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AMH 2020 Midterm Notes

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Weeks 1-8
American History 1877-Present
Dr. Noll
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in American History 1877-Present

Popular in History

This 49 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jocelyn on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to AMH 2020 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Noll in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see American History 1877-Present in History at University of Florida.


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Date Created: 02/23/16
Wednesday, February 24, 2016 Midterm Compilation AMH 2020 Week 2 Reconstruction: What is the key issue? - Amendments - Still in 2010, 2 Ls are still important LAND AND LABOR April 1865: Civil War is over and Abraham Lincoln will be dead in a week - Now let’s put the nation back together: Reconstruction - What are we reconstructing? 1. The South physically because it has been decimated from four years of war i.e. Richmond and Columbia look like they’ve been bombed. Infrastructure and banking is destroyed economically and physically. 2. Restore the nation: bring back those 11 states that seceded. What political things do we have to do to get them back into the nation? - The North is going to amend the constitution to prevent this stuff from happening again 3. Slavery: by the end of the civil war the war was being fought for two reasons: to restore the nation and to end slavery. Now with the war over, slavery is done. 4 million slaves are now free. We don't know what they are, and we don't know if they are going to be full fledged citizens. In 1865, slaves are worth 2.5 billion dollars which is worth 40 billion dollars in 2016 - Citizens have: • The right to vote • Property • Serve of jury • Legally marry • Right to quit a job that they don't like 1 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 - Where do we reconstruct? • Washington D.C. • On the ground in the South - What do black people want? • Land and Labor - How are they going to get it? • The government is going to grant land to them • The government wants to punish slaveowners to prevent secession - Why do they feel they deserve to have this land? • They worked on it! • 40 acres and mule and they’ll be set for life! • They made Carnegie’s factory what is was! - But first, • The government has to take away the land • Grant it to foreigners - We can’t do that because… Capitalism: free market • • Land is not granted to African Americans • About 10% of African Americans did manage to scrape up their own money • Land = independence (what about the other 90%) - African Americans pushed for having the right to vote to elect people that will help accomplish their goals - They also want the ability to move around - Why would you move? 2 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 • Economic opportunity • Maybe people in the North are more accepting of you as a black person • Looking for family members because they’ve been sold all over the place AKA personal relations - Why don’t whites want that? • If you stay on the plantation where you were, you won’t be my slave because that’s not legal but they can still use you for labor When blacks do move, whites think they are moving because now that they're free • they think that they'd be too lazy to work and that they'd only be able to work by force • Whites talk about blacks leaving in terms of vagrancy: moving about from place to place with no ties - Lincoln (Northern Republican) is assassinated in April 1865: new president is Andrew Johnson who is a Southern Democrat (they were basically opposites and never talked) • Even though he stays in the union, there is something more profound: he is a racist. He doesn't think that blacks are capable of owning their own land and participating in government. The only thing he knows is that blacks aren't slaves but he doesn't want them to • have any input. - So what’s next? • 13th Amendment: Slavery is to be abolished • Johnson has allowed these states to come back and reconstruct their governments • Southern states apply to be in the Union again in December of 1865 Alexander Stevens elected by Georgia as a representative in Congress: • FORMER VICE PRESIDENT OF THE CONFEDERACY LOL awkward OMFG WTF • Although slavery is abolished, we are going to make laws in our states that bring African Americans as close to slavery as possible 3 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 • Black Codes are established in 1865: although we recognize that slavery is abolished, we are NOT going to recognize that African Americans are citizens. They are trying to keep the same system as before without slavery. • Northern politicians go crazy. Andrew Johnson says that slavery is abolished and states are back in the union, so lets move on. But African Americans are still lacking. • Fight: Johnson vs. Republicans - Black Codes are illegal according to Northern politicians. African Americans need education and help and finding their spouse. - Freedmen’s Bureau: setting up schools and job placement places and a way fro Blacks to get help. Congress overrides Johnson’s veto. - Congress establishes a new form of Reconstruction in the South: MILITARY RECONSTRUCTION: 1867 • Congress overrides veto again, and in 1868, Congress impeaches him • The Senate tries him but he is NOT found guilty • Congress now has the power in the South and is going to do 2 things: - 14th Amendment 1868: gives citizenship and equal protection and due process - 15th Amendment 1870: voting can not be abridged by color - AKA the Reconstruction Amendments including 13th: Abolish Slavery - WHITE Southerners are pissed 4 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 5 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 Day 2 Overview Reconstruction - Land and Labor • Origins of sharecropping - Politics and Black Population - White Responses - End of Reconstruction: Compromise of 1877 - Beginning of Redemption and Jim Crow - The Blacks are guaranteed these opportunities/amendments from federal presence • Troops/Federal soldier(s The federal presence antagonizes whites and gives black people hope) • Freedsmen’s Bureau: provides job opportunities - Sharecropping: eventually will become an institution of oppression towards blacks but arises where blacks have some opportunity and solves both people’s problems. White gets blacks to work for them and The South begin to grow cotton. (King +) because it is going to be grown in places it was never grown before. • When reckoning day comes, (cotton arises) they take the share of their cotton and give it to the owner of the big house and then they get paid • Whites get to have blacks work their land - 1860: under control of the owner of the big house - 1870: no longer live in quarters in communal areas and each black community has a part of land belonging to them to farm/rent - If cotton prices are down, how can we make some money by growing cotton? • Grow more cotton • The more cotton we grow, the less it’s worth • Ex slaves are going to make the least amount of money 6 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 - White Southerners would say what? • Let’s get out of growing cotton because it’s not making as much money - But why do they stay in this business? • They’d still rather be controlling the lives of African Americans - By the 1880s, the system becomes systematically controlled by blacks - If you get into debt, you can’t: Buy land • • African Americans remain not slaves but tied to the land • During this system 10% actually attain land - What else gives blacks rights besides economic independence? • Voting Reconstruction 1865-1877 - Blacks are voting! 70-80% of all eligible because to them it matters - They are voting Republican: the party that freed the slaves: associated with Lincoln (and Jesus of course) - Who makes up Southern Republicans? • Freedmen • Poor, white southerners • Northern whites that come down to the South after the Civil War - Why would they come down? To implement their ideas! Idealistic: to help blacks. - Southerners land was destroyed so they see opportunity to buy their land: economic opportunity. “I’ve got money and they need money.” Northerner - Poor Southerners are seen as traitors to their race: Scalawags because they are helping blacks - Northern whites are known as Carpetbaggers 7 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 - African Americans are winning and they are holding office • Dozens of African Americans are holding power in many states locally and nationally although none are governors. Specifically positions dealing with education. - In Florida, ex slave Josiah T. Walls serves Florida in Washington D.C. in 1870-1876 - Mississippi has 2 Black Senators: • Black man, former slave, Hiram Revels IRONIC because the last person to hold that seat was Jefferson Davis (AKA • President of the Confederacy) - Guy moves from Philadelphia to Tallahassee to become Florida’s Education Secretary: Jonathan Gibbs - What do you need to build up an education system from the ground up? • MONEY - How are they going to get it? • TAXES • The problem is that people don't like to pay taxes, especially if you’re a wealthy white Southerner • Whites feel that this is money badly spent and Whites in the Democratic party begin to try to remove Republicans from power by: - WINNING THE ELECTIONS - But they can’t do that with the federal presence in the South - As Reconstruction continues, Northerners support begins to diminish AKA WHITE SUPPORT WANES • They already sent people to the South • They already won a war • They passed 13, 14, and 15th Amendments 8 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 • “We’ve done everything we could. Now we can leave. OUR JOB IS OVER.” - How can we gain control? (Southern Democrats) • Instill fear - April 1873 in Colfax, Louisiana: Colfax Massacre • Government was overthrown by Southern Democrats and takes the black community and destroys it • White southerners believe that the blacks got what they deserve and that things are back to normal (blacks at the bottom) - September 18, 1876 in Hamburg, NC: Hamburg Massacre • 7 Senators are killed, one of them is white • Only a monument exists for the white guy because he died “to defend Anglo-Saxon ideals” - By 1876, every Southern state except South Carolina, Louisiana and Florida are returned back to Democratic rule - 1876 Election: Democrat: Tilden vs Republican: Hayes • Tilden wins popular vote • We aren’t sure who wins the election because of those 3 states - Commission is held to decide the electoral votes for these states - In March, 8 to 7 the commission decides that they all voted Republican for the election, causing Hayes to win: WHITE SOUTHERNERS ARE PISSED - TO COMPENSATE: • ALL STATES ARE CONTROLLED BY DEMOCRATIC RULE • NO SOLDIERS • BLACKS ARE SCREWED - What is this time now called? Redemption for White Democrats… 9 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 Industrialization: Late 1800s, Early 20’s - How do we measure it - 2 Major Industries • Steel • Railroads - Technology and Consolidation - Why Consolidation seems contradictory - Wells EC final submission: Sat. 1/23 (in between 1st and 2nd on University) Gilded Age: “covered in gold” begins 1874 - Industrialization correlates to excess • Large houses • Biltmore • Industrialists, capitalists, entrepreneurs, or robber barons • Robber baron has a negative connotation because it sounds like they are making their money by exploiting others - There’s 3 ways to lie: Big lies, Small lies, and Statistics: • GNP- The sum total of things in the American economy - In 1869 it is $9 billion - In 1900 it is $37 billion - Why did this happen? • NO High Inflation, YES Population Growth - In 1870 it is 40 million people - In 1900 it is 76 million people 10 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 • GNP/Person - In 1870, $223 - In 1900, $496 • Economic Growth Rate - Economy grows on average 5.2%/year - However, there are fluctuations in the economy! - Depressions in the late 19th century were known as panics - Panic of 1873 and Panic of 1893 - Panic of 1893 is the largest economic downturn before the Great Depression - Much of the growth during this time period can be attributed to government policy of the Republican Party • High tariffs • Grants to railroads • Homestead Act - THE MOST economic growth is in the private sector as opposed to the public sector though • Steel • Railroads - Steel is an alloy: a metal mixed with other metals to make it stronger. Both lighter and stronger than iron, the metal it is mainly made out of. - In order to manufacture steel, it was very time consuming and expensive. But but this time, technology has allowed steel to become cheap and inexpensive to manufacture. Bessemer Process • • Open Heart Furnace Andrew Carnegie 11 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 • Steel production: In 1870, US produces 10,000 tons • By 1900, 10 million tons of steel • Largest producer of steel in the world, surpassing the entire production of England and Germany Also the age of railroad equipment and track - Market Revolution • Key factor is transportation • In 1810, key to transportation was canals • In 1970, key to transportation was railroads - In 1860, on the eve of the Civil War, there is approximately 28,000 miles of railroad track - In 1870, 53,000 miles of railroad track for getting equipment to soldiers during wartime - In 1880, 83,000 miles - In 1890, 150,000 miles - In 1900, 207,000 miles - In 1917, 254,000 miles In 1869, Transcontinental Railroad stretching from Omaha to San Francisco • Symbolic gesture where both points meet is known as the Golden Spike • Now the US is connected from the East Coast to the West Coast • Railroads become the most important organization of industrialization - Time: more efficient way of travel as opposed to walking or horse - Scheduling is profoundly important because of time zones. That wasn’t the same before because each city had its own time based on the sun. That made standardization for train times and scheduling very difficult. 12 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 - In 1883, the nation deals with the issue of time. Standardized time zones are born. - A private corporation as the Railroad has such influence over America because they controlled the time with standardization - Track gauges: the width between the rails • In 1860, there are 23 different gauges in America • The largest railroads impose their gauge on everyone else • In 1886, the railroads tell everyone that in 2 days, everyone will have a standard track gauge and if your railroad wants to connect to the network, you’re going to have to change your gauge to be a part of business and the national network - The American economy is changing as we are moving from agriculture to industry - Agriculture is the main focus into the 1880s • Agricultural acreage doubles from 1860-1900 • 1860: 6 million acres, 1900: 10 million acres • Percentage of farmers is decreasing because in 1860, 53% define themselves as farmers and in 1900, 40% define themselves as farmers • Production still increased 50% How does that happen? - NEW TECHNOLOGY: plow, tractors, etc. - New forms of farm machinery allow production to increase exponentially - In 1860, for every $1 produced, 56 cents produced in agriculture - By 1900, for every $1 produced, 31 cents produced in agriculture The government has little intervention: laissez faire 13 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 - Business works better if government stays out of the picture - Business does like government money, however - This time is typically about the relationship between the government and railroads because they need money and land - The government is going to grant this land to railroad entrepreneurs • They can sell it to people who want to buy land near railroad • They can use this money as collateral for loans - 1870-1910 the government grants a total of 131 million dollars in land - Railroads are taking land that is unoccupied and unproductive and turning it into profit that benefit the nation as a whole - Laissez faire is contradictory because businesses still want the government’s money • Only counts when we don’t want or need the government to interfere - Unions can use strikes - Businesses are getting larger • Businesses want to control the market to make more money How do we control the market? Monopoly • • The essence of capitalism is competition • On one hand, businesses want to control the market but there’d be no competition Consolidating - Corporation - Concerns - Workers - Contradiction within capitalism is that capitalism is supposed to be about competition but large corporations tend to move towards monopoly because it makes them get more money. It’s about control and profitability. Competition does allow for less profit in the end. 14 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 Forms of Consolidation - Vertical Integration: characterized by the activities of Andrew Carnegie and his Carnegie steel corporation. By 1885, he has 80% of the steel production in America. • Controlling an entire industrial process from raw materials to distribution He buys coals fields in West Virginia, he buys iron mines in Minnesota, he buy • forests, he buys railroads, he controls mills and the production of steel all the way to distribution - Horizontal Integration: characterized by the activities of John D. Rockefeller and his corporation known as Standard oil. By the 1890s, he controls 90% of the oil in America. They are producing kerosene. • Kerosene is used for 2 things in the late 19th century: heating and lighting • What do you have to do with that crude oil to make it valuable? You have to sell it to a refinery! Without the refining process, everything that you do to take it out of the ground doesn't mean anything. • Without Rockefeller, no kerosene Other ways to obtain monopoly besides having a product: - Corporate Slates of Hand: “Sleazy" Characterization - People like Rockefeller hire lawyers to help them control the market through legal shenanigans - Rockefeller has a lawyer named Samuel Dodd • In 1882, Dodd comes up with a way for Rockefeller to control the whole process: trust • Originally, a trust is a legal mechanism that means by ways of controlling an entire industry • A trust fund is frozen until a certain period of time has passed 15 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 • Dodd wants a mega corporation: Standard Oil. With no competition, Dodd gives shares of stock in the trust to competitors and the board of trustees controls everything. • Whiskey, cigarettes, etc., all become trusts. It becomes such a powerful mechanism fro consolidating power that the government makes bills to end it known as Antitrust of 1890. - Consumers get annoyed because if the board of trustees controls the market, they also control the price • Consumers worry that they have become dependent on businesses More on corporations - In 1886, the government shows people how powerful corporations are. A corporation is a fictitious organization. It can be controlled and regulated by the government. - We don't want government to control the business because that doesn't maximize product for the corporation - We get the constitution involved with the 14th Amendment: the government, state or national, and must give the individual due process and equal protection under the law. • 14th Amendment: citizenship, due process, and equal protection, and they can't be discriminated against. Created to help the ex-slaves. - Lawyers can claim that corporations are citizens too under the 14th amendment. This means that they’d have due process and equal protection too. • Santa Clare County v.s. Southern Pacific Railroad (SPRR) • A huge victory for corporations because they are considered people too • People begin to question whether the government is in the pocket of big business and if they're acting in the best interest of the people • The Iron Law of Necessity has replaced the Golden Rule • Commonwealth of Massachusetts has been turned into the class wealth, making it unequal for all • What is business providing consumers though? Options! Americans are ambivalent about what’s going on. 16 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 Series of Writers - In a time when reading is a leisure time activity. There is no radio or television or movies yet. 4 guys in the late 19th century are writing to these corporation issues. - In 1879, Henry George writes a book called Progress and Poverty • The assumption that businesses raise everyone up is not true • In 1886, the same year of the SPRR case, Henry George runs for mayor of NYC • Doesn’t win, but gets second. He beats Theodore Roosevelt! This tell us that people respond to his writing. - In 1888, Edward Bellomy writes Looking Backward about the potential • UTOPIAN NOVEL - In 1891, Ignatius Donnelly writes a novel called Caesar’s Column, otherwise known as the first science fiction book. • DYSTOPIAN NOVEL • A cautionary tale that if we don't fix this now, this is our future. - In 1894, Henry D. Lloyd publishes one of the most muckraker books called Wealth Against Commonwealth • That wealth isn’t actually helping people • He believes that we are moving away from the ideals of the constitution that all men are created equal - Labor violence is associated with Karl Marx from Germany who writes in England • Class conflict cant take place in America because there is no class (not for long) - Industrial workers: workers who produce something • People who produced something made it by hand, one by one • In order to do that, you need skills! Otherwise known as craftsmen or artisans - We are slowly going to replace this artisan system so that stuff is standardized and cheaper rather than unique and expensive: DESKILLING: artisans-> semiskilled-> unskilled 17 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 • Deskilling is important because it leads to workers feeling unimportant and that they have less power of the work floor and shop floor and workers feeling that they are less independent and dependent on owners and entrepreneurs - How can this occur? Machines! and eventually assembly 18 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 Labor Unrest - 1877 - 1886 - 1892 - 1894 - Labor Organizing Statistics: • Average Wage in 1860 was $1/day • Average Wage in 1890 was $1.50/day • Annual Wage in 1860 was $300/year • Annual Wage in 1890 $425/year - Much of the increase in average wage in workers goes to skilled workers - Wages are up 50% by the day but not by the year because workers don't work every day - 1873-1877 people are actually losing money because of the panic In the short term, wages aren't actually increasing in comparison to the long run • over the course of 30 years - While workers are not working every day, they are working longer hours Working in bad working conditions as factory gets larger and as workers are getting • hurt on the job there is no safety net to protect them • Workers are unhappy: they blame robber barons aka large business owners • Strikes: vast majority of strikes in the late 19th century are NOT associated with unions. • 1877: 4 years of a depression so far from Panic of 1873 19 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 - Workers feel that they are especially being taken advantage of by railroads who eventually go bankrupt • Railroads are bought by individuals and they need to make a profit for their shareholders • They do this by cutting costs and paying their workers as little as possible • The “goodness” of the industry does not percolate down to the workers • Summer of 1877: workers absorb another 10% wage cut on the B & O Railroad - One person walks off their job and thousands follow: known as The Great Strike - Entrepreneurs could: • Increase their pay. They wouldn't do that though because it would be giving workers control • Use the government only because they need its help The Pennsylvania Railroad • Pittsburgh looked like it was hit by an atomic bomb and workers finally retaliate • The owner of the railroad called the Pennsylvania government for the National Guard otherwise known as the Militia in the 19th century • The Guard doesn't want to be involved because they are local people who don't want to hurt their relatives and friends So, they are going to call the federal government. This is one of the first times a • phone call was made to talk to members of the federal government. A year after the telephone was invented by Bell. • The President, Rutherford B. Hayes is going to send in the Army and they are going to shoot down workers - Many of these soldiers were stationed in the South to protect the rights of ex slaves, ironic 20 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 - They go from protecting rights of freedmen to shooting down workers in 1877 - Americans are troubled by this because there is “supposedly no class” and business is more than willing to use the army to shoot them down. This sounds more like a 3rd world country. - In the 1880s, another major confrontation occurs - In 1886, 8 hour day is fought for because they are working 12 hour days 6 days a week - 8 hours for work, 8 hours for sleep, and 8 hours for what we will - BUT, they want to be paid the same for 8 hours as they were for 12 hours • They argue that they will be just as productive - In May of 1886, workers work together at the McCormick Factory for change through a strike • McCormick is a factory of farm machinery • Workers are shot and killed, mostly from Germany - In response, two days later people get together in Chicago at a place called Haymarket Square • The German workers had anarchist beliefs, believing in violence to get their point across • Dozens of Chicago police are there to make are that nothing happens but like usually something does: - An anarchist throws a bomb and 8 cops die - The other police that weren’t shot 8 civilians - 8 anarchists leaders are arrested for conspiracy - Some of them weren't even in Haymarket at the time of the bombing - All 8 are sentenced to death, 4 are hung 21 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 - One of them kills himself with dynamite because he didn’t want the government to kill them - The other four are pardoned by the Chicago governor - Haymarket was essentially an act of terrorism - Anarchists in the past were workers and workers were always assumed to be terrorists 1892: Homestead, Pennsylvania, there is a strike in regards to control • Carnegie owns this mill • One of the last mill that still uses skilled workers who are in the union called the AA • The AA workers feel that they are partners with Carnegie because they set the hours of work and amount of pay • The AA’s contract is up in the summer of 1892 and Carnegie isn't going to compromise with them at all • Carnegie says that he is going to Europe and dissociates with what is going to happen at the mill, so he appoints Henry Frick to deal with the situation - Frick closes the mill down and builds a wall around it and brings in a whole series of hired private detectives called pinker-tons - The pinker-tons get in a huge confrontation with workers and they are forced to leave Homestead, Frick appears to have lost - Frick is going to call the government instead, the Homestead Strike is struck BUT the workers have the better reputation after this - People in New York read about what’s going on in Homestead and see this as the first step in Worker’s Revolution - Alexander Berkman and his lover Emma Goldman get involved • Berkman takes the train the Pittsburgh and tries to kill Henry Frick • Frick stays on the job. Public opinion changes dramatically and workers are now associated with terrorism. 22 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 - Carnegie feels that Frick did what he was supposed to do and Frick felt that he was made out to be the bad guy. They have a big falling out over what happened in Homestead. • Carnegie is dying and he wants to make amends, and Frick says that he’ll see him in hell. How sweet! Labor Strikes 1. Great Strike of 1877: Railroads 2. Haymarket 1886: Chicago bomb thrown, policemen and anarchists shot down-"all workers are anarchists” 3. Homestead 1892: the strike about power and control of the steel mill. Carnegie wins the strike and workers have no power and control. • Hush O’Donnell is a second generation Irish immigrant that represents ambivalence about activism. He owns a home in homestead which is unusual for workers because he saved up money. He votes Republican, the party of the capitalist class. (he wants to be like them) He represents ambivalence for capitalism, individualism, and communitarianism. • Piano is the middle class representation respectability which he has in his house. • He is also working in conjunction with the union and he goes out on the strike with them. Upon this, he loses his hopes of being considered middle class. He cares about workers as a class, but he care about moving on up. He does not succeed in moving forward. As a communitarian, he loses his house and job. 4. Pullman 1894: One year after the Panic of 1893. It was the largest economic depression in American history before the Great Depression. • Pullman is a factory outside Chicago in which workers made railroads cars that people can travel smoothly and safely. He builds a factory to design these cars and builds an entire city around which to manufacture these cars, Pullman. 23 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 • He’s going to cut wages so workers are stuck. He’s not going to cut rent prices for workers at the same time. If they can’t pay the rent, they are thrown out of their house. • The summer of 1894, they go out on strike. Lead by a man who is heading a union called ARU called Eugene Debs, a homegrown socialist. We have workers all over the country. It shuts down the transportation infrastructure. • It’s a nationwide boycott/job shut down of every railroad that uses Pullman cars. What’s Pullman going to do? He's going to call the governor of Illinois who has pardoned the last four of the Haymarket anarchists. He’s obviously no help. Pullman going to call the federal government instead. 1. TROOPS. They are going to send in troops who believe that workers are interfering with national service. They are going to break the strike with violence. 2. LEGAL. He calls the attorney general of the United States who happens to be a former railroad attorney. He’s going to listen to the demands of people like Pullman. Debs was sent to jail and then ran for president when he came out of jail. • They got the government to pass Anti-trust legislation “in restraint of trade” called the Sherman Anti Trust Act of 1890 first used in 1894. It is passed to help workers to curve the practice of business. Results - Every time they strike, they lose. - How can workers respond? Business has been consolidated and gotten bigger. Workers can similarly organize. - AA Labor Organizations - Knights of Labor: by the late 1870s it grows to a large national organization led by Terence Powderly. Powderly is a charismatic speaker. Workers can operate as a class and can succeed in America by participating in politics. - Powderly sees workers as producers. Everybody who is a worker who produces stuff is eligible to join the union. 24 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 - Men, women, blacks, whites, immigrants, natives, skilled and unskilled - Has to show that by joining the union, they will actually achieve tangible results. You’re willing to join it because they’re winning. 500,000 people are members by 1886, but that number continuously drops. - The goal was to improve workers as a class - Haymarket also happens in 1886 and people think that all workers are anarchists. Those things together allow the Knights of Labor to fall. Ideas of the Knights of Labor are utopian. But workers are prejudiced. - American Federation of Labor led by Samuel Gompers. He has seen what happened in New York in the Great Strike of 1877. - The best way to work out for yourself to consolidate with people that work just like you. It’s a series of craft unions made up of skilled workers. - They care about bread and butter unionism. - The goal was to improve workers individually. They yearned to accomplish this by increasing wages, improving hours, and things that could improve “your” life rather than workers as a class. This is all about the relationship between the workers and their boss. - By 1890, there are 450,000 workers in AFL. They re fighting a battle because work is changing through deskilling. A new class of workers, immigrants, is going to fill the skilled and semi skilled jobs. - 14 million people immigrate to the United between 1880 and 1900. - Another 14 million people immigrate between 1900 and 1920. - They come for political freedom, economic opportunity, and religious freedom. Before 1880, 80% of immigrants that come to American are from Western and Northern Europe. - Americans don't necessarily want them here, but we need them to do jobs. - Immigrants came to America because they thought the streets were paved with gold, but the streets were not paved at all and they had to pave them. 25 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 26 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 Immigration - Changing from history to sociology - Becoming Americans - Switching Gears Completely: Indians & the Unintended Consequence of Return - From 1880-1920 many people come over because • Pull (opportunity) • Push (bad conditions at home) - Americans are profoundly ambivalent about their arrival We need them because they are willing to do the work Americans are not willing to • do • We don't want them because they are strange, different, smelly, and speak other languages • Americans can complain about lots of things, but they can’t say that immigrants are lazy because they are willing to work in the worst conditions - Immigrants come here by steamboat • By the 1890s, many people that couldn't come before now can because the price is cheaper • There is also knowledge of what is going on in America • Vast majority of European immigrants go to New York, specifically Ellis Island - Ellis Island is a gatekeeping place or immigration station that people need to check in before having access to America • Steamboats have awful conditions with barely no room or respect for personal space similar to Grog House 27 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 Ellis Island is built in 1893 • Before this, immigrants go into NYC without regulation • Ellis Island is as much about keeping people out as keeping people in • They are trying to keep out old people and sick people who can spread diseases. The eye disease that they checked for was trachoma by whipping up eyelids. They also don't want criminals, disabled people, lazy people, anarchists, communists, radicals, and stupid people (feeble minded). • The tests administered toward the “feeble minded” are in English, so obviously they wouldn't perform well • They also administer IQ tests which are supposed to measure your general intelligence; however, they actually test cultural phenomenon that immigrants wouldn't know about - Only about 10% of those who are screened are not allowed to come - They get sent back, and the steamship company has to pay for it - People are screened in Europe before they even get on the boat Why do immigrants already know where they want to go? - They already know someone here! - This is known as chain migration because it’s about kin networks, community networks, and church networks because you feel comfortable. - Birds of passage tells us that immigration across the atlantic is not simply always a one way phenomenon. They are people that travel back and forth across the Atlantic. A lot of people work hard here and then go back home OR help relatives come back with them. - About 1/3 people that come over, also go back What do immigrants have to do once they are here? - Most of them are going to end up in urban settings that are known as urban ghettos - The goal of immigrants is to become Americans through assimilation and by doing so they are immediately becoming an American as soon as they get off the ship 28 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 - The correct term is actually acculturation, Americans will come into America on their own terms and integrate on their own time. Acculturation assumes that they want to become Americans but they want to maintain the relationship with what they had before. 2 groups of people are going to help in this process 2. “Functional level: I can do something for these immigrants and they can do something for me.” Politicians of the Democratic Party are going to help get people jobs, and in turn, the immigrants are going to vote for them. This type of relationship is known as machine politics. - Big example of machine politics is Boss Tweed in Tammany Hall - Political parties can also give immigrants money or especially turkeys on Thanksgiving to earn their vote - Political parties function as a safety net during this process in exchange for votes - For this to work, voting actually has to happen and can’t be secret. No secret ballots so the democratic politicians can make sure that immigrants vote for who they tell them to. 2. Women social reformers: People like Jane Addams who work in settlement houses like Hull House. - The settlement house works to ensure the transition from work to America by teaching them to forget their culture - The implicit assumption of someone that their culture is wrong and that the American culture is better. - Jane Addams fights strenuously against democratic politicians so manipulative people like Boss Tweed don't get all the power and money What are Indians by the late nineteenth century? - They are “in the way” of America - We make them move to reservations and we kill them - However, women social reformers see the way we are treating Indians and want to do something about it. 29 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 - So, in 1882, a women social reformer named Helen Hunt Jackson writes a book called A Century of Dishonor - In 1884, the Indian Rights Association (IRA) is created and its members consists of social reformers and not one Native American is on it - “To be an American, they have to dress like an American.” - Native Americans are shipped to boarding schools, the most famous athlete there being Jim Thorpe The West - Unintended consequences of good intentions - End of the Frontier • 1890: Wounded Knee • 1893: Turner Native Americans - White people force their beliefs and looks onto the Indian people so that they will bring these “positive influences” back to their culture - White people are turning Native Americans into white capitalists - Independent white men: landowner/farmer also known as Yeomen - Jefferson believes that Yeomen are the backbone of America: ironic because he himself used slaves since he didn’t want to get his hands dirty - Indians are going to be taught to be independent farmers; however, this is irrelevant as we are moving towards a more industrial time and we are giving them land they we don't want Government Involvement - In the 1880s, the Indians Rights Association decides that they want to turn Native Americans into independent farmers • So, In 1887, they pass the Dawes Act or the Severalty Act or the General Allotment Act - How do Indians own this land since their reservations are owned by the tribe? 30 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 • The acts listed above are going to break up the land and give 160 acres/family for them to cultivate • After 25 years of cultivating, the federal government will give them a deed pronouncing them a landowner. This stinks because the land we give to them probably isn't even arable. • The acts breaks up the land into individual parcels but eventually the land is going to end up in the hands of the white people • The Dawes Act/Boarding Schools destroys the notion of the tribe and significantly decreases the amount of land that Indians have on their reservations. End of Confrontation - 1880s, Native Americans develop a new religion called the Ghost Dance developed by a man named Wovoka - Wovoka was raised by white missionaries though, influencing the Ghost Dance to be similar to messianic Christianity - In the vision of the ghost Dance, they see a vision of the land being returned to them • The buffalo has been decimated by white people, but it the vision the buffalo has returned • It is a utopian vision • The visiting Indians want to add something to the vision: If they wear costumes and confront white people, they believe that they are invincible to white people. - Sitting Bull, the most important Indian leader at the time, (wins the Little Bighorn battle) becomes an Indian that tries to convince Europeans that Indians confronting white people is a show worth watching • He wants to go to Europe • On the Wild West show, he is actually getting paid • He is seen as a major problem by white americans when he returns supporting the Ghost Dance - December of 1890, there is a huge gun battle and Sitting Bull is now dead shot by American troops • Everyone that tried to helped Sitting Bull was either arrested or free 31 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 Battle of Wounded Knee/Wounded Knee Massacre of 1890 - Right after Sitting Bull was killed, white people surround these Indians and ask them to surrender. Native Americans are mowed down and many women and children are shot down. - Marks the end of concerted conflict between whites and Native Americans on the front because they are just going to kill - The frozen body of Big Foot is left there and it marks the end of conflict Turner 1893 - At the World’s Fair, historian named Frederick Jackson Turner writes “The Significance of the Frontier in American History” - The Frontier is this line that is constantly moving westward and it gives • Democracy • Freedom • Opportunity - The irony is that we took all of the land from somebody else - With the Frontier gone, is democracy, freedom, and opportunity going to be gone too? • They are going to look overseas to become an imperial power for the first time - The idea of the West is this idea of America’s uniqueness but now that it’s gone, we might rethink it - We were imperialists all along just on our own continent Late nineteenth century cont’d - While this is still going on, Yeoman farmers are hurt because crop prices are diminishing. If prices are diminishing: • You can grow more crops • You can stop farming - Thousands of farming move aside for more economic opportunity - Farmers are hurting for two reasons: 32 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 • Their self-esteem is being crushed • They are hurt economically - The farmers blame their problems on two large groups of people: • Bankers (because farmers are in significant debt because the need to borrow money from the bank) • Railroads: farmers are no longer growing crops for their own benefits completely and to get their good to market they have to use the railroad which is way over the price that they should be spending - How are we going to fix this? • Government is the solution because big businesses are the problem • We can regulate the railroads so that they don't charge rates that are bad for us We can regulate banks so that they don't charge irregular amounts of business • Grange - Grange is a group of farmers organized together that pass a set of laws known as the Granger laws to regulate the prices that railroads can charge to farmers - Railroads take the Granger laws to court in 1877 in Munn v.s. Illinois and they rule that the state has the right to rule railroad rates, a big victory for farmers • Railroads are gong to find a way to get this overturned. Nine years later in a case of Wabash v.s. Illinoi,sthe court overturns itself and declares this unconstitutional because the federal government deals with interstate commerce • If thats the case, a state cant implement laws over the federal government in regards to railroads and farmers feel betrayed - What is the US monetary system based on at this time? GOLD! • Gold has value and is stable • Farmers want a currency that is not based on gold: silver or greenbacks 33 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 • Greenback money is enlargeable but the problem is that the more you print the less it is worth: inflation - Why would anybody want inflation? • They are debtors and they love inflation since they don't have to be at the mercy of the banks • By the 1890s, farmers are going to organize to regulate business and currency 
 34 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 Populism - Imperialism? Why? - Why is the “Splendid Little War” instated? - Farmers: angry, agitated, and scared because they are losing economic, social, and political power • They have a desire to increase the currency by using silver or greenbacks rather than gold - In order to do so, they have to get involved with government • They wanted to regulate railroads - Supreme Court in 1886, regulation of railroads was not in the hands of state governments • They want to get involved in politics to elect people to do what they want - “It is time to raise less corn and more hell”. How can they accomplish these things? • Go through the existing political system - Entrenched bureaucratic entities • Establish a 3rd party - Hard to break away from two party system - The first thing they do is organize in a group known as the Farmer’s Alliance in the late 1880s • Overtly political group that has 350,00-500,000 members mainly in the South and Midwest - They are going to establish a party known as the People’s Party and later known as Populists — Populism • Known to incorporate large numbers of people that is associated with farmers • They want to take away the power from big businesses and wealthy capitalists 35 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 • They have people in state legislatures December 1890: Populists meet to form a platform in Ocala, FL due to the warmth and they get cheap rates • They issue a set of demands known as Ocala Demands • They demand the abolition of national banks to receive sub treasuries, the government should establish banks by the national government, the circulating medium should be increased speedily, congress should decrease laws betting on the price, demand equal rights to all, and an income tax • Before this point, the government raised money through tariffs taxing imported goods • The money of the country should be kept in the hands of the people, honest state government and government supervision of transportation, congress amend the constitution to elect senators by the people rather than state legislatures • Before, Congress was known as the millionaires club - Federal government is going to be loaning money to farmers and the middle man has to go to the federal government • The government is going to provide a series of sub treasuries - Need to have collateral. Farmers have crops that are worth something to try to take banks out of the lending process. - Very radical idea - Farmers in the south are profoundly divided by racial grounds because of sharecropping - Populism in the South is about class - Populists believe that class trumps race : black farmers and white farmers are going to work together to get out of the system that keeps them in poverty • When push comes to shove, white farmers are going to believe that race trumps class 36 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 1892: Presidential Election with all parties running a candidate - Populist party candidate is James Weaver who only gets 23 votes - They believe they will always be a third party so they want to run under an established party to achieve votes - By 1896, the Populists decide that it is better to go through another party • To do so, they eliminate their more radical ideas such as abolishing national banks, electing senators, and income tax They are going to focus on currency and become tied to free silver • • They are going to attach themselves to the Democratic Party and essentially take over - 1893: US is in a depression due to the Panic of 1893. Democrats have a bad name at this time because democrats are blamed for the depression so they are more willing to merge. • 1896: William Jennings Bryanfrom Nebraska runs on a platform that advocates for the coinage of free silver • He runs against a man in the Republican party known as William McKinley • The Republicans win the election because Bryant is accused as a radical and communist. Populism dies throughout this election but the ideas of populism remain. - Income tax, senators need to be elected by the people, and half of the US population still can’t vote. April 15th, women can vote, and could vote for senators. - Populism as a movement fails farmers but ideas still are relevant later on European countries at this time are carving out the world (Africa and Asia) and the US feels that we have to compete with them by having a navy - The world was increasingly becoming a global market - Many people say that we don’t need to do this because America is a colony and we broke away from other ideals in Europe for a reason 37 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 - Cuba in the 1890s is owned by Spain. Spain only has Cuba and Puerto Rico at this time. - Why would we want to help the Cubans? • Cuba has great natural harbors with geopolitical importance • Cuba also has economic importance because America businessmen look at Cuba and see sugar production as something that we can control there • Cubans are in a time when they are trying to overthrow the Spanish because they are trying to do the same thing we did to England (humanitarian anti-colonial) Jose Marti reached out to America for seeking their help for Cuba • • US sends the Maine to warn the Spanish that we may be interested in going to Cuba and the Maine blows up in Havana harbor and the assumption is that the Spanish did it. American journalists push for us to avenge the death of American sailors. They are known as yellow journalists. Remember the Maine, to hell with Spain. - Yellow is about stretching the truth like Yellow Kid Imperialism Progressivism - What is it? Who supports it? - Working it out • State • Local • National - Yellow Journalism • 4/1898 Spanish American War (-Cuban War) - Treaty of Paris • Cuba becomes independent 38 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 • United States acquires possessions that used to belong to Spain: US Colonies like Puerto Rico (Porto Rico), the island of Guam as a place that naval ships can reload, and the Philippines, giving us a window into Asia such as China - If we don't take the Philippines, Germany will - If we don't take over the Philippines, the “little brown brothers” won’t have our help and protection. The Philippines people feel betrayed by the US. - 1900-1905, there is a rebellion between the US and Philippines - Guantanamo Bay: another result of the Treaty of Paris - Platt Amendment: put in the Cuban constitution. If it appears that Cuba is not acting appropriating, the US can intervene. Cuba has become a colony although legally it is independent. Now, the US is a world power - Our goal is to make these people better - 1904-1914, the US builds the Panama Canal, connecting the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean Progressivism: 1900-1920 - Progressivism is an attempt to impose order through government action on a world made alien by urbanization and industrialization - While progressivism is taking place, we see the imposition of Jim Crow in the South • Laws imposed in the South to ensure that African Americans know “their place” in society Legalized segregation: public transportation, education, and accommodations, • and even separate bibles when swearing on oath • Systematic disfranchisement: blacks are being removed from being able to vote by circumventing the 15th amendment - Grandfather clause: if your grandfather didn’t vote, you can’t vote - Literacy Test: if you can’t read, you can’t vote - Poll Tax: if you can’t pay, you can’t vote 39 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 - If those laws don't work, we can use extra legal violence to prevent them from voting How are they going to change this? - They are going to sue, but the Supreme Court is going to side with whites - 1896: Plessy v.s. Ferguson Plessy sues Louisiana because he wants to test whether or not segregation is legal • “separate but equal” - 1898: Williams v.s. Mississippi, the court rules for literacy tests, poll taxes, and grandfather clauses which means that uneducated people such as blacks and poor whites are at a disadvantage • These laws were institutionalized to prevent blacks from having rights, but because there is no mention of race in the laws, it is “okay” - Booker T. Washington establishes Tuskegee Institute • He says that we need to teach people how to work in trades and how to be brick makers or carpenters because it will ultimately result in jobs and money - 1895: Atlanta Compromise • Washington says that we need to accept the fact that whites are in control • Why would he do that? - He doesn't want to die and he lives in Alabama, not known for it’s wonderful race relations • His arch rival, WEB DuBois was born in Massachusetts as a free man and even goes to Harvard as the first black man in America to get his PhD in History - He believes that Washington is someone who has given up and he believes that we should struggle. He writes a book called The Souls of Black Folk in 1903 - DuBois becomes a founder of the NAACP. He isn't really the right person for this movement though because he was born in Massachusetts and hasn't faced much adversity in his life in comparison to Washington. - 1905: there is a race riot in Atlanta. DuBois gets the hell out of the South. Easier said than done. 40 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 - If blacks do exactly as Washington says, whites call blacks “uppity” • Washington gets an invitation to the White House by Roosevelt - White southerners go insane because it’s a black guy next to a white woman because we all know what’s gong to happen: lusting - Fall of 1901, President William McKinley (Republican) is reelected in 1900. New Vice President is Roosevelt is a national hero because of his participation in the Spanish American War. • William McKinley goes to Buffalo where he is assassinated by an anarchist Leon Czolzgosz • Roosevelt becomes the president and he is a progressive who wants to reform and regulate through government by controlling the practices of big business • Progressivism is about middle class • Progressivism is associated with educated women like Jane Addams • Progressivism is optimistic • Progressivism is about college educated people to use their knowledge to help the greater good of society. Progressivism gets its messages across through a series of newspaper and magazine stores that expose the evils of American society - Muckrakers are writers of mass circulation who write stories about how bad business is treating Americans - Upton Sinclair, a socialist, writes The Jungle - Jacob Riis writes How the Other Half Lives - Ida Tarbell writes A History of the Standard Oil Company - Lincoln Stephens writes The Shame of the Cities - Muckrakers give exposure to problems but they don't give solutions 41 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 42 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 Progressivism - Local: breaking the machine - State: goo-goo and reform - National: laws and reform tested in the Court Local: Political machines are corrupt, anti-democratic, problematic - Offering alternatives to the possibilities that political machines offer like settlement houses - Dealing with the issues of politics itself through reform • Professionalizing politics so that someone could run the city: A CITY MANAGER that has been educated though the university • As an appointed person, he is not subject to the whims of politics The City - 1900: Run by series of council members that are elected and there is five areas of the city, each council member representing one area. • For example, if there is an Italian ward, usually an Italian American would be in charge of them. • The wards allow people to elect from a narrow constituency • This is a fragmented political system. Progressives want people to be concerned about the whole. “Forget the pizza slice because they want the whole pie.” - 1910: Running the city at large, and now you have to be concerned about the needs of everyone. • Now, immigrants are less likely to be elected by the masses • While it seems reform at some level, it’s also anti-democratic in terms of immigrants’ situations 43 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 State: goo-goo and reform - Goo-goos are people that are concerned about having good government - Oregon • Pushes for secret ballot, allowing you to make a choice without telling you what to do which really breaks the power of the machine • “You do stuff for me and I do stuff for you” needs to end • They also develop primaries • They introduce recall. Recall allows people to initiate a process to try to get a person out of office before reelection takes place. • Referendum is also introduced. This means that people think that their legislature is not doing what they're supposed to do, doing stuff for the people. We can circumvent this by directly putting new things on the ballot. - Wisconsin • In Madison, there is the University of Wisconsin. They work hand in hand with legislatures to regulate business. • Close relationship between business and politics National: Laws and reform • 1901-1920: America becomes associated with the ideas of progressivism which permeates through both parties - Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909) Republican - Woodrow Wilson(1912-1920) Democrat - Both of these guys are tied to expertise through credentials • Taft is between the two presidents who gets stuck in the bathtub and is known for inventing the 7th inning stretch in baseb


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