Exam 1 learning goals and review
Exam 1 learning goals and review IB 150
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rebecca Lii on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to IB 150 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by Natasha D. Capell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Organismal & Evolutionary Biology in Biology at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Week 1 1. Scientific method 2. Alive a. organisms grow, reproduce, maintain homeostasis far from equilibrium, and react/adapt to their environment, evolve. b. Organisms need to grow in order to allow cells to develop, life does not exist without reproduction. Equilibrium will result in death due to lack of system, adaptation is important because different independent and dependent factors affect the ecosystem. c. The ability to perform work is related to life because work is powered by ATP. The ability to use and produce ATP or energy is essential to life. Without work, there will be equilibrium which results in death. d. Molecules will move to a higher concentration of solutes e. Understand that net flow of molecules due to osmosis is a result of the rates of movement of particles in both directions, NOT as a result of an inherent preference or force moving these molecules in one direction or the other. 3. Thermodynamics a. First Law of Thermodynamics: Conservation of Energy. Energy can be neither created nor destroyed. Second Law of Thermodynamics: Disorder of universe increases. Determines in which direction a system wants to move based on changes in enthalpy and entropy in conditions of constant temperature and pressure. b. Chemical potential energy of a molecule is converted into kinetic energy, and this energy is used to provide energy to the other molecule. In this process, heat. mechanical energy, and sound can be emitted from this exchange in energy between the molecules. c. Molecules store energy in their chemical bonds. d. Delta(G) = Delta(H) - T(Delta(S)) Delta H- change in enthalpy (pot. Energy of products – “““reactants<0) Delta S- change in entropy (Entropy of Products - Entropy of Reactants > 0) Exergonic=decreases enthalpy and increase entropy Endergonic= increase enthalpy and decrease entropy e. Delta g is negative = spontaneous and exergonic. Reaction is energetically favorable. Releases energy. Work done by the system. Delta g is positive= endergonic. Reaction is energetically unfavorable. Work done on system f. Exergonic reaction is spontaneous and is energetically favorable. Releases energy. – Delta G Endergonic reaction is energetically unfavorable. Absorbs energy. +delta g 4. Control exergonic reaction rates a. Graph b. Increase temperature = Energy added to system. 10C rule-for every increase in temperature of 10C, the reaction doubles Problem: High temperature denatures proteins (not an effective method for overcoming activation energy of organisms) c. Catalysts are neither created nor destroyed in the reactions they catalyze. A catalyst is not a reactant in the reaction. It simply provides an environment that is conducive for the new bonds to form. d. Catalyst- Enzymes- proteins with catalytic abilities Active site- where the enzyme binds to catalyze e. Catalyzing with enzymes quickens the reaction by lowering activation energy resulting in the same product. 5. Run endergonic reactions a. Growth, reproduction, maintaining homeostasis, and reaction to the environment all require energy to occur. b. Sustained life is derived from chemical potential energy- cellular resp. c. C-C bonds in organic macromolecules. These bonds are broken down by cellular respiration, which is highly exergonic. d. Use energy released by exergonic reaction as energy for endergonic reaction e. The overall delta g is negative for the endergonic reaction to process f. When the phosphate group from the ATP molecule attaches itself to the substrate, that substrate now has more chemical potential energy than is needed for the endergonic reaction to take place. The sub-reactions that occur during phosphorylation is exergonic. Week 2 Aerobic cellular respiration C6H12O6 + 6O2 +36ADP + 36P → 6CO2 +6H2O + 36ATP Two energetically coupled reactions 1. C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O (even more highly exergonic) 2. 36 ADP + 36 P → 36 ATP (highly endergonic) Four steps within Cellular Respiration Glycolysis → Pyruvate Processing → Citric Acid Cycle → Electron Transport Chain 6. How is ATP produce during CR a. Glucose has a high activation energy so it is more stable than ATP as a storage molecule. It needs ATP input to overcome its activation energy. b. C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O Glucose + Oxygen + ADP + P + NAD+ → ATP + CO2 c. Glycolysis- input: glucose, ADP + Pi, NAD+, output: pyruvate, ATP, NADH Pyruvate processing- input: pyruvate, NAD+, output: acetyl CoA, CO2, NADH Krebs Cycle- input: acetyl CoA, NAD+, FAD+, ADP+Pi, output: CoA, NADH, FADH2, ATP ETC- input: NADH, FADH2, ADP, P, O2, output: NAD+, FAD, H2O, ATP d. Glycolysis- cytoplasm Pyruvate processing- outer matrix Krebs- matrix of mito ETC- mito membrane e. Go through all of cellular respiration f. Glycolysis- 2 ATP, Krebs- 2 ATP, ETC- 34 ATP. Mostly from ETC Oxygen is the last electron acceptor from the ETC. It prevents the electron transport chain from backing up. g. Cellular respiration produces ATP which is then used to do work 7. Importance of cellular respiration. a. Death. Unable to do work efficiently. If citric acid cycle fails, then will have to use fermentation which does not produce as much ATP. Lack of oxygen will cause the ETC to slow down due to lack of an electron carrier. b. Aerobic resp. involves oxygen as final electron acceptor and glucose as source of electrons. Anaerobic uses something else other than oxygen as final electron acceptor and does not use glucose. Fermentation product is some ATP, lactic acid or ethanol. c. Environment may not provide much oxygen. May have more similar bodies to their ancestor. d. Facultative anaerobes can switch between using oxygen and not using oxygen, whereas obligate anaerobes are poisoned by oxygen. e. More ATP produced 8. How is light energy used to produce sugar? a. 6CO2 + 6H2O +light → C6H12O6 + 6O2 b. 1) Carbon fixation-CO2 is fixated onto a 5-carbon molecule called RuBp by the enzyme Rubisco. This forms a very unstable 6-carbon molecule, which immediately breaks apart into two 3-carbon PGA. 2) Reduction Energy from 6 molecules of ATP is used to oxidize NADPH to NADP+. 3) Regeneration-Convert G3P into RuBp in order to repeat the cycle again. c. Carbon fixation-The carbon fixation step is the rate limiting step of photosynthesis because it is the slowest of all the reactions. This is the reaction that is catalyzed by the enzyme Rubisco. The reason this reaction is so slow is because the substrate molecules (CO2 and the 5-carbon molecule RuBp) sit in the active site of Rubisco for quite a while before they proceed to react. d. 1. Energy is emitted (lost) as fluorescence and/or heat. 2. Energy is transmitted through an antenna complex (arrangement of chlorophyll molecules). 3. Energy is irreversibly captured as chemical energy in the reaction center. e. The light energy or photon that comes into the thylakoid can get excited into a higher energy level with the right wavelength. This allows the photon to be passed down the antenna complex which is made of chloroplast. It then gets to the reaction center and then to the electron carrier. f. Chlorophyll absorbs red light because it excites the electron within it to one energy level, causing it to have more chemical potential energy, before dropping back down to ground state and releasing energy. Chlorophyll absorbs blue light because it excites the electron within it to two energy levels, causing it to have even more chemical potential energy than when the electron was excited to one energy level, before dropping back down to ground state and releasing even more energy than the electron excited by the red light. g. a. Photosystem II-electron enters thylakoid and gets excited which allows it to pass from one chlorophyll to another in the antenna complex. This electron then gets to the reaction center. The O-H bond of water is then broken to release the O and produce protons in the thylakoid space. b. ETC- the protons from the water is carried by the electron carrier and then pumped to the thylakoid space from the stroma by the etc. forms a proton gradient c. NADPH reductase- The electrons that pass through the photosystem II eventually get lower energy. Another photon hits photosystem I which causes the electrons to become excited. The electrons are then given off to NADP+ reductase, a protein, which converts NADP+ to NADPH d. ATP synthesis- since the H+ pumps along the concentration gradient at the electron transport chain. The movement of the H+ protons creates ATP from ADP and Pi h. NADPH and ATP from the light reaction provide the exergonic energy necessary to perform the endergonic process of reducing PGA into G3P in the Calvin Cycle. i. Light energy in the form of photons is converted to the chemical energy NADPH and ATP during the light reactions, which are then converted into the chemical energy glucose. 9. Importance of photosynthesis a. Can’t make glucose or ATP b. Air, CO2 c. Sugar is more stable than ATP and has a higher activation energy so it is better as a storage molecule. plants use the carbon in sugar to produce cellulose and build its leaves and tissues, which cannot be done with ATP alone. d. ? . e. produces oxygen and It produces the glucose that is needed for aerobic cellular respiration to occur, which is what most organisms on this planet use to provide energy to their daily activities f. increase oxygen, decrease CO2 g. Some prokaryotes use other chemicals besides CO2 such as methane as their carbon source for carbon fixation. h. Solar energy produces glucose which produces ATP. ATP allows work to be done in the cell through energy. Week 3 10. How does energy flow structure ecosystems? a. Ecosystems processes are the transfers of energy and materials from one pool to another. All organisms and abiotic pools of resources with which they interact. b. Primary producers: Plants Secondary consumers: Herbivores. Tertiary consumers: Predators that eat secondary consumers. c. Sunlight (Energy flux) → Primary producers-plants (energy flux) → Herbivores (energy flux) → Predators (energy flux) → Decomposers. Heat is released each energy flux d. GPP=total assimilation of energy-100% NPP=GPP-energy lost (10%) e. 10% of energy is used towards growth/reproduction, 90% of energy is lost through respiration, excretion, heat, and egestion. nd f. The higher the trophic level, the less energy one receives. The 2 law of Thermodynamics, the reaction is exergonic overall so energy is lost. g. Respiration, growth, egestion, excretion. Land, food supply, predators 11. How do resources limit population growth a. R,b,d,k b. B=birth rate, d=death rate, k=carrying capacity, r=population growth rate(b-d) c. Density dependent-depends on population size. (food, competition, predation, disease) Density independent- doesn’t depend on pop. Size.(natural disasters, man made disasters) d. ? e. ? f. r is large, greater than 1. Or k decreases due to environmental degradation. g. R- younger age of maturity, more offspring, shorter lifespan. Death rate of offspring is high k- older age of maturity, less offspring, longer lifespan. Death rate of offspring is low h. R- lots of predators, increasing death rate k-little predators, low death rates i. Environmental degradation means less land which means less carrying capacity. K decreases 12. How do species interact with environment? a. Biotic is living components of the environment of an organism Ex. Seeds, completion, disease Abiotic is nonliving components of an organism’s environment Ex. Climate, weather, soil, temperature b. ? c. Populations: Groups of organisms of the same species living in the same environment. Communities: Groups of populations interacting with each other. d. Competition- -/- Predation-+/- Parasitism-+/- Mutualism-+/+ Commensalism-+/nothing e. Intraspecific competition- competition within same species Interspecific completion- competition with different species f. One species will be able to survive with the limited amount of resources available. One specie will always outcompete another g. Fundamental niche was the niche before another species came over. The fundamental niche is the entire environment that the species could occupy without competition. Realized niche is the area that an specie can occupy due to competition. h. Predator populations follow after pretty populations. Predator pop. Increase after prey population increases and slowly decreases due to the amount of predators eating the prey i. Environmental heterogeneity can cause more resources to be available to a certain species, thus this species may diverge to form different species based on differences in prey or whatever the environment tended to diverge on. j. Be able to use the following terms in context: optimum, range of tolerance, fundamental niche, realized niche, predation, competition, mutualism, commensalism, exploitative competition, interference competition, competitive exclusion. Optimum: Where most of the organism’s population is found, the environment the organism thrives best in. Range of tolerance: The range of an environment in which the organism can be found and can survive in. Fundamental niche: Total area organism can live in. Realized niche: Actual area an organism lives in. Exploitative competition: Passive through resource exploitation. Interference competition: Active (ex:through defending territory) Competitive exclusion: When one organism outcompetes another organism for resources. 13. What are the trade offs associated with different metabolic strategies? a. Endothermy-organisms rely on internal body temp for heat Ectothermy-organisms rely on external environment for heat Homeothermy- maintain a stable body temp Poikilothermy-have fluctuating temperatures b. K strategist-endotherms rely on negative delta G for internal body heat. Homotherms are endotherms. Ectotherms rely on outside temperatures. Ectotherms are poikilothermy. c. The enzymes for endotherms has specific optimal temperatures so they need to function that way for the endotherms to survive. The enzymes for ectotherms can survive and work at different temperatures. The efficiency fluctuates during times of days. Review session Exploitative vs interference- exploitative- passive. Whos more efficient. Competitive exclusion Interference-territorialism(barnacles) Anaerobic goes through glycolysis. The difference between anaerobic and fermentation is the final electron acceptor Oxygen higher electronegativity- produces a larger proton gradient. ATP synthase needs the gradient Anaerobic resp- diff acceptor is final acceptor Fermentation-using pyruvate as final electron acceptor. 2 atp per glucose
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