Developmental Psychology Chapters 6-8 Study Guide
Developmental Psychology Chapters 6-8 Study Guide PSYC 3206
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kimberly Notetaker on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 3206 at East Carolina University taught by Gary Stainback in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 248 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Psyc 3206 Developmental Psychology Exam 2 (Chap 6-8) Need to Know Chapter 6 Infant cries o Babies often have three types of cries Hunger Pain Frustration o For some infants crying will be very persistent during the day and night and are not associated with hunger and pain but are a gastro-intestinal sort of thing o When persistent crying has occurred and the parent is unable to stop the child from crying this is typically when abuse occurs The parent is becoming very frustrated Shaking baby syndrome o A child’s cries is one of the first ways they can express emotion, especially because at such a young age they can’t assign names to their emotions so we project based on their behavior what we think they are feeling Colic o Colic is a condition where there are repeated bouts of excessive crying in a baby who is otherwise healthy o The definition doctors use is: a baby crying for more than three hours a day, for more than three days a week for at least one week o This can be distressing for both the parent and the baby; but colic is relatively short-lived, usually lasting only a few weeks or months Self-awareness o Definition: a realization that one’s existence is separate from others For example: what happens when a child sees themselves in a mirror? Children at a young age won’t react at all (they don’t have self-awareness) As they get older they will see the reflection but will think it is another person; they won’t realize it is themselves (still no self-awareness) Later they will look and know that it is them (self- awareness) o Watch videos on blackboard! Social cognition o Definition: understanding that others have thoughts and feelings o Part of Altruistic behaviors Developing empathy: the ability to put oneself in another’s place o Ideas about others’ feelings are used to gauge one’s own behavior o Altruistic behavior is defined as doing something for someone without expecting anything in return This is often seen a lot in young children: For example, they are eating a cookie and automatically share it with another child who comes up However, this behavior seems to change as they get older; as parents it is a goal to keep this in place as long as possible Temperament o There are three temperaments we often see in children Easy Generally happy When things change they can make adjustments to it Nothing is really THAT disasterous Make transitions without too much disturbance Slow to warm up Turn away from new people- don’t really fight someone trying to hold them but aren’t doing anything to encourage the behavior Want to be put down Show mild reactions If a stranger came up to them they would hide behind mom and dad- don’t really talk Once they are around the person more then they will warm up to them but are reluctant to interact initially Difficult No matter who is around they are hard to please Even mom and dad have a hard time Often can’t verbalize what they want so their behavior patterns are often negative Brief periods of happiness but not sustained for long periods o In young children psychologists can’t get into doing personality assessment until they get to be school aged and then some forms can be done This is typically because personality doesn’t really fully develop until later on Until about 3 years of age there is almost hardly any assessment you can do Erikson’s stages of development o Erikson came up with 8 stages of “life-long” development; essentially 8 stages that occur throughout one’s entire life (not just childhood) o The first stage is trust vs. mistrust This stage occurs during infancy The idea in this stage is that if a child’s cries are attended to fairly consistently then this infant will grow up with a fairly good sense of trust in the world However, an infant who cries and their needs go unmet then they will develop mistrust o Second stage Autonomy v. Shame This is where the child begins shifting from external control to internal control This is where potty training comes in Autonomy A shift from external control to self-control Emerges from trust and self-awareness The terrible 2s o One of the first words a two year old begins to say is “no”, they learn to shake their head no before yes; so often they just say no to everything and can be difficult even though they aren’t meaning to be o When a child turns two they become more mobile- if there are siblings there might be some sibling rivalries o Terrible twos however are just a stereotype Shame and doubt Help toddler recognize need for limits o Erikson: Initiative vs. Guilt Conflict arises from growing sense of purpose and desire to plan activities Children reconcile desire to “do” with their desire for approval Virtue of “purpose” – the courage to envision and pursue goals without fear of punishment Developing attachment o Attachment is reciprocal and enduring bond between child and caregiver o Mary Ainsworth studied this with “strange situation” experiments o There are four types of attachment in strange situation Secure A child who plays freely when mother is near and is happy when mother returns 60-75% of children studied fell into this category Avoidant A child who is unaffected when their caregiver leaves and ignores or deliberately turns away when their caregiver returns Insecure-resistant A child who hovers around their mother and is often angry when she returns Disorganized This child’s behavior is inconsistent and erratic often seeming overwhelmed by stress o Avoidant, insecure, and disorganized children are ones that need to be worried about when it comes to trust Will be more resistant to making an attachment – not feeling good about themselves and if you don’t feel good about yourself you won’t be able to share yourself with someone and build a good relationship o A lot of things can influence attachment Parental Level of warmth and responsiveness Employment and amount of separation o Are they at work more than they are home o Does this interfere with eating dinner together, putting child to bed, being there with them in the morning, etc. Own memories about their attachment Baby’s temperament o In the long term children who are more securely attached will develop good relationships with others, larger vocabularies, higher levels of curiosity and self-confidence, and preparation for adult intimacy – adult attachment interview (AAI) Maltreatment of children o There are a number of different types of child abuse Physical Neglect Sexual Mostly males but not always Emotional maltreatment o All of these cause behavioral, cognitive, or mental disorders and may include rejection as well o This often leads to intervention from child protective services/social services Their main goal is to reunite the family with the child Often times the child is placed with a relative They want them to all be able to be together but first the parents must take steps to prove they will be better o There are also many traits of abusive and neglectful families Most of the time abuse is done by a parent Those who typically do this have a number of problems Marital problems Poverty They themselves may have a disability o Alcoholism, drug abuse, mental disorder Goodness of fit o What is the temperament of the child and then what is the parenting style of the parent Do they work well together? o Just about any kind of parent can get along well with an easy going child o If you have a patient responsive reactive pre-planning kind of parent and a very difficult child this parent could probably raise this child without too much difficult If this parent is very stern and strict with a difficult child who doesn’t follow directions very well then there will probably be a lot of head butting and this is not a very good fit o If you want to change behavior in a child then all caregivers need to be on the same plan for what to do when certain behaviors occur o Adjustment is easiest when the child’s temperament matches the situation Physically Socially culturally Chapter 7 Bodily growth and change o Around age 3, children lose “baby roundness”, their limbs lengthen and their height increases. At this point cartilage turns to bone faster o Physical Growth: Ages 3 to 6 Boys tend to be just slightly taller than girls (only about an inch) and about the same weight until about age 5 when they start to weight more by about 3-4 pounds Sleep patterns o By age 5 most children sleep about 11 hours a night and begin to stop napping o Bedtime varies depending on culture/schedule For example: in the Zuni culture there is no “bed time” they simply sleep when they are sleepy For example: the Canadian Hare Indians don’t allow naps and bedtime follows dinner o Some sleep disturbances are Night terrors Abrupt awakening; extremely frightened Feelings of great fear experienced on suddenly waking in the night; very similar to a nightmare but it’s far more dramatic and can be very alarming A partial waking from sleep with behaviors such as screaming, kicking, panic, sleep walking, thrashing, or mumbling. They are harmless and each episode will end in deep sleep (often lasting from 10 to 30 minutes) Nightmares Very common A frightening or unpleasant dream A child will awaken and make them afraid to go back to sleep, they may happen for no reason or sometimes because the child has seen or heard things that upset him or her Walking and talking Fairly common Occurs because of accidental activation of brain’s motor control Bed-wetting (ensuresis) About 10-15% of 5 year olds Childhood injuries o 73% of deaths of children under 5 occur in poor, rural regions of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia o In U.S. most child deaths are caused by injury rather than illness o 98% of child deaths occur in poor rural regions of developing countries where nutrition is inadequate, water is unsafe, and sanitary facilities are lacking o Undernutrition is the underlying cause in more than half of deaths before age 5 o 19% of U.S. children under 18 live in food-insecure households o Malnutrition can harm long-term cognitive development Early education and improved diet can moderate the effects Living in poverty o Lower socioeconomic status (SES) increases risk of injury, illness, and death o Poor children are more likely to Be of a minority Have chronic health problems and/or lack health insurance Suffer vision and hearing loss o 10% of poor children are homeless- more likely to have health problems and/or depression Medical care Egocentrism o Having or regarding the self or the individual as the center of all things o Centration Tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect others Egocentrism is this in terms of one’s self o Decentering Thinking simultaneously about several aspects of a situation Inability to decenter leads to illogical conclusions o As children get older they become more decentered – this is an important adjustment and step for them to make or they will go through life having a very difficult time- especially when getting along/working with/building relationships with others Forming and retaining childhood memories o If you were to think back to your earliest memory… how far back could you remember? Probably sometime around 3-4 years of age Are you actually remembering the event or have you just heard the story so many times from others that you recall the event Several theories as to what contributes to our earliest memories if you were to share a memory with someone you would do so by telling them with words o so in order for you to have a memory you must have an adequate language ability at the time the event occurred – this typically doesn’t happen until around the age of three which is why age 3 is typically when we start to have memories information processing model are brains are similar to computers we get information, process it, use it to make decisions getting the input occurs using sensory memory o this is where you first interact with the info in your environment o the two most studied are sight and sound o iconic memory for what you see last half a second o echoic memory for what you hear lasts 3 or 4 seconds there’s a ton of information coming from sensory memory so working memory comes in to help you pick what to pay attention to o not defined by time but quantity Working memory can hold 5-9 pieces of memory at a time depending on how detailed the information is/how old you are/etc. Generally its around 7 (this is why phone numbers started off around 7 digits long) o Visuo-spatial sketch pad o Phonological loop o Central executive When you need to process information in the visuo-spatial sketch pad and phonological loop this helps them work together long term memory is where we store information which our working memory deems very important o explicit facts or events semantic for facts episodic for events o implicit things you may not be able to articulate (how to ride a bicycle) procedural riding a bike priming previous experience influences you o as far as we know long term memory is unlimited – so there is no limit to the amount of information we can take in when you retrieve a memory it is going from your long term memory back to working memory it is easier to retrieve a memory the more pathways you have to it Basic processes and capabilities Traditional psychometric measures o A field of study concerned with the theory and technique of psychological measurement. o One part of the field is concerned with the objective measurement of skills and knowledge, abilities, attitudes, personality traits, and educational achievement Private speech Emergent literacy o Identifying speech and language delays Lack of response to sound or vocalizing Difficulty sucking or prolonged feeding times Failure to use gestures by 12 months Preference for gestures to vocalization after 12 months Preschools – US vs other countries o Preschools in the US are much better than those of other countries o Better care for children, more supervision, better learning skills (engaging toys, books, etc.) Handedness o Usually evident by age 3 o Heritability o Single-gene theory Dominant allele for right-handedness 82% of population is right-handed Decentering o Thinking simultaneously about several aspects of a situation o Inability to decenter leads to illogical conclusions Conservation o Something remains the same even if its appearance is altered Matter/mass, liquid, length, number, area, volume Ex. Pouring the same amount of liquid into the same size glasses then taking one cup and putting it in a taller skinnier glass, a child who understands that there is still the same amount of liquid understands conservation. One who thinks that the taller skinnier glass has more liquid because the liquid is “higher” then they don’t understand conservation Chapter 8 Understanding and regulating emotions o Ability to recognize Guilt Shame Pride o Develops around age 3 o Becomes more complex with age o Younger children often have a hard time recognizing simultaneous emotions: recognizing that they can experience more than one emotion at the same time Gender differences o Gender Constancy Imagine you’re a 4 year old boy. Your older sister curls your hair and puts a dress on you, and your father tells you that you are a cute little girl. What are you thinking according to the cognitive development theory? As a young child, you would think that you are a girl, and you could become distressed about what has happened As an older child (7 and older) you would know that you are a boy and this may have been embarrassing, but it did not make you into a girl o Gender Stereotypes in Early Childhood What questions would you ask a young child to identify any gender stereotypes he/she may have about one’s gender? If a boy says he wants to be a dancer – should we re- direct that in any way? o Must be cautious about how you react Perspectives on gender development o Gender Role Development What are some examples of clichés about what’s appropriate for girls and boys? Pink is for girls, blue is for boys Boys wear pants girls wear dresses “you fight like a girl” Boys will be boys Girls can’t do math Sugar and spice and everything nice Nice girls know how to keep their mouths shut Boys don’t cry Take it like a man Kohlberg’s view on gender development o A child’s realization that his or her sex will always be the same o Three steps Gender identity The child knows that he or she is a male or a female, bu the child fails to realize that gender is a constant attribute. Most three year olds had reached this stage Gender stability The child knows that their gender is stable over time. A child in this stage knows that boys will grow up to be men and that girls will grow up to be women Gender consistency The child knows a person gender stay the same regardless of changes in the person’s activities or appearance. For example, A 6 or 7 year old who had reached this stage knows a person gender stay the same when a person dress-up like a member of the other sex or when a person does cross-sex activities Cognitive levels of play o Identify the different types of play according to Parten? What are some examples? Unoccupied play Child watches others in the room but without much attention Onlooker play Child stands and watches other play with a new bike Solitary play Child plays with blocks in room Parallel play Child plays with blocks near another child who is playing with dolls Not interact between but doing similar activity Associative play Child plays with blocks with another child, but each builds separate houses Cooperative play Child plays a game of hide and seek with other children Games that have rules associated with them o When is it recommended that a child participate in organized sports? Not before age 6 Gender influences and play o Boys typically are worse about this than girls o They only want to play with other boys because they want competition and want to play certain types of games (those that involve competition) o Girls typically won’t care, they will play with other girls or other boys but they aren’t typically driven by games with competition o Gender segregation o Boys lean toward active play o Girls choose more structured activities o Culture can also influence this Aggression in young children (boys vs girls) o You receive a report on your child, that he/she has been aggressive towards another child. What do you do? Reflect on home life Is this atypical or is this common? Are you sending mixed messages? Are you saying don’t do that but smiling and using a nice tone? o Suppose that the other child was older/larger than your child Was this self-defense? o Suppose that other child was younger/smaller than your child Is my child a bully? o Is/would aggression be tolerated in your home between son/son, daughter/daughter, son/daughter? o Recommended that the older sibling should yield to the younger sibling Sibling relationships o Sibling rivalry is normal Earliest disputes are over property rights – that’s my toy you can’t play with it o Also affection, interest, and companionship o Older siblings tend to initiate more interactions o Younger siblings tend to imitate older ones o Siblings cooperate more when mother is not present Squabbling can be a bid for attention Only child (singletons) o Research does not support stereotypes of only children being selfish, lonely, spoiled, maladjusted, etc. o “onlies” tend to be more mature and motivated to achieve Playmates and friends – what’s important o About age 3, children begin to have friends o Friends tend to be same age and same sex o Traits children look for in a friend Doing things together Liking and caring for each other Sharing and helping each other o There are many benefits of friendship such as Children begin to learn how to get along with others, how to solve relationship problems and empathy Children with friends enjoy school more and are a source of help and self-validation Self-descriptions o How children view themselves and would describe themselves to others Baumrind’s parenting styles o Authoritarian Control and unquestioning obedience Characterized by high demands and low responsiveness Have very high expectations of their children, yet provide very little in the way of feedback and nurturance. Mistakes tend to be punished harshly o Permissive Parents value self-expression and self-regulation Non-directive or lenient Characterized as having few behavioral expectations for the child Parents are very involved with their children but place few demands or controls on them o Authoritative Value child’s individuality, as well as restraining Characterized by reasonable demands and high responsiveness Might have high expectations for their children Also give their kids the resources and support they need to succeed o Neglectful or uninvolved Parental needs are most important Characterized by a lack of responsiveness to a child’s needs Parents make few to no demands of their children and they are often indifferent, dismissive or even completely
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