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Midterm Exam Study Guide

by: Caleb Rogers

Midterm Exam Study Guide WRIT 20313

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these notes include the PSM chapters and quiz answers to them. All answers received a 10/10.
Power and Protest
Brad Lucas
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This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caleb Rogers on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to WRIT 20313 at Texas Christian University taught by Brad Lucas in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 121 views.


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Date Created: 02/23/16
Persuasion & Social Movements: Chapter 1 A Social Movement (Six Criteria) Social Movement Organizations (SMOs) Campaigns vs. Movements 6 Criteria for Social Movements 1. An Organized Collectivity - SM is at least minimally organized. We must be able to identify leaders/spokespersons, members/followers, & organizations/coalitions. - A large # of protests DOES NOT = Social Movement o Individuals must have enough in common to join together to establish heritage, identity, & future orientation - Actos must find ways of coordinating contention & organizing to sustain mobilization o These tasks depend on capacity to build on existing social networks, construct formal organizations to maintain solidarity & aggregate resources o Ex. Workers Rights Consortium (WRC) was a coalition of colleges, unions, & human rights groups who organized when they discovered the exploitation of workers in sweatshops, particularly for University Apparel Degree of Organization - Social Movement Organizations = Highly structured group with a clear hierarchy of leadership + charter or constitution that prescribes an ideology & means to achieve it + membership requirements + official website + headquarters - SM rarely exhibit the highly organized qualities of SMO o Ex. The women’s liberation movement (it was never cohesive or well organized) - New SMs vs. Old SMs o New SM more spontaneous, informal, loosely organized o Old SM centered on labor & economic issues o New SM = new cultural identity, broaden empowerment, redefine social roles, nonmaterialistic, qualities of life, & lifestyle Social Movement Campaigns vs. Social Movements - Campaigns created & organized by SMOs with predetermined goal - Campaigns tend to be organized from top down. (selection of leader, then staff). Movements are evolutionary where organization shifts & changes - Campaigns have known end points (ex. Election day, anniversary) - Campaign leaders may have specific strategies to attain goals (ex. Hunger strike, sit-ins). SM cause disagreements & factions over which strategies are effective & acceptable - Campaigns are structured & proceed through stages but SMs don’t have step-by-step fashion 2. An Uninstitutionalized Collectivity - SMs and their SMOs are not part of established orders that govern, maintain, or change norms Social Movements as Outsiders - SMs & their followers are out-groups - Criticized for not following normal channels - Leaders of SM survive only if they perform well - Media devotes little airtime to SMs o News unfavorable & focus on bad moments o Media bias against protestors - SMs turn to “new” or “alternative” media Social Movements Court Insiders - Seek insiders to gain legitimacy 3. Large In Scope - Large geographically, life span, events, orgs, leaders, participants, goals, strategies, and adaptions - Long-term persuasive efforts of SMs are far more complex than campaigns Size - Small ventures are inconsequential & dangerous - Institutions try to make the protestors seem like radicals Time - Significant changes in social structures, norms, & values may take decades/centuries to bring about - SM must continually adapt & adjust to change - Elections, retirements, etc. may remove targets of protestors - Tactics wear out - New leaders & organizations result from power struggles or assassinations may strengthen/weaken SMs and SMOs Events - Few SM can satisfy the media’s appetite (Ex. After the “I Have a Dream” speech the media was like “What’s next” o Ex. When Earth First member Julia Hill stayed in a redwood tree for two years she only got one column in People magazine and logging continued to occur 4. Promotes or Opposes Changes in Societal Norms & Values - Both norms & values are affected (Ex. Equality, fairness, & justice movements create opposition from those who don’t want to change norms & values) Belief-Disbelief Systems - Mixture of vague & precise, old & new systems, static & dynamic - Ideology may vary from org to org - Diversity, flexibility, fluidness of SM ideology set them apart from other collectives o Ex. Religious & political groups principles are usually static & precise Labeling Social Movements - Hard to label SMs as revolutionary or reform b/c they have both elements as ideologies, leaders, members, & organizations change over time o (Ex. Student movement in 1950s started as reform-oriented, free speech movement at universities challenging loco parentis. Eventually they went on to revolutionary demands like graduation standards and abolishes of curfew and dress code) - Placing SMs along a reform-to-revolutionary scaled depends on time, perceptions, accomplishments, and ascendant elements o Ex. People viewed MLK as a dangerous revolutionary until Stokely Carmichael (SNCC) preached militant black power and then MLK = reformative) o Ex. Some people see animal rights movement as reformative or revolutionary - Labelling SMs as moderate or radical is also misleading. One person’s moderate can be ones radical - Moderate, radical, revolutionary, & reform labels are suited to types of strategies & arguments. - Best Labels: o Innovative SM: seek to replace existing norms & values w/ new ones o Revivalistic SM: replace existing norms & values when ones from venerable, ideal past o Resistance SM: seeks to block changes in norms & vales b/c nothing is wrong with the status quo 5. Encounters Opposition in a Moral Struggle - Each SMO believes it constitutes an ethical, virtuous, principled, & righteous force with the moral obligation to act in the name of and for the good of, the people. Claim of Legitimacy - Moral nature of SM is to claim legitimacy o Place movement on moral pedestal while diminishing or deny legitimacy of opposition (Ex. PETA) Disaffection & Confrontation - Adherents to SM become disappointed & unhappy w/ establishment - Ppl may devote/sacrifice their lives to be in the moral struggle of good & evil o Believe institutions are unaware, disinterested, resistant to social change - “only by sustaining collective action against antagonist that a contentious episode becomes a social movement” - Takes little time for institutions to recognize SMs o (Ex. Students at US universities protesting apartheid & demanding schools withdraw S. African investments) - Social conflict: clash over interests in which one party’s gain is another’s lost o Establishments can only take minor changes to norms w/o receiving backlash  Ex. Tea Party condemnation of gov., spending, people = backlash - Institutions counter persuasive efforts of SMs (in)directly through agencies, agents, & beneficiaries o Agencies: legislative bodies, exec & admin groups, courts, police, etc. o Agents: legislators, presidents, governors, mayors, etc. o Beneficiaries: most of the above plus corporations, business owners, universities, special interest groups 6. Persuasion is Pervasive - SMs satisfy previous requirements through bargaining, coercion, & persuasion Bargaining - Exchangeable value the target group wants and offers something in reture for compliance with demands o Ex. United Farm Workers offered loyal workers to California grape growers in exchange for contracts, recognition, & collective bargaining - SMs often have little or nothing to exchange - Institutions pressure one another not to “give in” - Institutions resist bargaining with leaders & follows are stigmatized as dangerous or degenerate - SM loathe bargaining with the devil (Ex. Mandela & Kobie Coetsee negotiations were kept secret) - SM can satisfy only a few requirements through bargaining - If bargaining fails to bring results, follows might turn to coercing & violence to get change Coercion - Any course of action other than that sought by the movement will be met with cost or punishment - Coercion tactics are easy to employ, exiting for protestors, gain attention, & can get immediate results o Can use threat of force to promote or stifle changes (Ex. KKK) - Coercion is limited to pressuring opposition or transforming perceptions of society by getting institutions to react with excessive repression to undermine institutional credibility & legitimacy o SM unmasks the institution and gains sympathy but the public may condemn the movement rather than the o SMs splinter into factions over use of coercive tactic to achieve moral ends Persuasion - Persuasion: use of (non)verbal symbols & actions to influence audience perceptions & thus bring about or resist changes in thinking, feeling, and/or acting - Speeches, videos, publications, internet, mailings, & orgs - Nonviolence always couples persuasive strategy to coercion (Ex. Sit-ins, hunger strikes) Reading Quiz #0 (mock) (These Answers Received 10/10) 1. What are the differences between a social movement and a campaign? A social movement needs a good balance of organization & disorganization for freedom and doesn’t require much structure or guidelines. Whereas a camping needs strict organization and has many small important pieces to it such as a set goal, top down hierarchy, and date(s0 on which its events occur. 2. What are the defining features of a Social Movement Organization (SMO)? 3. The six criteria used to define a Social Movement in PSM Chapter 1 are explained via key terms related to organization, institutionalization, scope, societal norms/values, moral struggle, and persuasion. Explain any three of these in more detail, specific to the definition of a Social Movement. The first criteria for a Social Movement is organization. A social movement isn’t simply a mob of people for a common cause, there has to be some sort of distinction that allows leaders & key members to be recognizable. Another key to a social movement is institutionalization. Social Movements are unistitutionalized, meaning they are not in a setting where the movement can change or oppose societal norms from following a set procedure such as the NFL handling player bonuses. Lastly, scope is used to define a social movement. Social Movements are large in scope, they tend to bring about change over a decade or even a century (i.e. women’s movement, anti-slavery movement); the number of people involved in a movement is large to keep the movement alive. Persuasion & Social Movements: Chapter 6 Identification Polarization Framing Rhetoric Tactics Identification - Having similarity or common references; sharing important aspects of nature & substance - Reduces ambiguity & therefore encouraging cooperation - Close relationship between identification & persuasion o Persuade someone only insofar as you can talker their language by speech, gesture, tone, order, image, attitude, idea, identifying you ways with hers - Identification is an instrument of transformation - When a goal/group makes sense we identify with it - Need for personal coherence underlines division from those who are different; Social coordination underscores the persons we identify with that index or reality - Invitation to rhetoric begins when identification & division are blending so well you don’t know where one ends or begins Levels of Identification - Common ground: gender, age, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation - Protesters may feel common ground because of their work, education, religion, or social status - SM persuaders use notion of a people to unify & provide means of identification - Movements portray themselves as grassroots, citizens, or majority movements. - People in movements share interests, needs, values, & wisdom (common ground) Identification Tactics - Use plural pronouns to imply identification, common purpose, & struggle (implied we: subtly establish commonality) - Feeling of being together in the great moral struggle - When people become involved w/ groups or participate in group actions they become more tolerant, or sympathetic, of the views of other persuaders or groups. - Separate groups and their individuals can unite around a single cause. - SM members may share significant appearance. - Persuaders & movements may identify by adapting language to audiences. (Stokely Carmichael’s) - Protestors may identify w/ audiences through content adaption. - Persuaders reflect audience values, belief, & attitudes by identifying w/ moral symbols & revered documents rather than attacking or disparaging them. (ex. We the People in the women’s and Labor movements) - SMs also identify with the values, beliefs, & attitudes of audiences by identify with heroes & founders. (ex. Women’s suffrage = Elizabeth Cady Stanton) o Shows movement is heir of societal norms, values, etc. - A persuader may create identification by referring to individuals unrelated to the movement but who the audience honors & respects. - Movements link themselves with other SMs active at the tie that already have degree of respect Identity Politics - Outcome of 1950-1960 SMs - Based on groups who claim to represent the interest of members - Process of reclaiming & redefining attributes of group membership - Rejection of the narratives from dominant culture - Transforming groups’ sense of “self” - Social interaction & communication is used to establish, maintain, and change one’s identity - Assumptions of Identity Politics: o 1. Members of the group share common histories & analyses of their historic & continual shared oppression o 2. Shared oppression is marker of identity that supersedes all other forms of identity. o 3. Group members are fierce & constant allies. - Four tiers/layers of personal identity o Personal Layer: feelings thoughts, & ideas about ourselves o Enactment Layer: the roles we play (ex. Son, father, son, etc.) o Communal Layer: links us to larger groups or cultures Polarization - Unite with one group, cause, or movement is to separate from some other group, cause, or SM. - Clear distinction between evil other & virtuous self (we-they dichotomy) - No middle ground - 2 primary strategies: (contrast “us” & “them”) o Affirmation: judicious selection of images that will promote a strong sense of group identity  Highest values in a moral struggle o Subversion: careful selection of those images that will undermine ethos of competing groups, ideologies, or institutions  Flag issues and Flag Individuals. Attacking them garners media attention. - Divides in order to unite those who support a cause & force commitment from those attempting to remain aloof - “If you are not with us, you are against us.” - We: righteous, moral, self-sacrificing individuals, true believers - They: institutions, silent majority, media, countermovements, competing SMs, and those who movement is fighting for but don’t participate Framing - “Frame is central organizing idea for making sense of relevant events & suggesting what is at issue” - Facts are neutral until framed & given some form or context & meaning. - Framing affects public understanding of an issue or event - Framing is a process where communicators act to construct a particular POV encouraging a situation to be viewed in a particular manner - Framing of an issue must be well within the larger established belief-value - Includes what you focus/ don’t focus on Tactics (Language/Rhetorical) - Songs - Slogans - Obscenity - Nonverbal - Ridicule - Labeling - Symbolic Persuasion & Social Movements: Chapter 5 Leaderless movement? Public perceptions of social movement leadership (re: individualism) Saul Alinksy's (6) attributes for successful organizers Essential/critical attributes of leadership (charisma, prophecy, pragmatism) - Diversity of orgs & activist & low visibility of leaders within SMs have led theorists to identify leaderless movements o Such movements typically not SM or SMO but “lone wolves” or small cells more accurately labeled “leaderless convergences” o Some SMs may appear to be leaderless b/c leaders or seldom in the media or unknown to the public - Perceptions of SM leadership based on faith in individualism, perfection of institutions, & ability of individuals & institutions to cope with real & serious problems. - Media perceptions seldom favorable o Portrayed as disruptive, dangerous, radical, laughable (Ex. Malcom X) - Institutions reinforce public perceptions, don’t hear about leaders unless it was violent (Ex. John Brown’s raid) - Public stigmatizes leaders a demagogues who lie & exaggerate and resort to name calling and rely on emotional appeals for personal gain & power. 6 Attributes for Successful Organizers 1. Curiosity: question social norms and values “Why” “Why not” & their curiosity is contagious 2. Irreverent: have little regard for social norms. They just don’t care about them 3. Imagination: create new ideas, tactics, & organizational structures adapted to ever-changing environments (Ex. MLK decided overt actions needed, not NAACP actions) 4. Sense of Humor: relieve tensions, ease fears of members taking part in nonviolence, ridicule opposition 5. Organized Personalities: maintain order w/in movement orgs & mange uncertainties when confronting powerful institutions a. As chaos appears they must remain rational & in control 6. Strong egos, but not egotism: Believe in themselves & abilities to achieve goals if they are to instill confidence & belief in others while simultaneously being realistic about odds, take minimal gains, make best of them, & know when to retire Charismatic Leaders - Gain legitimacy through their perceived access to divine inspiration - Have sense of timing & rhetorical skills to articulate what is intangible to others - Able to lead fellow activist in direct actions that stir things up, give life to SMs, and make people believe in the impossible - Feel they have the duty to lead and exhibit exceptional heroism, bravery, & endurance to point of martyrdom for the cause - Great examples: MLK & Malcom X Prophecy Leaders - Get legitimacy from followers through proximity to the belief-disbelief systems of movements - May have composed important segments of the movement’s doctrine o Considered most knowledgeable authority on doctrine o Nearest in spirit to the doctrine - Elaborate, justify, & explain principles, myths, beliefs, & methods identifies with their movement - Know the “truth” & set moral tone for their movements - Judge legitimacy of decisions by reference to ideology to truth—not by ends achieved Pragmatism - Achieve legitimacy through organizational expertise, efficiency, & tact - Believe SM require secure & stable foundations for growth - Bring common sense & healthy skepticism to movement orgs - Seek inclusiveness by making movement acceptable to outsides - Devote energy to fund-raising, recruiting, & organizations Persuasion & Social Movements: Chapter 4 Five Stages of a Social Movement (genesis, unrest, mobilization, maintenance, termination) Exigence Manifesto Devil & God Terms Trigger Events - SMs don’t follow a linear pattern from birth to death. They can stall for long periods at different stages, retreat to earlier stages, or die. - Five stages in life cycle of a SM: Genesis, Unrest, mobilization, Maintenance, & Termination. o Studying these stages allow analysis of adaptive, evolutionary patterns, who the people of the movement are, why they are as they are, and how they got that way Stage 1: GENESIS - SMs typically begin during relatively quiet times with respect to the issue being addressed. People, media, institutions may be unaware of problem, or consider it insignificant or low priority OR other events dominate their attention (Ex. NCAA tournament, Super Bowl) - Individuals unknown to one another perceive an “imperfection” in existing order - Beginning of SM is almost impossible to predict or discern. There is never really one isolated moment. - Pre-Genesis/Early Genesis: restless individuals see an imperfection that will get more severe unless institutions address it quickly & earnestly - Early activists are intellectuals & prophets: o they lead through their words, strive for perfection, & work for good of society o strive to expose failings of institutional leaders & status quo o meet little opposition in genesis b/c few take them serious or know their concerns o produce scholarly essays, editorials, songs, websites, etc. to transform perceptions of reality & self o must excel at defining & visualizing through words to transform perceptions of reality  believe that institutions will act if they know the problem exists o these leaders are thinkers & educators, not agitators  they are a people of words to undermine institutions, discredit those in power, weaken prevailing beliefs & loyalties, & set stage for the rise of mass movement o Prophet not only apprehends exigence (something that needs correcting) but attempts to create interest among readers & listeners for perceiving & solving the problem. o Prophets persist b/c interest only builds through the problem gets known through vivid representation - Length of genesis varies not only on protestors but on social conditions & events (Ex. Before agitation for independence there were decades of sermons) - Triggering event may propel a minimally organized, ideologically uncertain, & barely visible SM from genesis to social unrest o Violent act may arouse unlikely activist into action - Active, comparable protests are active, a fledgling social movement may take shape rapidly (Ex. Females in abolition & civil rights movement) - Most important persuasion during the genesis are the apprehension of exigence & cultivation of commitment among aroused people to address the exigence - Without genesis there would be no movement b/c the seeds of discontent would wither Stage 2: SOCIAL UNREST - Increasing # of people rise up & express their concerns & frustrations over issues - Struggle becomes visible to media for first time as a movement - Prophets & intellectuals in genesis stage turn into or join agitators (people who stir things up) - Agitators : initiate organizations, form ideology, & transform perceptions of self & reality - Conventions of like-minded people to form organizations or coalitions - Forming unions & coalitions may alter self-perceptions & enhance legitimacy of rising SM - Ideology in gatherings may enhance self-esteem & legitimacy by identifying SM with the people, grassroots movements in mainstream U.S society - An important activity of organizational gatherings is to frame a manifesto: a proclamation, or statement of principles setting forth movement’s ideology o Manifesto pulls together into verbal text elements the exigence, devils/scapegoats (who you blame), & principles  Those who espouse them are bound together by their shared beliefs  Must hail persons whose attention it seeks, then create shared history  More powerful & hits a chord if it identifies successfully with extant  Ideologies have set of devil terms (tyranny, segregation, big government, etc) and god terms (freedom, liberty, equality, etc) - Forming org sets members apart from nonmembers & institutions to make we-they distinctions. o Members = elites w/ mission & devise strategies for fulfilling their moral crusade o Activists attempt to instill feelings of self-identity/respect, & power absent when individuals weren’t members - Primary persuasive function of activists is transforming perceptions of reality o Believe if they can raise consciousness of institutional leaders & followers, institutions will solve exigence - Advocates may petition many institutions - Institutions may deny severity or existence of problem, o May stigmatize movement as naïve, ill informed, unpatriotic, & loud majority  Seeks to stall movement by discrediting or ignoring until it goes away  Media also treats SM with ridicule - Length of social unrest stage depends on number of people attracted to movement, reactions of institutional agents, new trigger events or exigence - Triggering events like loss of election, failure of congress to pass legislation lead to loss in faith in willingness of institution to solve exigencies & effectiveness of normal persuasive means Stage 3: ENTHUSIASTIC MOBILIZATION - Activists begin to see institutions as the problems or as active conspiracies to sustain power & stifle all reasonable efforts to bring about urgently needed action - When frustration leads to disaffection w/ institutions & their willingness to resolve problems, the SM enters enthusiastic mobilization when true believers populate the SM - Agitators see movement as the only way to bring about change - Optimism is rampant - Activists only see if-only images of social processes, problems, & solutions - Internet enables orgs & activists to keep people instantly informed, involved, committed - The greater the perceived threat, the greater the counterefforts of the institution o If counter-persuasive efforts fail, institutions may suppress the threat through arrests & violence (Ex. Civil rights movement) - Demonstrations and symbolic acts (hunger strikes, symbolic actions, civil disobedience) replace sedate conventions & conferences o Coercive persuasion replaces rhetoric of speeches, leaflets, pamphlets, newsletters - Protestors harass institutional agents & persons who do not comply with their demands. Threats work (ex. People afraid to wear fur because of PETA) - Targets see greater threat to their persons & families & face irate neighbors who don’t want “radicals” & “fanatics” - Persuaders employ harsh rhetoric & symbolic acts to pressure institutions into compromise, to polarize the movement & its opposition to provoke repressive acts that reveal the true ugliness of institutions - Persuasion is replete with name-calling against devils & conspirators o Ridicule the enemy to make enemy as “ineffective, clownish characters.” - If agitators are inept at adapting & changing persuasive strategies & judging how far to push, they may provoke institutional & public outrage - A few violent acts may doom protest o Public & institutions think an act in the name of a SM and its cause is an act by the movement - As SM evolve they get internal conflicts & deal with competing orgs - Charismatic leaders o replace intellectuals & prophets o control movement by forming strong orgs & coalitions and stir up excitement w/in membership o confront & polarize, excite & insult, unite & fragment, (de)legitimize - Leaders & followers may become martyrs o Charismatic leaders employ their deaths to shape unity & determination to fulfill aims in the name of fallen heroes - Protest may decide altering ideology or persuasive strategies are necessary to keep movement fresh, to counter resistance, or to meet changing circumstances o Leaders have to sell change to not “sellout” - When conflict in movement gets severe, there are bitter we-they distinctions o Former members = traitors o Some members incapable of true understanding or involvements o Members purge to purify movements - SMs may achieve notable goals & victories during this stage o Sweeping & meaningful changes still elusive so extravagant hopes that energized the movement fade - Frustration from new activists leads to disaffection with SM preaching patience & gradualism (ex. Carmichael in Civil Rights) Stage 4: MAINTENANCE - Moves to this stage when movement must revert to earlier posture to sustain existence - Return to more quiet times - Requires a pragmatist who is skilled in appealing to dissimilar elements w/in movement and directly dealing with institutional leaders. Agitators role is diminished directly b/c unsuited for diplomacy and administration - Pragmatists o perfects organization, maintain the movement’s progress as it starts to work with institutions. o Capable of healing, administering, & bargaining - Moderate strategies of pragmatist more acceptable to institutions - Persuasive function at this stage is to sustain the movement o Must also recruit new members o Must sustain or resuscitate hope & optimism - Leaders & members become more distant - Tasks like fundraising, recruiting, mailings, etc. may become ends themselves - Rhetoric becomes internal (Ex. Rosa Parks being honored) - SM looks for triggering events to return to enthusiastic mobilization stage - Crusade may suffer severe blows - Movement doesn’t hold on to past accomplishments, must press forward and achieve in small increments - Rebirth of enthusiastic mobilization eludes most or comes too late Stage 5: TERMINATION - Focus limited resources on less divisive targets - Movements & institutions grow weary of confrontations & legitimizers more likely to support goals in normal means & channels - Requires advocates who can modify principles so they correlate closely to institutional beliefs, attitudes, & values—bringing agitation to close - SM ceases to be a SM o Can die, become another collectivity, blend into an institution, or become an institution - If SM was successful, it can declare victory & disband - Most SM seem to fade b/c they disappear from public eye - If SM maintains effective organization & principles match current conventions & practices, it may become the new order - Strive for obedience among the membership & people, bring end to tensions - Moment is believed to reach state of absolute perfection & morality - Few SMs are successful & turn into pressure groups, parties, etc. - If SM gets a lot of support & members become armed, it may become an insurrection, violent uprising, or full-blown revolution - During termination activist may become as disaffected w/ social movements as they once were with institutions o Members & sympathizers go back to normal, ordinary lives o Former agitators may continue to work for change o Some activists go to “privatism” to change themselves or inner circles, not society at large Reading Quiz #2 1. In Chapter 5 of Persuasion and Social Movements, the authors dedicate a section to “Leaders as Organizers,” citing the work of Saul Alinsky, who identified essential attributes of successful organizers (117-19). Describe and explain at least three of those attributes. Three of Saul Alinsky’s attributes were irreverence, imagination, & strong ego without egotism. What Saul meant when he said successful leaders are irreverent is that they have little regard for what is a social norm, unafraid to defy the status quo and what is consider socially acceptable. By imagination he meant a successful leader must be creative with new ideas & approaches. Saul believes that a successful leader should have a strong ego but not be egotistical, meaning that the leader should have confidence in his or herself, the decisions he or she makes, and in the SM. 2. Why are public perceptions of social movement leaders in the U.S. “seldom favorable”? What is the role of individualism in those perceptions? The public perception of SM leaders is seldom favorable because leaders are thought to be radicals. Institutions & the media alike portray social movement leaders as some type of terrorist, extremist, or another entity looking to upset the balance of American life & take away a right that has been bestowed upon society. Individualism plays a role because leaders are seen as a person doing things only for their personal gain & benefit rather than for the good of all people. Also individualism plays a role when one person does something in the name of an organization that is violent or dangerous and is mislabeled as a leader. The Rhetoric of Agitation & Control: Chapter 6 Role of Mass Media Tactics used by agitators Tactics used by establishment Agitative Mobilization - 1968 saw a sharp rise in political activism& in the confrontation & violence associated with agitation o Dissent was focused on national polices, particularly war in Vietnam o Young dissenters believed they were suppressed by American society & were pursuing equality - Young radicals conclude confrontation was most effect way to challenge political establishment in Chicago - Protest & suppression in Chicago were particularly significant b/c of television broadcast across the nation Background - Agitating groups o MOBE: politically focused o Yippies: countercultural, uninhibited lifestyle o Coalition: mainly young people supporting candidacy of Senator Eugene McCarthy. Used discursive means of persuasion (petition & political activities) - Police & Chicago residents saw agitating groups as “outside agitators” that didn’t respect the way people live their way of life - To increase control, city passed ordinances to control potential riots The Rhetoric of Agitation & Control: Chapter 2 Strategies of Agitation (8) King's 6 insights into aspects of nonviolent philosophy Flag Issues/Flag Individuals - Strategies: general choices available to dissenters & to the establishment - Tactics: More specific choices governed by those strategies o Rhetoric used: written, oral, nonverbal, or mass media. Depends on individuals or groups producing the messages. Discourse may be charming, insulting, inviting, etc. Agitation Strategies 1. Petition - Agitators can use normal discursive means of persuasion - Tactics: selection of appeals, target audiences, types and sources of evidence, appropriate tone of message, style of language - If establishment can show dissenters didn’t attempt petition they can label them as “irresponsible individuals who reject normal decision-making process who favor disturbance & disruption.” o No petition stage = establishment can effectively discredit agitators to the point where they diminish or die 2. Promulgation - Agitators publicly state goals and employ tactics to GATHER PUBLIC SUPPORT and RECRUIT members o Tactics: mass media (most efficient to gather members), technology, Internet, posters, bumper stickers, handbills, leaflets, mass protest meetings - Inform the public of agitators’ positions to win public acceptance of ideology, value system, beliefs, and policies. - News media don’t consider ideologies newsworthy, only violence & conflict. Also don’t see fair treatment of agitators profitable. o Ideology explanations don’t fit in sound bites o Media may have biases will affect how story is reported o Location of protest may affect media’s willingness to cover events o Leaders consider media coverage success o Major media events like Olympics can be exploited to get dissenters’ messages to public - 2 ways to exploit mass media o Seek Legitimizers: individuals w/in the establishment who endorse some parts of the agitators’ ideology o Stage Newsworthy Events: use unusual tactics or involve conflict. - Agitators can appear before congress & use their testimony to secure coverage of beliefs & ideology - Agitators must learn to adapt their messages to attract the attention of the media. - Ultimately, activists must work to keep attention of media & public by inventing new ways to build & hold interests. 3. Solidification - Create a sense of community that may be vital to the success of the movement - Produces or reinforces the cohesiveness of its members, increasing responsiveness to group beliefs, values, & ideologies. o Difficult b/c dissenters are energized but difficult to control - Tactics: (mainly reinforcing) plays, funerals & rituals, songs, art & poetry, slogans, clothing, etc. - Revolutionary theatre is an effective b/c it entertains & raises consciousness o Motivate into action, organize people into efficient unity, points out societal problems & possible solutions o Designed to appeal to those who already accept agitator ideology or those open to persuasion if given an effective appeal - Martyrs become powerful figures for solidification w/in an organization - Movement songs make people unified and more powerful o Songs give courage & vigor to carry on and establish, define & affirm selfhood in social movements. - Themes of protest music: 1. Innocent Victim vs. Wicked Victimizer 2. Powerful & Brave vs. Weak & Cowardly 3. United & Together 4. Important & Valuable 5. Righteous & Moral - 3 Rhetorical Characteristics of Songs: 1. Reactive Dimensions 2. Simplistic Dimensions 3. Expressive Dimension - Slogans: pointed term, phrase, or expression. Create definite impressions & elicit emotional reactions o Simplify ideology so it can be understood o Emphasize point, issue, or message o Create attention, interest, & raise consciousness o Convert people o Inspire people o Rationalize actions, attitudes, & beliefs o Discredit establishment & opponents of movement o Polarize positions between establishment and movement o Redefine, counter, play down opponent - Agitators often create symbols to accompany songs, plays, & slogans - Creation of positive terms is another means building solidarity - Group often chooses a word with negative connation & promotes its use as a positive attribute. (Ex. Black, gay) o By taking derogative term from society and making it a badge of honor the agitators assert power. - Consciousness-raising (C-R) groups are for discovering shared problems and ways to improve self-image so the group can move to action. (Ex. Teach-ins, sit-ins, die-ins) - In-group newspapers & publications also solidify, promulgate, & polarize. Polarization - Polarization assumes that any individual who has not committed to the agitation supports the establishment - Painting issues for & against defines this stage - Designed to move individual into the agitation ranks o “Part of the problem or part of the solution.” o Choose between agitators or establishment. - Flag issues & Flag individuals: attacking these issues or individuals attracts media attention - Flag Individual often is president of university of government figure o Purpose of targeting is to polarize uncommitted individuals - Action is criteria for membership in agitating group - Invention of Derogatory Jargon for establishment groups is another way to polarize Nonviolent Resistance - Use physical presence of agitators to produce “creative tension” - Use physical/economic absence to create tension for negotiation and adjustment - Nonviolence: agitators violate laws or customs they consider unjust and destructive of human dignity - Strategy is “creative disorder”: sit-ins, boycotts, strikes, fasts, etc. - Establishment agreeing to demands = disorder ends - Main recourse of establishment is to physically remove agitators o Most times police act violently and this gets to press, garnering support & sympathy for movement o Agitators shouldn’t react with violence becomes the community would pressure establishment for legal remedies to end protests. - Nonviolent resister focuses on flag issues, not flag individuals - Civil disobedience: when agitator breaks a law considered to be unjust on purpose - Nonviolence is instrumental rather than consummatory, it is also symbolic. - Persistence is required. Presence is a nuisance. Aspects of nonviolence: (pg. 44) - All energy of nonviolent resister is to policy he or she is violating - Nonviolence doesn’t seek humiliation of opponents but their friendship and understanding - The attack is directed at forces of evil, not the people who commit evil. - Impersonal nature - Internal state of resister - Optimistic conviction about the nature of life Escalation/Confrontation - When establishment becomes apprehensive it over-prepares for agitation and will look foolish and have its flaws shown. st - 1 Tactic: Contrast: objective is to lead establishment to expect the participation of large numbers of agitators. Uses rumor & underground press to hint establishment that worse possible outcome can happen - 2 ndTactic: Threatened Disruption: rumors & underground press to increase establishment tension with attitudes & objectives of agitators - 3 Tactic: Nonnegotiable Demands: allows no room for establishment to maneuver - Once agitation begins agitators can be nonverbally offensive using posters/signs - Can also use (non)verbal obscenity to be psychologically confrontational - Token Violence: attacks on establishment representatives. If establishment overreacts it will lose credibility. Gandhi & Guerilla - Confront establishment with agitators committed to nonviolence and one violence committed. - Guerilla is only attacks on an unpopular establishment Revolution - War. The Rhetoric of Agitation & Control: Chapter 1 What is Agitation? Control? Vertical vs. Lateral Deviance Social Power Agitation - Agitation: persistent, long-term advocacy for social change, where resistance to the change is also persistent & long term. o Ex. Efforts of MLK, Nelson Mandela, Cesar Chavez, etc. Style of persuasion characterized by a highly emotional argument based on the citation of grievances & alleged violation of moral principles. o Ex. Patrick Henry & Samuel Adams during the American Revolution - Agitation exists when 1. People outside the normal decision-making establishment a. Legislation, power of deciding policy b. Enforcement, giving negative & positive sanctions to those who violate/observe policies 2. Advocate significant social change and a. Social Change: alteration in way society works i. Substantive or Procedural b. Significance is subjective 3. Encounter a degree of resistance within the establishment such as to require more than the normal discursive means of persuasion a. Verbal appeals & essays aren’t enough, other actions are needed for successful agitation rhetoric - Why does agitation occur? o Strong dissatisfaction w/ existing problems, policies of government, & other organizations o When individual or group has grievances & challenging the social order is necessary o Event or establishment action inspires individual dissent  Ex. Bloody Friday - Two Kinds of Agitation o Vertical Deviance: when agitators accept the value system of the establishment but dispute the distribution of benefits or power w/in the value system a. When person in subordinate rank attempt to enjoy the privileges & prerogatives of those in superior rank b. Issues are easier to understand b/c based on single value system & focus of distribution of benefits c. Usually ends when establishment makes appropriate concessions/adjustments  Ex. Ten year old smoking, Labor Movement o Lateral Deviance: when agitators dispute the value system itself & seek to change it or replace it with a competing value system a. Occurs in a context in which the values of the nondeviant are rejected b. Ideology & agitation less direct & more complex b/c working outside of the system where rules & communication channels not defined c. Establishments reject action & ideas of agitators b/c they can’t understand them - Control: response of the decision-making establishment to agitation - Establishments has control of language, defining society, mass media, information, influence, wealth, power, status, etc. - Establishments can give negative labels to agitators (ex. Deviants, outsiders, etc.) Social Change - Social Organization is 1. Structured with set of procedures by which decisions are made & set of positions in which decision making power rest. 2. Goal Oriented Ideology: set of statements that define the unique characteristics of the organization & express the unique set of beliefs to which members subscribe - Social Power 1. Universal to Western Culture 2. Individual/group doesn’t voluntarily give up power 3. Exercise of social power is satisfying in itself - Have power over another when one can influence the other’s behavior - Reward Power: One party can give benefits to the second o Both establishment & agitator possess this - Coercive Power: One group can influence another’s behavior through threats o Establishment is capable of this - Legitimate Power: When one individual or group is perceived by another as having assigned position o Establishments always control legitimate power - Referent Power: When individual influenced is attracted to & identifies with that individual or group - Expert Power: when one individual/group has superior knowledge or skill in a particular area of influence o Agitators = totally depend on referent & expert power.


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