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Comm 287 Study Guide 3

by: Stephanie Marie

Comm 287 Study Guide 3 Comm 288

Stephanie Marie
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Sut Jhally study guide for Exam 3.
Sut Jhally
Study Guide
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This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Stephanie Marie on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Comm 288 at University of Massachusetts taught by Sut Jhally in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see in Communication at University of Massachusetts.


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Date Created: 02/24/16
COMM 287 Study Guide Exam 3 Required Films: Film: An Inconvenient Truth Film: The End of Suburbia Film: In Debt We Trust Film: The End of the Line Film: Flow (For Love of Water) Film: End of Suburbia 1. What does James Kunstler label suburbia in terms of resource allocation? Greatest misallocation of resources in the history of the world, living arrangement that does not have a future 2. According to Richard heinberg, what party is coming to an end? Cheap and abundant oil party 3. What are the three kinds of historical suburbs that Kunstler describes? Based on the idea of the manor in the park- the estate in the park- large Victorian neighborhoods just outside central cities, mass motoring suburbs- automobile suburbs 4. In the aftermath of WW2 what were the first suburban development driven by? Soldiers coming home from the war 5. What happens to cities as the population moves to the suburbs? They were gutted- demolition for modern spaces 6. What were GM, Firestone and Standard Oil convicted of? Conspiring to destroy the rail systems in the US 7. How is the interstate highway system connected to population movement? As more people moved to the suburb more highways needed to get people places. These can take you all over the country without seeing the country. Example I93 takes you from Maine to Florida but you never see the states because you are on the highway. 8. What has made our contemporary life possible? Oil- cheap energy, cheap dependable fossil fuels 9. According to Matthew Simmons, what ended with the 2003 blackout? Everything in society that we cherish 10.What is “peak oil” halfway point – world is producing most oil it will ever produce before a decline 11.In what year did U.S. oil production peak? 1970-1971 12.According to Matthew Simmons what country’s peak date is key to recognizing that the world has peaked? Saudia Arabia 13.How will the peak first be felt in the suburbs? increase in oil and gas prices 14.According to James Kunstler what will be the effects of not having access to cheap oil and gas? Local people produce sell things on a much smaller and local scale 15.What will happen to interstate trucking as the highway system deteriorates? End of certain economic relationships we have gotten used to- example: Walmart, going to need to learn how to do retail on the local level 16.What will happen to retail as the crisis hits? Going to have to do retail at a local level 17.What does James Kunstler mean by “cluster fuck?” surburban destiny is a hopeless situation- big mess- political economic social shit storm 18.According to Richard Heinberg, what is bad for the media business? reality 19.According to Richard Heinberg, what is good for the media business? fantasy 20.According to James Kunstler, what are the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq the opening engagements in? a long series of wars over the remaining oil in the world 21.What is the problem with hydrogen as a form of alternative energy? It is a joke, a myth, it is a form of energy storage not energy, it takes more energy to make the hydrogen than the energy hydrogen gives 22.What is the problem with ethanol as an alternative form of energy? Takes more gasoline to grow the corn and convert it to alcohol than you get from burning it 23.Do the people interviewed in the film think that alternative forms of energy can sustain our current way of life? No, there is no combination of anything that will allow planet earth to continue consuming the way it does, no scalable alternatives 24.What is the “new urbanism” advocates a return to more traditional walk-able communities 25.According to Matthew Simmons, what is the only thing that can save us? Massive collective wakeup 26.What will reverse globalization? peak oil- so this causes local economies 27.According to James Kunstler what can we not afford anymore? irony FILM: An Inconvenient Truth 1. What quote from Mark Twain does Gore use to illustrate his point that conventional wisdom can get us into trouble? “What gets us into trouble is not what we don’t know. It’s what we know for sure that just ain’t so” 2. What is one of the most vulnerable parts of the planet? The atmosphere- because it is so thin 3. What did Roger Revelle’s research show? He saw where the story was going, intuited what it meant for what was yet to come-showed the pattern of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere- going up every year 4. Regarding Mt. Kilimanjaro, what does Gore say will disappear within a decade? No more snows 5. What is the particular problem in relation to glaciers in the Himalayas? 40% of all people in world get their water from the melt water from the glaciers but within this next century these people are going to face a shortage because of the melting 6. When Gore goes to Antarctica and looks at core samples in the ice, what specific event does one scientist identify in the ice? Where congress passed the clean air act 7. In 650,000 years what have CO2 levels never risen above? 300 parts per million 8. Where will CO2 levels go to in the future? Its going to continue to go up- off the charts – within the next 50 years 9. In which period have the 10 hottest years of atmospheric temperature been recorded? All occurred in the last 14 years 10.What happens when the oceans get warmer? Causes stronger storms 11.What was responsible for making Hurricane Katrina even more severe once it left Florida? Went over warmer waters- which increased the wind velocity and the moisture- picked up energy and became stronger 12.Why does Gore quote Winston Churchill on the threat of fascism in the 1930s? “ Period of consequences” making mistakes used to have consequences we could overcome but we don’t have that luxury anymore 13.What is the relationship of global warming to precipitation? Global warming causes more precipitation, especially from the bigger storms caused by the higher temp 14.What has happened to Lake Chad in Africa? Once one of the largest lakes in the world and has dried up to almost nothing 15.What is the first of the canaries in the coalmine? First one is in the artic 16.What has happened to the tundra in Alaska over the last 35 years? Was 225 days a year, Now it is below 75 days a year that you can travel on the tundra because the temperatures keep going up 17.Why does the melting of the Artic ice cap increase global warming ? 18.What is happening to polar bears as a result of the ice melting? They are drowning because they are swimming such long distances to find ice 19.What impact will the melting of the Greenland ice have on ocean currents and why is it important? Diluted salty dense cold water so it stopped sinking- the current pump and heat transfer stopped Europe went into an ice age (?) 20.How does global warming affect the feeding of migratory birds in the Netherlands? Ecological niches are effected, chicks used to hatch around june 3 right as the caterpillars were coming out, but 20 years later the caterpillars peaked 2 weeks earlier and the chicks tried to catch up but couldn’t 21.What is the second canary in the coalmine? Antartica 22.What happens if the West Antarctic land ice melts? Flows over the edge, flooding, sea level worldwide would go up 20 feet 23.What would happen to the maps of the world if Greenland broke up and melted? raise sea level almost 20 feet also, the maps of the world will have to be drawn 24.According to Gore what collision are we witnessing at the present time? A collision between our civilization and the earth 25.What is the first of the factors causing the collision? Population 26.What causes almost 30% of the CO2 that goes into the atmosphere in any year? Forests burning 27.What has been transformed by the second factor causing the collision? The scientific and technological revolution- the consequences have been transformed- dramatically altered 28.How much of global warming is the United States responsible for? 30.3 percent 29.What is the third factor causing the collision? our way of thinking 30.Why does Gore tell the story of the frog in the boiling pot? Our collective nervous system is like the frogs system it takes a sudden jolt before we become aware of a danger even when its gradual, we don’t respond or react sometimes 31.Why does Gore tell the story of his sister’s death from lung cancer? We contribute to the problem- they grew tobacco as a family contributing to the problem of cigarettes and his sister got lung cancer, could have been prevented 32.What is the first misconception that bedevils our thinking about global warming? Disagreement among scientists whether the problem is real or not 33.Who did Phillip Cooney go and work for after he resigned from the Bush administration? Exxon Mobil 34.What is the second misconception that affects our thinking? Do we have to choose between the economy and the environment? 35.Why does Gore think that the second misconception offers a false choice? 1. If we don’t have a planet we don’t have anything 2. If we do the right thing then we are going to create a lot of wealth and jobs 36.What is the third misconception that affects our thinking? If we accept that these problems are real, maybe its too big to do anything about it 37.What is the one resource that Gore believes we do not presently have to solve the problem? Political will 38.How does Gore use the example of the hole in the ozone layer? Showed how people banded together to solve a seemingly impossible problem 39.What is at stake in global warming? our ability to live on this planet, have a future as a civilization 40.What suggestions are offered by the filmmakers (in the credits) as to what actions people can take? , buy energy efficient appliances and light bulbs, change your thermostat, recycle, hybrid car, walk or ride bikes FILM: In Debt We Trust 1. What does Shechter call “the democratization of credit”? all the money that we borrow 2. What is “O.P.M.”? Other peoples’ money 3. What is the National Savings Rate? 0 4. Why was the American Revolution, in part, about breaking enslavement to financial debt? Europeans who had debt, they recognized they could not prosper under these financial demands 5. What is Robert Manning’s response to a question about whether or not students should have credit cards? Every student should get a credit card but if they don’t have a co signer it should be capped at 500 dollars 6. What does Manning critique about Barbie dolls? Cash registers, master cards- showing kids to use these 7. With credit card pitchmen outside his lecture, Manning knows he’s fighting an uphill battle against: the culture that thrives on consumption 8. 158 million cardholders worldwide hold an average of how many credit cards per person? 10 9. What gives credit card corporations their power over us? They have more data than the CIA, huge threat to freedom 10. When the film says that credit card companies determine your credit score by using a “proprietary formula,” what is meant by “proprietary”? secret formula 11. According to Hofstra University Law Professor Robert Silverman, the complicated, multiple-page agreements that come in the mail with credit cards are an example of what? Drafting by a risk minimizing lawyer 12. Former credit card executive Steve Barnett calls the MasterCard “priceless” campaign brilliant, because it says credit cards do what? Urge spending- point of this is all is concerned about you and an intact wonderful family 13. What percentage of our economy is based on consumption? 2/3 of economy 14. Our high rates of consumption lead to what “petrifying paradox”? if we cut back on consumption the U.S. economy collapses, we have built a economy that needs rapid consumption 15. What is each American’s share of the national debt? 27,439.48 per person 16. How much does our debt increase every day? 2.83 billion dollars per day 17. Tamara Draut, of Demos Think Tank, says that debt is a symptom of what larger economic & structural issues? Decline in incomes, costs have skyrocketed, public policy- real retrenchment in providing safety net for house holds 18. According to financial historian Michael Hudson, the new economic conflict in our society is not between classes, or employers and employees, but between whom? Creditors and debtors 19. Credit and debt are transforming our industrial economy into an economy based on what? Financial servicing 20. Why is it dangerous that property has come to be seen as the only way to build wealth? 21. What phenomenon explains why far fewer Americans now pay off their mortgages than in the past? Because of constant refinancing 22. Why does bankruptcy attorney Charles Juntikka call banks “evil”? 54% net profit off the poorest members of our society 23. What did the bankruptcy reform law signed by Bush do? Makes it harder to erase debts by declaring personal bankruptcy, cut down on fraud, helps creditors at the expense of the poor 24. How did the bankruptcy reform law signed by Bush just weeks before Hurricane Katrina affect victims of the disaster? Finances devastated- specifically ruled out floods as grounds for bankruptcy 25. Who are the two largest contributors to political campaigns in America? Financial institutions, large real estate developers 26. What is the leading profit engine of the banking industry? Credit card industry 27. What sort of financial “institution are you more likely to find in poor neighborhoods than traditional banks?” check cashing store and tax joints 28. What does the “rent-to-own” phenomenon involve? Lots of installments and interest rates to rent to own things like TVs etc that would actually be cheaper buying in the mall, located in low income areas 29. Over the past 20 years, what have banks discovered about poor people when it comes to debt? The poor are honest- believe they should repay their money, poorer you are greater the likelihood that you will pay back 30. What have the banks that issued homeowners their original mortgages been doing with these mortgages over the past few years? Transfers 100s of billions of dollars from the pockets of the poor to people who are far better positioned then their victims (??) 31. What did the New York Daily News report about the finances of troops coming back from Iraq? More than a 100 thousand US troops have long-term debt in return for short term cash from pay day loan stores 32. Why does the film say, in the end, that we are now in “terra incognita”? we have never reached a point this bad before Film: The End of the Line: 1. What changed Charles Clover’s view of the oceans? When he walked into the wrong press conference in 1990, first presentation he’d seen on the effect of trawling on the seabed, trawling is like plowing a field for sea creatures 2. What view of the oceans has changed as a result of what we have done? That the sea is huge, beautiful that the oceans are full of life, not renewable anymore 3. What did John Crosby, Fisheries Minister Canada, do in 1992? Stop the fishing of cod, made it a rule that the fisherman could not fish the cod 4. According to Professor Jeffrey Hutchings, why did Europeans migrate to Canada? For the cod 5. According to Hutchings, what is loss of cod akin to for Newfoundland ? loss of soul for the communties 6. How did Prof. Daniel Pauly explain the discrepancy between the declines in local catches almost everywhere, and the increases in the global catch? Chinese fishing was wrong- their figures were made up and could not be right 7. Why is fishing one of the biggest problems in the world? It is on the way down- less and less fish, its do something about it time- we need to fix the problem 8. What did the research show on what is happening to fishing stocks species- wide? Declining, less fish per hooks, declined by about 90 percent, species after species had collapsed 9. How big is the mouth of the largest trawler? Big enough to accommodate 13 747s 10.According to Callum Roberts, what does the amount of fishing power that we have at our disposal far outweigh? Our ability to control ourselves 11.The impact of which technology has resulted in one of the largest scale transformations of the planetary environments? The impact of bottom trawlers- nets that are dragged across the sea bed- cut down coral, etc 12.The depletion of which fish signals the most immediate crisis? Blue fin 13.What kind of decision was the European Union setting the quota for Bluefin tuna at twice the recommended level? Political quota, negotiating biology and then the biology won’t survive 14.What would have happened to fisheries ministers if they had been engineers? They would’ve been fired long ago, we would have collapsing buildings etc. because the calculations are so far out, collapse is inevitable 15.How much did the Mediterranean Bluefin industry actually catch? 61 thousand tons 16.What else does the fishing industry in the Mediterranean do that is illegal? The fleets use planes to find the tuna, which is outlawed during this part of the season for the last 10 years 17.How much is unregulated fishing worth? 25 billion dollars a year 18.Why is Mitsubishi sending out extra trawlers? Building up frozen reserves for when the tuna runs out 19.What conclusion does Roberto Mielgo come to about the fishing industry? These guys want to fish until the very last blue fin tuna- they will then go on to other tuna species 20.What does Adama Mbergaul think has betrayed him? The sea 21.Why don’t local fisherman stand a chance? Because tax payers and people with money from the western world pay to buy the biggest fish trawlers to use over seas in distant lands 22.What is thrown back into the sea as waste? 7 million tons of dead creatures including turtles, sea birds, sharks, whales, and dolphins 23.How does Rashid Sumalia characterize Europe’s visa policy? Fish has visa to come in but the people are turned back 24.Where are the live fish available in upscale Japanese restaurants taken from? Taken from the coral triangle- an area of ocean half the size of the US in the seas of Asia 25.What do our insatiable appetites threaten? Threatens to tip the natural balance of nature into chaos 26.What does the example of Cownose Ray in the Chesapeake Bay and lobsters in Newfoundland point to? What can happen when we upset and disrupt the ocean 27.What are the oceans filling up with as large predators are taken out? increase in the abundance in what the predators used to eat- lobster, shrimp 28.What does the changing nature of the oceans point to? Declining stability of the problem, a road of no return 29.If present trends continue, what will happen by the middle of the century? The stocks of fish will have collapsed 30.According to Daniel Pauly, where have all the fish gone? We have eaten them 31.What does Charles Clover think we do not understand? Where it was caught what species it is was it caught illegally, that we are eating endangered species just like cheetahs, etc. 32.Why is Boris Worm hopeful? Now we have a much better understanding of what is going on, track record of when we understood changes and they became public knowledge, and people are starting to make changes, we have time 33.What does Alaska do with regard to fishing? 200 mile fishing limit which it strictly enforces, carefully control how much is being caught and how many boats there are, give fisherman a limited amount of time to fulfill their quota 34.What role can consumers play in protecting the oceans? Have to support the good part of the fishing industry, follow guides for which fishing is better to eat, buy fish from a sustanible source 35.Why is fish farming not the answer to saving the fish? Uses wild fish to feed the farm fish, kills more than it produces, more fish farming we do the less fish we have 36.What are marine reserves? Areas of the world’s oceans where commercial fishing is completely banned 37.What percentage of the world’s oceans are presently protected areas? Less than 1 percent, 0.6 percent 38.What do politicians, consumers and the fishing industry have to do to protect the oceans? Have to act responsibly when making decisions, consumers need to change eating habits, industry needs to abide by the rules and reduce its capacity 39.How is the problem of the oceans different than other environmental problems? It is relatively simple to solve if we act now, we don’t need more knowledge to do so 40.What does the film at the end suggest people do? Ask before you buy, eat only sustansible fish, tell politicians to respect the science, join the campaign for marine protected areas, FILM: Flow (For Love of Water) 1. What is the world running out? fresh water 2. What does the use of pesticides in agriculture lead to? Pollutes the water, need water to dissolve pesticides 3. In laboratory tests what is Atrazine linked with? Endocrine- effects hormones, prostrate cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer 4. Where is Atrazine legal and where is it banned? Entire European Union is it banned, legal in the United States 5. In La Paz, Bolivia, what was diverted into the river? Blood from the slaughterhouse 6. What are poor countries being forced to do to their water systems? To hand over basic control of their water systems to a huge company 7. According to Julian Perez, what was the result of water privatization in the city of El Alto? Many people have been excluded from potable water sources 8. According to Jim Schultz, what are most of the childhood deaths in Bolivia linked to? Illnesses that come from a lack of clean drinking water 9. Why did violence erupt in Cochabamba after 1999? Government privatized the water systems, the citizens wanted to drive out the transnational company Bechtel 10.Who forced water privatization on Bolivia? world bank 11.According to Oscar Olivera, what is at stake in the water wars? Fight against death, a fight for life, fight between dignified life, what is at stake is a joyful, dignified life 12.What did the Bolivian government do in 2007? Ends Suez contract and returns the water systems to the people of La Paz 13.Why are people drinking and using unclean water from the river in South Africa? They don’t have money to pay for clean, tap water, can’t afford to buy a tablet that could filter the water 14.How do poor people in South Africa get tap water? Wait hours at a hose/ spout and only sometimes water comes out, it could be weeks 15.How do poor people in South Africa pay for tap water? 16.What did people in Chatsworth do in reaction to electricity and water cut- off? Illegally reconnected water and electricity 17.What does Jean-Luc Touly say about the progressive language the water companies use? Truly scandalous 18.What does Maude Barlow say is just common sense? You cant deliver the same amount of good quality water, health care of anything else to a population that needs it if your also providing profit for your investors 19.What did Ashok Gadgil come up to provide safe drinking water in Bomminampadu, India? Disinfect water with UV light, this way is affordable 20.Where has most of the past aid investment in water safety gone in India? Only provided water to the politically powerful and economically powerful sectors, once these sections get water their passion to give water declines 21.What days are ending? The days of not caring or thinking about where our water is coming from, the days of just turning on your tap and drinking water 22.According to Erik Olson how many people at the FDA are responsible for regulating bottled water? Less than 1 person 23.How much does the UN estimate it would cost to provide safe cleaning drinking water to the entire planet? An additional 30 billion a year 24.How much is spent on bottled water every year? 3 times 30 billion so 90 billion 25.What is the World Water Council (WWC)? Promote corporate take over of selling water, they will say they come together to provide water to the world- vision of a water future, making water a market 26.According to Jim Schultz, what does debt become for poor countries? The nouse around their neck with which the world bank becomes the government 27.According to Maude Barlow what did the WWC understand about water? Water is the most precious commodity in the world 28.According to Vandana Shiva, what is the Ganges river central to in India? Bring ashes of people to this river when they die, cleans you, purifying sense, river gives them their humanity 29.How is this function under threat? Water is being interrupted by a dirty dam, Suez is trying to sell the water for ten time the amount that the people pay now 30.In the 20th century, what changed in the way that humans utilized water resources? The idea that we could build infrastructure, build big dams to supply water and move rivers etc. 31.How are dams connected to global warming? Altering ecosystems- when you create dams you are trapping organisms and organic matter that begins to rot and make the gas methane that is a greenhouse gas 32.According to Patrick McCully, dams are 20 times worse than what for global warming? Coal power plants 33.Who benefits from dams? Larger farmers 34.How many people have been displaced in the 20th century by dams? 40 to 80 million 35.Who is a major funder of dams? World bank 36.What does the World Bank know how to spend? A billion dollars in one place 37.What does the World Bank not know how to spend? A thousand dollars in a million places 38.What did Rajendra Singh develop? School, small clinic, created wells to trap the water and revive it, water harvesting structures 39.What effect did Nestle’s pumping of water effect? Streams are lowering, bodies of water are turning into mud flats 40.What the Michigan Supreme court decide about Nestle’s actions? ruled in favor of the company 41.How did Chief Seattle reply to the offer by the government of the United States to “buy” Indian land? How can you buy or sell the sky, the warmth of the land? The idea is strange to us. If we do not own these then how do you buy them? We are part of the earth and it is part of us. White man takes whatever he needs from the land. He does not care. Our ways are different from your ways. Plachimanda: 42.How did the women of Placimanda respond to Coca Cola stealing their water? Speak their opinions and truths sitting for almost 2 years 43.What was in the “free fertilizer” that Coke gave to the villagers of Placimanda? The fertilizer is merely a sludge of manufacturing waste, full of toxic levels of cadmium and lead 44.What movement is Rajendra Singh starting in India? Water literacy movement 45.What happens after the multinationals came to India? They controlled every resource of life including water, fertilizer etc. 46.What was part of the conditions under which the Asian Development Bank gave loans for improvements in water quality in Madhya Pradesh? Public stand posts from which the poor people get their water will be shut down 47.According to Ashok Gadgil, where will change come from? Small groups, make people aware of the problems ahead, foot marches 48.According to Jim Schultz, what will be the basis of true solutions to water problems? Local efforts 49.According to Siddharaj Dhadda, whose century will the 21st century be? century of common people 50.What is the proposed Article 31 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights? The Right to Water, everyone has the right to clean accessible water, adequate for the health and well being of the individual and family, and no one shall be deprived of such access or quality of water due to individual economic circumstance


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