MGMT Exam 3 Study Guide
MGMT Exam 3 Study Guide MGMT 3302
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Blake Lanier on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MGMT 3302 at East Carolina University taught by Joanne Hartsell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Management of Organizations in Business, management at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
MGMT 3302 Exam 3 Chapters 79 Spring 2016 6 1. Define organizational innovation. Is the successful implementation of creative ideas, like the hearing loop at the Kennedy Center in D.C. 2. Explain the Scurve pattern of innovation. Slow initial progress, then rapid progress Slow progress again as a technology matures and reaches its limits Occurs when there are major advances in the knowledge, tools, and techniques of a field 3. Understand the innovation stream and the technology cycles. Technology Cycle – begins with the birth of new technology, ends when that technology reaches its limits and is replaced by a newer, better technology Innovation Stream – patterns of innovation over time that can create sustainable competitive advantage Begins with technology discontinuity Followed by discontinuous change Persuaded by dominant design Leads to incremental change 4. Explain the incremental change phase of the technology cycle. 5. What are the components of a creative work environment? Challenging Work, Organizational Encouragement, Supervisory Encouragement, Lack of Organizational Impediments, Freedom, and Work Group Encouragement 6. Understand the difference between the experiential approach to innovation and the compression approach to innovation. Experiential Approach – managing innovation during discontinuous change, assumes innovation occurs within a highly uncertain environment uses intuition, flexible options, and handson experience reduces uncertainty and accelerates learning and understanding Aspects – design iterations, testing, milestones, multifunctional teams, and powerful leaders Compression Approach – managing innovation during incremental change, assumes that incremental innovation can be planned using a series of steps; compressing he steps can speed innovation Aspects Planning, supplier involvement Shortening the time of individual steps Overlapping steps and multifunctional teams 7. Understand the concept of design iteration. Cycle of repetition in which a company tests a prototype of a new product or service, improves on the design, and then builds and tests the improved product or service prototype. 8. What are the goals of the compression approach to innovation? Innovation is a predictable process, that incremental innovation can be planned using a series of steps, and that compressing the time it takes to complete those steps can speed up innovation. Five Aspects: Planning, supplier involvement, shortening the time of individual steps, overlapping steps, and multifunctional teams 9. What do resistance forces support? Support the existing conditions in organizations 10. What are the sources of resistance to change? Results from selfinterest, misunderstanding and distrust, and a general intolerance for change 11. What are the three steps in the basic process of managing organizational change outlined by Kurt Lewin? Unfreezing – Getting the people affected by change to believe that change is needed Change Intervention – Process used to get workers and managers to change their behaviors and work practices Refreezing – supporting and reinforcing new changes so that they stick 12. What are the methods for managing resistance change? Which should only be used as a last resort or under crisis conditions? Education, Communication, Participation, Negotiation, Top Management Support, Coercion 13. Define organizational development and what does it aim to change? Philosophy and collection of planned change interventions Designed to improve an organization’s long term health and performance 14. What is a change agent? What does a change agent do? Formally in change of guiding the change effort. This person can be someone in the company or a professional consultant. The change agent clarifies the problem, gathers information, works with decision makers to create and implement an action plan, helps to evaluate the plan’s effectiveness, implements the plan throughout the company, and then leaves after making sure the change intervention will continue to work. 15. What is the first step for an organizational development intervention? Entry – a problem is discovered and the need for change becomes apparent. A search begins for someone to deal with the problem and facilitate change. 16. Define global business. The buying and selling of goods and services by people from different countries. 17. Define multinational corporation. Owns businesses in two or more countries 18. What is the purpose of trade barriers? What are the different types of trade barriers? Governmentimposed regulations that increase the cost and restrict the number of imported goods Tariff Direct Tax on imported goods Nontariff – Nontax methods of increasing the cost or reducing the volume of imported goods Types – Quota, Voluntary Export Restraints, Government Import Standard, Subsidies, and Customs Classification 19. What the acronym GATT stand for? General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 20. What are regional trading zones? Zones in which tariff and nontariff barriers are reduced or eliminated for countries within the trading zone. 21. What is meant by global consistency and local adaptation? Global Consistency – multinational company with offices, manufacturing plants, and distribution facilities in different countries uses the same rules, guidelines, policies, and procedures to run all of those offices, plants and facilities. Local Adaptation – modifies its standard operating procedures to adapt to differences in foreign customers, governments, and regulatory agencies. 22. Define exporting. Selling domestically produced products to customers in foreign countries 23. What are the two types of cooperative contracts? Licensing – domestic company, licensor, receives royalty payments for allowing another company, the licensee, to produce its product, sell its service, or use its brand name in a particular foreign market. Franchise – collection of networked firms in which the manufacturer or marketer of a product or service, the franchisor, licenses the entire business to another person or organization, the franchisee. 24. What is the most common strategic alliance called? Joint Venture 25. Describe what is meant by wholly owned affiliate. Foreign offices, facilities, and manufacturing plants that are 100 percent owned by the parent company 26. What are the two factors that help companies determine the growth potential of foreign markets? Purchasing Power – measured by comparing the relative cost of a standard set of goods and services in different countries. Foreign Competitors – determined by the number and quality of companies that already compete in a foreign market. 27. What are the two types of political risks? Understand the difference between the two. Political Uncertainty – associated with the risk of major changes in political regimes that can result from war, revolution, and death of political leaders, social unrest, or other influential events. Policy Uncertainty – refers to the risk associated with changes in laws and government policies that directly affect the way foreign companies conduct business. 28. What are three methods for dealing with political risks? Avoidance Strategy – used when the political risks associated with a foreign country or region are viewed as too great. Control – an active strategy to prevent or reduce political risk. Cooperation – involves using joint ventures and collaborative contracts, such as franchising and licensing. 29. Understand how national cultures differ. Affects the perceptions, decisions, and behavior of people from a particular country 30. What is the purpose of predeparture language and crosscultural training? Can reduce the uncertainty that expatriates feel, the misunderstandings that take place between expatriates and natives, and the inappropriate behaviors that expatriates unknowingly commit when they travel to a foreign country. 31. Define organizational structure and organizational processes. Organizational Structure – vertical and horizontal configuration of departments, authority, and jobs within a company Organizational Process – collection of activities that transform inputs into outputs valued by customers 32. What is the difference between interorganizational and intraorganizational processes? Interorganizational Process – a collection of activities that take place among companies to transform inputs into outputs that customers value. Intraorganizational Process – the collection of activities that take place within an organization to transform inputs into outputs that customers value. 33. Define departmentalization. Subdividing work and workers into separate organizational units responsible for completing particular tasks 34. Understand the difference between functional, product, customer and geographic departmentalization. Functional – organizes work and workers into separate units responsible for particular business functions or area of expertise. Product – organizes work and workers into separate units responsible for producing particular or services. Customer – organizes work and workers into separate units responsible for particular kinds of customers. Geographic – organizes work and workers into separate units responsible for doing business in particular geographic areas. 35. What is one of the key assumptions underlying the chain of command? Which type of departmentalization violates this principle? Unity of command – which means that workers should report to just one boss. Matrix violates this principle. 36. What is the difference between staff and line authority? Line : Authority – right to command immediate subordinates in the chain of command Function – contributes in creating or selling company’s products Staff: Authority – right to advise others who are not subordinates in the chain of command Function – Supports line activities 37. What is one rule of thumb for determining when to be centralized versus decentralized? What is meant by standardization? Standardization – solving problems by applying similar rules, procedures, and processes 38. What are some of the advantages to decentralization? Location of a significant authority in the lower levels of the firm 39. What is the primary disadvantage to job specialization? Understand the three methods used to improve specialized jobs. So easy to learn, they quickly become boring. Job Rotation – periodically moving workers from one specialized job to another to give more variety and opportunity to use different skills. Job Enlargement – increases the number of different tasks that a worker performs within one particular work. Job Enrichment – attempts to overcome the deficiencies in specialized work by increasing the number of tasks and by giving workers the authority and control to make meaningful decisions about their work 40. What are the three transfers that must occur with delegation? 1. Micromanaging – managers delegate only to interfere later with how the employee is performing the task. 2. Manager gives the subordinate full authority over the budget, resources, and personnel needed for the job. 3. Transfer of Accountability – subordinate now has the authority and responsibility to do the job and, in return, is accountable for getting the job done. 41. Understand the five core job characteristics Skill Variety – different activities performed in a job Task Identity – degree to which a job requires the completion of a piece of work Task Significance – Impact of a job on people inside or outside the firm Autonomy – Degree to which a job gives workers the opportunity to decide how and when to accomplish the job Feedback – information the job provided to workers about their work performance 42. Understand the differences between mechanistic and organic organizations. Mechanistic – specialized jobs and responsibilities Follows centralized authority and vertical communication Organic – broadly defined jobs and responsibilities Decentralized authority and horizontal communication based on task knowledge 43. Define reengineering. Fundamental rethinking and radical design of business processes To achieve dramatic improvements in critical measures of performance 44. Define empowerment. Motivational feeling making workers feel competent and capable of self determination Leads to changes in the organizational process 45. Understand the three types of task interdependence. Pooled – each job or department contributes to the whole independently. Sequential – work must be performed in succession, as one group’s or job’s outputs become the inputs for the next group or job. Reciprocal – different jobs or groups work together in a backandfourth manner to complete the process. 46. Understand the difference between modular organizations and virtual organizations. Modular Organizations – outsources noncore businesses activities to outside companies Cost Effective, Causes loss of control, reduce competitive advantage Virtual Organizations – Part of a network of several companies working together to solve customer problems or provide specific products Allow sharing costs, facilitate combining efforts, fast and flexible, show difficulty in controlling the quality of work done by network partners, and require excessive managerial skills
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