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by: Logan Harker
Logan Harker

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Exercise Physiology
Paul Maggio
Study Guide
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Popular in Exercise Physiology

Popular in Physical Education

This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Logan Harker on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PE 3070 at Southern Utah University taught by Paul Maggio in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Exercise Physiology in Physical Education at Southern Utah University.


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Date Created: 02/23/16
Logan Harker  Sound Research  a. Preponderance of Evidence  b. Placebo Effect  c. Assign Cause and Effect Relationships  2. Scientific Method  a. Questio  b. Research: try to find an answer  c. Formulate Hypothesis (SWAG)  d. Test Hypothesis   i. Design Test  1. Longitudinal  2. Cross Sectional  3. Dose­Response  4. Cross­over  5. Blind Study  6. Double Blind  7. Popluation/Sample size  ii. Only test one variable at a time to limit perception bias or other  contributing factors   1. Single Variable (has test and control group, standardized  conditions, and I and D variables)  iii. Dependant Variable:   1. What happened?  2. Record Data­interpretation   3. Report Data­so it can be replicated  4. Accept/Reject once reviewed  e. Red Flags  i. Secrets  ii. For sale  iii. Advertisements  3. Framingham, Massachusetts Study  a. Confounding Factors: overwhelming data a the beginning and time it took  i. collected data and saw patterns  ii. learned about health and fitness related to heart  Muscle Structure and Function  1. Skeletal Muscle  a. Striated  b. most originate close to midline  c. insertion is the moveable part­tendons  d. Micro to macro  i. Endomysium  ii. Paramysium  iii. Epimysium  iv. Sarcolema  1. Each bundle is surrounded by connective tissue  e. Myofibril/Sarcomere  i. Actin: thin filaments  ii. Myosin: thick filaments  iii. M line  iv. Z band  v. Titin: protein that maintains spacing (shock absorber) for the actin so that  force is evenly distributed  f. one muscle cell does not run the entire length of the muscle­branching  g. Motor unit: groups of cells and myofibrils innervated by motor nerve  i. action potential: whole process that causes contraction  ii. sarcoplasmic reticulum: network of tubes to move potassium and calcium  quicky in and out   iii. excitation/contraction coupling happens in transfer from eve impulse to  muscle contraction  1. ACH is released in synaptic gap  2. Cause polarization of cell  3. Sodium is released and enters space between thin and thick  process (Ca exposed to myosin head)  a. allows for troponin and tropomyosin to move  b. Ca binds to troponin causing tropomyosin to expose  myosin binding sites on actin   4. Cross bridges can attach to active site on actin filament: Sliding  Filament Theory (power stroke)  2. Types of Muscle Fibers  a. Type 1: slow twitch. aerobic activity   b. Type 2: fast twitch. anaerobic activity   3. Contractions  a. Concentric: muscle shortens  b. Eccentric: lengthens  c. Static: no movement  i. combination of these in training is best  d. Brain remembers ​ sequencing of motor recruitment  4. Bioenergetics: use of energy for cell metabolism  a. metabolism: all processes that use energy  b. energy: measured in cal. k cal­1000calories. 1 g of water 1 celsius  5. Law of Conservation of Energy: energy cannot be created or destroyed (stored in bonds)  3 Substrates  1. Carbs: glucose, brain activity, stored in liver and muscle cells, 4cal/g  2. Fats: high energy yield, transported as FFA, 9cal/g  3. Protein: 4cal/g  Energy Pathways  1. Mass Action Effect: most available/abundant substrate will be used first  2. Negative Feedback: as soon as we use energy=ADP which causes release of enzyme  AtPase   a. absence/less of something causes a release/production of that to maintain  homeostasis   b. causes opposite reaction to occur  3. ATP­PC  a. burst of energy  b. PC breaks down to restore ATP  c. anaerobic 1­10 sec  4. Glycolytic  a. anaerobic  b. transported glucose­stored glycogen  c. 6 carbon sugar broken into pyruvate acid and lactic acid  d. yields 2 ATP  e. 15­45 sec. fully exhausted 2­2:30 min  5. Oxidative  a. aerobic­uses O2  b. makes 32 ATP   c. mitochondria­cellular resp  d. pyruvate to ActCoA  e. crossover process benefits all energy pathways as long as iven rest periods  replenish those stores   6. Fats: . broken down into Act CoA. 100s of ATP from FFA  7. Protein: not often used. won’t use muscle for food.   Endocrine System  1. Glands secreting hormones that maintain homeostasis   2. Hormones are similar to but are more complex than enzymes  3. Enzymes: change energy pathways. catalysts.   4. Hormones: respond to negative feedback. “thermostat”   5. Steroidal:  a. fat soluble  b. pass through cell  c. repair damage  d. replace  e. break down  f. produce enzymes inside cell  g. control cell function  6. Nonsteroidal  a. water soluble  b. not in cell  c. work on cell membrane  d. open membrane gates­changes permeability  e. activates enzyme release  f. works with adrenal hormones­sympathetic response  7. Dozens of hormones in our body contribute to homeostasis  8. Pituitary Gland  a. master gland­links nervous and endocrine  b. secretes hormones, regulates neurotransmission  c. HGH  i. growth and development  ii. regulates glucose/fat energy pathway  iii. increase use of FFA, decrease glucose use  iv. speed protein synthesis  v. regulates fluid level  vi. main neg. feedback chemical is sodium  vii. ADH­anitdiuretic   9. Thyroid Gland  a. Thyroxine  i. controls metabolism  ii. low thyroxin=low energy, tired, low HR and BP, increased body fat  iii. high thyroxin=opposite, increase FFA availability, speed glucose uptake  10. Adrenal Glands  a. Epi and norepi   i. Fight or flight  b. Cortisol  i. conserves FFA and glycogen after prolonged high intensity exercise   ii. untrained about 40 min increase cortisol  iii. trained about 90 min increase cortisol  iv. enduces catabolism  v. response to damage over time  vi. lowers immune response  11. Pancreas  a. Insulin:   i. regulates blood sugar  ii. negative feedback for low blood sugar  iii. immediate effect on blood sugar  12. Energy Release  a. Insulin­release when glucose is high   i. inhibits the use of FFA for energy  b. Glucagon­release when glucose is low. breaks down glycogen from liver and  muscles  13. Fluid/Water Balance  a. Pituitary­ADH regulated by electrolytes   b. Increased sodium­>ADH released to increase water retention  c. blood becomes thicker. Potassium and Ca controlled by osmolality of blood   d. hemoconcentration  e. need a lot of hormones and physiological changes caused by exercise   Goals  1. Performance  a. strength/power  b. speed  c. agility  d. quickness/reaction time  2. Fitness  a. muscle strength  b. muscle endurance  c. flexibility  d. cv fitness  e. body comp.  3. Exercise is constant and predictable­everyone will respond ­ just differently  4. Principle of Heredity ­heredity factors affect outcome/performance  5. Healthy individuals response  a. exercise  b. nutrition  c. maintain a level health   6. Strength: force that a muscle can generate (1RM)  a. neural  b. muscular (hypertrophy/size, hyperplasia/number)  7. Power: force(displacement)/time  8. Muscle Endurance: time over which max or near max force can be applied  9. Aerobic Endurance: measured in VO2 Max (2 min)  10. Anaerobic Power: rate at which energy metabolism occurs w/o O2  a. Wingate  b. Sport specific tests  c. improvement a different rates  11. Progressive Overload  a. energy pathways  b. hormonal systems  c. muscular systems  d. nervous system  e. cv system  f. progress will taper out  12. Principle of Specificity  a. specific ways to trai body to obtain increased performance in a specific area   b. don’t hinder performance by unnecessary exercise  c. program variables  i. frequency, duration, intensity, sets, reps, time under tension  13. Principle of Regression  a. results in detraining­revert to original state  b. body will only sustain necessities  c. orderly recruitment: body will make gains more rapidly second time around  d. neuromuscular conditioning: communication between brain/spinal cord and  muscles   14. Principle of Variation  a. vary exercise­facilitates change  15. Power  a. muscle size  b. neuromuscular function  c. muscle strength  d. endurace   e. energy  16. Periodization  a. apply different training goals along the way of reaching bigger goal   b. orderly breaking up training into blocks or cycles  c. inseason­active rest­base training­hypertrophy­muscular endurance­aerobic  base­strength­power, speed, agility  i. macrocycles­1 yr  ii. mesocycles­5 time periods  iii. microcycles­1 wk  d. Block: blocks of time to reach goals, more flexible  17. Isokinetic: maintains resistance throughout ROM  18. Plyometrics: eccentric­concentric­eccentric   19. Stretch Receptors  a. muscle spindle­inhibits stretching  b. golgi tendon organ­responds to stretch  20. E­STEM:   Training  1. Core Training: improve strength, function in abs, lower back, hips  a. allows for greater limb strength or level of training   b. primarily type 1­improves muscle spindle function. lowe injuries (yoga, PNF)  2. Interval Training  a. combines both energy systems  b. bouts of high/low intensity  c. 1:10 sec  d. HIIP: High Intensity Interval Training  i. 30 sec max exertion. 2­5 min active rest. 3­4 reps  3. Continuous Training  a. low, slow distance intervals  4. Circuit  a. Obstacle course, high intensity/low intensity. i.e. crossfit  b. need specific goals/training  5. Resistance Training   a. Discovered in 1960s  b. Enlarged heart  c. bad for women   d. larger muscles=stronger  Neuromuscular Adaptation   1. first adaptation first 6 wks  2. started muscle hypertrophy  3. main cause of strength/power gains   4. increased innervation is required for strength to increase  5. has to be controlled so no overexertion  6. untrained muscles recruit less  7. # of muscle fibers­motor units recruited increases. increase strength not power  8. Rate Coding increase­rate of motor units firing. increase power   9. Neural Drive increase­orderly recruitment  10. Autogenic Inhibitors: golgi tendon organs  11. Resistance Training blunts or deactivates coactivation of antagonistic muscles   12. Change in Morphology  a. bigger motor end plate  b. strength of activation  c. lower eergy reuqired to tiitae actio potential   d. adaptations occurring between CNS and muscles   13. First   a. neural: 6­8wks  b. muscular: 10 wks  c. muscle hypertrophy­results from adaptation to overuse and damage  i. interstitial material: protein (amino acids), fluid, mitochondria  d. over compensation  i. fairly high intensity training  ii. brings ​momentary muscle failure  iii. greatest hypertrophy gains   e. hyperplasia: increase muscle fiber #  i. very high intensity   ii. timed overcompensation  iii. long chronic exposure  iv. extreme situation: satellite cell causes branching and additional muscle  cells to grow and develop   14. Stop Resistance Training  a. atrophy: muscles go back to original size. begins in 24 hours  b. 6 wks ½ strength can be lost  15. Restart Res. Training  a. growth, neural adaptations, strength will be up to 90% faster  b. untrained­still functioning  c. immobilized: muscle not functioning   i. loss of strength  ii. loss of neural function  iii. atrophy  iv. starts at 24 hrs and continues at accelerated rate   16. Acute vs. Chronic  17. Elderly vs childre 


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