Where does most of the population of East Asia live? Inner China, Korean Peninsula, Japan & Taiwan 9. What makes the Japanese islands so vulnerable to natural disasters such as earthquakes? Junction of 3 tectonic plates ~ 1000 earthquakes/year Eurasian, Philippine, & Pacific 10. Discuss the event of March 11, 2011 in Japan. 4 largest earthquake Honshu, Japan 30 ft wave tsunami 9.0 magnitude 100’s killed, fires, northeast nuclear PP evacuated 11. What region located in the Ring of Fire has not yet experienced a major earthquake since 1960? Juan de Fuca: California (Cascadian region) 12. What causes flooding to be such a huge problem in the heavilypopulated North China Plain? silt builds up on riverbeds and changes direction of the rivers water regularly breaks through banks and floods 13. Discuss the largest engineering project in the history of the world, the Three Gorges Dam project. What does it symbolize? What are the advantages and disadvantages it brings to the Yangtze River area? symbolizes China has arrived as industrial power advantages: provide hydroelectric power, spread out population, control flooding disadvantages: garbage island, endemic species endangered, history submerged 14. Discuss the importance of the Yangtze (Chang Jiang) River to the area. rd 3 largest river, opens up central china to industrialization 15. Describe life for those in the Tibetan Plateau. challenged by tectonic activity, destroys land very poor, pastoralists and farmers indicative of landscape/climate get essentials from animals (food and clothing) 16. How do people live in Mongolia, the Gobi Desert, and the rest of northwestern China? mainly farming with large irrigation systems (wheat and veggies) large industry based on minerals (oil, coal, copper, lead, uranium) 17. What region best signifies the traditional Chinese landscape going back centuries? Guangxi Basin of southern China 18. What is the impact of the Green Revolution in East Asia? (Norman Borlaug) new seeds = more food on less land requires lots of fertilizer and water 2x fertilizer in China = pesticide poisoning in water 19. Name 2 threatened species of East Asia. Giant Pandas and Tigers 20. Discuss the effects of the Asian Brown Cloud in East Asia’s megacities. What is the extent of this cloud? ~ 2 mile thick layer of air pollution (burning of fossil fuels) sunlight lowered 1015% decline in crop production acid rain, changes in rainfall 21. Discuss the highs and lows of the Japanese economy since World War 2. High: 1950’s 80’s Low: since 1990’s 10% annual growth economy stagnant, manufactured cars and TV’s recovering global recession savings from Keiretsu Companies outsourcing to China 22. Discuss the illfated Chinese economic experiment initiated by Mao Zedong, the Great Leap Forward. plan to accelerate the pace of economic growth planners were only concerned with increasing overall production little attention given if there was a demand for the crop or whether the crops were a good match for the land 23. Describe the ways in which the Chinese economy is altogether different today. Agrarian industrialization special economic zones: cheap labor and cheap land, attracts US/Europe companies child labor 24. Discuss general conditions in North Korea today. ~ 23 million isolated, secretive central planning overemphasizes military spending sanctions have kept economy weak and people in poverty committed to King Jong Un and communist party estimated 150,000 prisoners listening to foreign radio broadcasts = punished by death 25. Discuss reasons for the much greater affluence and living conditions in South Korea compared to North Korea. focused on import substitution, labor intensive Asian Tiger economy: success with very strong state regulation over capitalist economy personal income 10x than that of North Korea ~ 49 million 26. Discuss the “onechild only” policy initiated in the 1970s by China. instituted population control limited # of children depending on where they lived (urban, rural) urban: 1 rural: 2 ethnic minorities: up to 3 27. What are living conditions like for the people of Japan? ~ 128 million very crowded, mountainous regions in Honshu Tokyo is the most populous (>35 million) most people live with their parents because housing is too expensive, lack of space aging population, population is decreasing (old people croak) trash picked up 4x/week South Asia: rural agrarian society Monsoons seasonal reversal of win flows, lots of rain High pressure : winter cold and dry stable atmosphere, clear skies with light winds clockwise/out: move away from pressure area clockwise rotation out to sea starts in Siberia with cold and dry and moves down Low pressure: summer, wet and monsoons Instable atmosphere, cloudy skies with strong winds Moisture bearing winds move into land causing precipitation Counterclockwise/in Tropical climate: warm with much rain yearround island regions and coastlines Humid subtropical climate: southeast, more wet and humid than Mediterranean due to trade winds Northern India and the Mountain Rim Arid climate: just north and south of equator, most of world’s deserts NW of India, Pakistan and Afghanistan Terracing: creation of stepped, and reinforced flat agriculture fields cut into steep slopes in order to stabilize the crop from soil erosion from rainfall and mountainous areas Intercropping: (sugarcane) the mixing of different crop species with varying degrees of productivity and drought tolerance Millet: a fastgrowing cereal plant that is widely grown in warm countries and regions with poor soils. The numerous small seeds are used to make flour or alcoholic drinks. only needs a few good rainfalls to grow Typhoons: a tropical storm in the region of the Indian or western Pacific oceans Malaria: mosquitoborne disease as a parasite, left untreated leads to death fever, chills, and flulike symptoms Yellow fever: disease in tropics from mosquito bite fever, chills, headache, back pain, vomiting, fatigue, at worst jaundice and bleeding Dengue fever: painful, debilitating, mosquito borne disease in the tropics fever, headaches, pain behind eyes, muscle ache, rashes, vomiting Distributaries river branch that flows away from the main stream spill into deltas and plains and causing wide flooding Deltas: deposit at the mouth of a river Arsenic contamination: surface and ground water contaminated with arsenic Tube wells: usually lined with cement, durable and stable so the wells can go deeper in the ground Sundarbans beautiful untouched mangrove and tropical swamp forest home to crocodiles and largest population of Bengal tigers Bengal tigers: critically endangered, 30004000 left in the world Orographic effect moist air from the sea to lift up and condense, producing heavy rainfall Northern hills and uplands ~ monsoons Informal economy: economic activities that take place beyond official record and not subject to formulated systems of regulation or remuneration Street vending, shoeshining, street corner repairs, scavenging in garbage dump roadside beefselling, cracking stones, other unskilled labor Dowry: money, goods, estate that a daughter brings to a marriage Zero population growth: demographic state where the number of births match the number of deaths in a population, no natural population growth occurs Metropolis: a very large and densely populated industrial and commercial city. Islam: Afghanistan (99%) Bangladesh (>80%) Pakistan (~80%) Hinduism: Nepal (90%) and India (80%) Buddhism: ~2% of the population Caste: system of kinship groupings that is reinforced by language, religion and occupation Grameen Bank: provides hope with small loans to rural poor in Bangladesh provides benefit to bank and borrowers, usually women loans such as cows for milking, or sewing machines to increase productivity Review Questions 1. Be able to describe the reasons behind and characteristics of the winter, spring and summer seasons in South Asia. winter cool and mostly dry: high pressure systems from north and over Himalayas spring hot and most dry: low pressure system, hot air converges and surface and rises summer wet: low pressure systems/jet streams move north into land from Indian Ocean 2. Why is this monsoonal climate pattern so important to the people of this region? rural people organize agriculture, time seeds and determine when to harvest crops 3. Describe and locate the climate types seen in South Asia. tropical in the island regions and coastlines Humid subtropical across northern India to the Mountain Rim Arid in the northwest of India (Pakistan and Afghanistan) 4. Discuss the negative impact of a disruption in the monsoon season for millions of people. millions of people face water shortages and crop failure monsoons are uneven and unpredictable, some villages get rainfall while others don’t 5. Describe the ways in which people have adapted to the challenges the monsoons bring. maximize efficient use of soils and water different farming methods: terracing and intercropping Green Revolution: which crops grow best different seasons, more water and fertilizer (wheat and corn) (water quality decreased) 6. What are the impacts (basically all negative) that climate change has brought to South Asia? extremes of climate are becoming more extreme weather is more variable rainfall is more intense (monsoons) with heavy flooding more hurricanes = warm weather = mosquitos = malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever 7. Discuss the characteristics of the Mountain Rim. Several mountain ranges in a 1,500 mile long arc Himalayas still rising Valleys have good source of soil (corn, wheat, apricot, walnut orchards) isolated settlements, independent tribes, Buddhist monasteries 8. Discuss the characteristics of the Plains region. 3 major river systems: Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra snow and ice melt feeds rivers Flooding is normal Farmers rely on irrigation to water crops 9. Discuss the characteristics of the Peninsular Highlands and Coastal Fringe regions. Peninsular highlands: broad plain with hills on either side (Decan Lava Plateau) Coastal Fringe: product of marine deposits and marine erosion lots of vegetation during monsoon season (Malabar Coast, SW Sri Lanka) contains many of SE Asia’s largest cities (old British trading posts) Kolkata (Calcutta); Mumbai (Bombay); Chennai; Karachi, Pakistan; Colombo, Sri Lanka 10. Flooding is a tremendous problem in heavilypopulated areas of South Asia as well. Discuss. 11. Discuss the background and ongoing problem of arsenic contamination to the water for tens of millions of people in the region. surface water in 70’s contained bacteria that killed >250K children/year high rates of lung, bladder, and skin cancer tube wells are lined with cement and more durable to go deeper groundwater that is drawn up in wells contains arsenic 12. Describe the relationship between the ecosystem people and those from commerce and industry. live at subsistence levels but in ways that sustain the environment 400500 million people 13. Discuss environmental degradation in India and its economic cost to the country. exhausting the environment, forest, soil and water resources water tables falling (Punjab, Haryana, Tamil Nadu) forestry, mining, construction Environmental degradation costs India $13.8 billion/year in lost productivity 14. Describe the historical relationship between Britain and India through the midtwentieth century. -British came to rule all of SE Asia by 1890, with its trading companies plantation crops to export: coconuts, coffee, cotton, rubber, tea, etc. taxes enforced, lead to indentured servants repressive, aggressive, dictator rule from Britain Ghandi formed National Congress Party = freedom and democracy Satyagraha: nonviolent civil disobedience march in 1930 Britain withdrew from India in 1947 15. Discuss the inequities of the economy in India. software industry in south India Bangalore: hub for science and technology in India Airplanes, radios, TV’s 16. Describe poverty conditions for so many in India and all of South Asia. ~ 540 million people in India (45% of its population) live on < $1/day Street vending, shoeshining, street corner repairs, scavenging in garbage dump roadside beefselling, cracking stones, other unskilled labor illiteracy, life expectancy is low 17. Discuss the sacrifices women make in Indian society and what is being done to combat it. work long hours, hard labor, run household, mothering and domestic responsibilities provide dowry, anything they earned up until marriage given to husband (money, estate) restricted rights for property, education, waged labor Grameen Bank: small loans to rural poor in Bangladesh 96% borrowers are women to buy cows, sewing machines helps to give push for better work, more benefit 18. Describe the demographics of South Asia. Where does most of its population reside? Total population: 1.64 billion India: 1.2 billion Greatest concentration of population from the upper Indus Plains and the Ganga Plains through Bengal and the Assam Valley; much of the coastal fringe (West and East Ghatts) zero population growth in India good development, high levels of literacy, high work force 19. Where does a greater percentage of South Asia’s population reside? a greater percentage is rural (Mumbai, Karachi) 20. Discuss differences in population growth amongst the areas of India. In what region is there a clear sign of encouragement on this issue for the country and globally? population growth in rural areas where there is a high percentage of poverty, illiteracy, and diseases southern India, more developed, is slowing to zero population growth which is allowing the area to develop helping with health care and infant mortality rates, increasing literacy rates and employment 21. What are the 2 most important religions in South Asia? In what countries is each of these 2 religions dominant? Hinduism: Nepal (90%) and India (80%) Islam: Afghanistan (99%) Bangladesh (>80%) Pakistan (~80%) 22. What is a major barrier to communication in India related to its hundreds of languages? 400 languages/dialects spoken by 200,000 or more no single language is spoken or understood by >40% 23. Briefly discuss the major conflicts continuing to percolate in South Asia. What is the U.S. involvement in these conflicts, if any? Kashmir fought over by India and Pakistan Afghanistan and Pakistan nuclear tension AlQaeda and Taliban , Osama Bin Laden Civil War in Sri Lanka: oppression of Tamil people
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