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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Logan Harker on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PE 3070 at Southern Utah University taught by Paul Maggio in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Exercise Physiology in Physical Education at Southern Utah University.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Logan Harker Sound Research a. Preponderance of Evidence b. Placebo Effect c. Assign Cause and Effect Relationships 2. Scientific Method a. Questio b. Research: try to find an answer c. Formulate Hypothesis (SWAG) d. Test Hypothesis i. Design Test 1. Longitudinal 2. Cross Sectional 3. DoseResponse 4. Crossover 5. Blind Study 6. Double Blind 7. Popluation/Sample size ii. Only test one variable at a time to limit perception bias or other contributing factors 1. Single Variable (has test and control group, standardized conditions, and I and D variables) iii. Dependant Variable: 1. What happened? 2. Record Datainterpretation 3. Report Dataso it can be replicated 4. Accept/Reject once reviewed e. Red Flags i. Secrets ii. For sale iii. Advertisements 3. Framingham, Massachusetts Study a. Confounding Factors: overwhelming data a the beginning and time it took i. collected data and saw patterns ii. learned about health and fitness related to heart Muscle Structure and Function 1. Skeletal Muscle a. Striated b. most originate close to midline c. insertion is the moveable parttendons d. Micro to macro i. Endomysium ii. Paramysium iii. Epimysium iv. Sarcolema 1. Each bundle is surrounded by connective tissue e. Myofibril/Sarcomere i. Actin: thin filaments ii. Myosin: thick filaments iii. M line iv. Z band v. Titin: protein that maintains spacing (shock absorber) for the actin so that force is evenly distributed f. one muscle cell does not run the entire length of the musclebranching g. Motor unit: groups of cells and myofibrils innervated by motor nerve i. action potential: whole process that causes contraction ii. sarcoplasmic reticulum: network of tubes to move potassium and calcium quicky in and out iii. excitation/contraction coupling happens in transfer from eve impulse to muscle contraction 1. ACH is released in synaptic gap 2. Cause polarization of cell 3. Sodium is released and enters space between thin and thick process (Ca exposed to myosin head) a. allows for troponin and tropomyosin to move b. Ca binds to troponin causing tropomyosin to expose myosin binding sites on actin 4. Cross bridges can attach to active site on actin filament: Sliding Filament Theory (power stroke) 2. Types of Muscle Fibers a. Type 1: slow twitch. aerobic activity b. Type 2: fast twitch. anaerobic activity 3. Contractions a. Concentric: muscle shortens b. Eccentric: lengthens c. Static: no movement i. combination of these in training is best d. Brain remembers sequencing of motor recruitment 4. Bioenergetics: use of energy for cell metabolism a. metabolism: all processes that use energy b. energy: measured in cal. k cal1000calories. 1 g of water 1 celsius 5. Law of Conservation of Energy: energy cannot be created or destroyed (stored in bonds) 3 Substrates 1. Carbs: glucose, brain activity, stored in liver and muscle cells, 4cal/g 2. Fats: high energy yield, transported as FFA, 9cal/g 3. Protein: 4cal/g Energy Pathways 1. Mass Action Effect: most available/abundant substrate will be used first 2. Negative Feedback: as soon as we use energy=ADP which causes release of enzyme AtPase a. absence/less of something causes a release/production of that to maintain homeostasis b. causes opposite reaction to occur 3. ATPPC a. burst of energy b. PC breaks down to restore ATP c. anaerobic 110 sec 4. Glycolytic a. anaerobic b. transported glucosestored glycogen c. 6 carbon sugar broken into pyruvate acid and lactic acid d. yields 2 ATP e. 1545 sec. fully exhausted 22:30 min 5. Oxidative a. aerobicuses O2 b. makes 32 ATP c. mitochondriacellular resp d. pyruvate to ActCoA e. crossover process benefits all energy pathways as long as iven rest periods replenish those stores 6. Fats: . broken down into Act CoA. 100s of ATP from FFA 7. Protein: not often used. won’t use muscle for food. Endocrine System 1. Glands secreting hormones that maintain homeostasis 2. Hormones are similar to but are more complex than enzymes 3. Enzymes: change energy pathways. catalysts. 4. Hormones: respond to negative feedback. “thermostat” 5. Steroidal: a. fat soluble b. pass through cell c. repair damage d. replace e. break down f. produce enzymes inside cell g. control cell function 6. Nonsteroidal a. water soluble b. not in cell c. work on cell membrane d. open membrane gateschanges permeability e. activates enzyme release f. works with adrenal hormonessympathetic response 7. Dozens of hormones in our body contribute to homeostasis 8. Pituitary Gland a. master glandlinks nervous and endocrine b. secretes hormones, regulates neurotransmission c. HGH i. growth and development ii. regulates glucose/fat energy pathway iii. increase use of FFA, decrease glucose use iv. speed protein synthesis v. regulates fluid level vi. main neg. feedback chemical is sodium vii. ADHanitdiuretic 9. Thyroid Gland a. Thyroxine i. controls metabolism ii. low thyroxin=low energy, tired, low HR and BP, increased body fat iii. high thyroxin=opposite, increase FFA availability, speed glucose uptake 10. Adrenal Glands a. Epi and norepi i. Fight or flight b. Cortisol i. conserves FFA and glycogen after prolonged high intensity exercise ii. untrained about 40 min increase cortisol iii. trained about 90 min increase cortisol iv. enduces catabolism v. response to damage over time vi. lowers immune response 11. Pancreas a. Insulin: i. regulates blood sugar ii. negative feedback for low blood sugar iii. immediate effect on blood sugar 12. Energy Release a. Insulinrelease when glucose is high i. inhibits the use of FFA for energy b. Glucagonrelease when glucose is low. breaks down glycogen from liver and muscles 13. Fluid/Water Balance a. PituitaryADH regulated by electrolytes b. Increased sodium>ADH released to increase water retention c. blood becomes thicker. Potassium and Ca controlled by osmolality of blood d. hemoconcentration e. need a lot of hormones and physiological changes caused by exercise Goals 1. Performance a. strength/power b. speed c. agility d. quickness/reaction time 2. Fitness a. muscle strength b. muscle endurance c. flexibility d. cv fitness e. body comp. 3. Exercise is constant and predictableeveryone will respond just differently 4. Principle of Heredity heredity factors affect outcome/performance 5. Healthy individuals response a. exercise b. nutrition c. maintain a level health 6. Strength: force that a muscle can generate (1RM) a. neural b. muscular (hypertrophy/size, hyperplasia/number) 7. Power: force(displacement)/time 8. Muscle Endurance: time over which max or near max force can be applied 9. Aerobic Endurance: measured in VO2 Max (2 min) 10. Anaerobic Power: rate at which energy metabolism occurs w/o O2 a. Wingate b. Sport specific tests c. improvement a different rates 11. Progressive Overload a. energy pathways b. hormonal systems c. muscular systems d. nervous system e. cv system f. progress will taper out 12. Principle of Specificity a. specific ways to trai body to obtain increased performance in a specific area b. don’t hinder performance by unnecessary exercise c. program variables i. frequency, duration, intensity, sets, reps, time under tension 13. Principle of Regression a. results in detrainingrevert to original state b. body will only sustain necessities c. orderly recruitment: body will make gains more rapidly second time around d. neuromuscular conditioning: communication between brain/spinal cord and muscles 14. Principle of Variation a. vary exercisefacilitates change 15. Power a. muscle size b. neuromuscular function c. muscle strength d. endurace e. energy 16. Periodization a. apply different training goals along the way of reaching bigger goal b. orderly breaking up training into blocks or cycles c. inseasonactive restbase traininghypertrophymuscular enduranceaerobic basestrengthpower, speed, agility i. macrocycles1 yr ii. mesocycles5 time periods iii. microcycles1 wk d. Block: blocks of time to reach goals, more flexible 17. Isokinetic: maintains resistance throughout ROM 18. Plyometrics: eccentricconcentriceccentric 19. Stretch Receptors a. muscle spindleinhibits stretching b. golgi tendon organresponds to stretch 20. ESTEM: Training 1. Core Training: improve strength, function in abs, lower back, hips a. allows for greater limb strength or level of training b. primarily type 1improves muscle spindle function. lowe injuries (yoga, PNF) 2. Interval Training a. combines both energy systems b. bouts of high/low intensity c. 1:10 sec d. HIIP: High Intensity Interval Training i. 30 sec max exertion. 25 min active rest. 34 reps 3. Continuous Training a. low, slow distance intervals 4. Circuit a. Obstacle course, high intensity/low intensity. i.e. crossfit b. need specific goals/training 5. Resistance Training a. Discovered in 1960s b. Enlarged heart c. bad for women d. larger muscles=stronger Neuromuscular Adaptation 1. first adaptation first 6 wks 2. started muscle hypertrophy 3. main cause of strength/power gains 4. increased innervation is required for strength to increase 5. has to be controlled so no overexertion 6. untrained muscles recruit less 7. # of muscle fibersmotor units recruited increases. increase strength not power 8. Rate Coding increaserate of motor units firing. increase power 9. Neural Drive increaseorderly recruitment 10. Autogenic Inhibitors: golgi tendon organs 11. Resistance Training blunts or deactivates coactivation of antagonistic muscles 12. Change in Morphology a. bigger motor end plate b. strength of activation c. lower eergy reuqired to tiitae actio potential d. adaptations occurring between CNS and muscles 13. First a. neural: 68wks b. muscular: 10 wks c. muscle hypertrophyresults from adaptation to overuse and damage i. interstitial material: protein (amino acids), fluid, mitochondria d. over compensation i. fairly high intensity training ii. brings momentary muscle failure iii. greatest hypertrophy gains e. hyperplasia: increase muscle fiber # i. very high intensity ii. timed overcompensation iii. long chronic exposure iv. extreme situation: satellite cell causes branching and additional muscle cells to grow and develop 14. Stop Resistance Training a. atrophy: muscles go back to original size. begins in 24 hours b. 6 wks ½ strength can be lost 15. Restart Res. Training a. growth, neural adaptations, strength will be up to 90% faster b. untrainedstill functioning c. immobilized: muscle not functioning i. loss of strength ii. loss of neural function iii. atrophy iv. starts at 24 hrs and continues at accelerated rate 16. Acute vs. Chronic 17. Elderly vs childre
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