Comm 287 Study Guide 1
Comm 287 Study Guide 1 Comm 288
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This 26 page Study Guide was uploaded by Stephanie Marie on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Comm 288 at University of Massachusetts taught by Sut Jhally in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see in Communication at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
Naomi Klein: New Branded World 1. What idea was the gospel of the machine age? The gospel of the machine age was the production of goods. 2. What consensus emerged about corporations in the 1980’s? The consensus that emerged was that corporations must produce brands as opposed to products. 3. What race were new companies such as Nike and Microsoft competing in? They were competing in a race toward weightlessness, where whoever owns the least, has the fewest employees on the payroll, and produces the most powerful images as opposed to products, wins the race. 4. What tools and materials are needed for creating a brand? The tools and materials needed are an endless parade of brand extensions, continuously renewed imagery for marketing, and fresh new spaces to disseminate the brand’s idea of itself. 5. What is the difference between the “brand” and the “advertisement”? Though the words are often used interchangeably, branding and advertising are not the same process. Advertising any given product is only one part of branding's grand plan, as are sponsorship and logo licensing. Think of the brand as the core meaning of the modem corporation, and of the advertisement as one vehicle used to convey that meaning to the world. 6. What was the first function of brandiThe first task of branding was to bestow proper names on generic goods such as sugar, flour, soap and cereal, which had previously been scooped out of barrels by local shopkeepers. 7. According to adman Bruce Barton, what was the role of advertising? In 1923 Barton said that the role of advertising was to help corporations find their soul. The son of a preacher, he drew on his religious upbringing for uplifting messages: "I like to think of advertising as something big, something splendid, something which goes deep down into an institution and gets hold of the soul of it. ... Institutions have souls, just as men and nations have souls," 8. Where did the search for the true meaning of the brand take the agencies?The search for the true meaning of brands - or the "brand essence," as it is often called - gradually took the agencies away from individual products and their attributes and toward a psychological/ anthropological examination of what brands mean to the culture and to people's lives. 9. Why was the purchase of Kraft by Phillip Morris spectacular news for the ad worlhis was spectacular news for the ad world, which was now able to make the claim that advertising spending was more than just a sales strategy: it was an investment in cold hard equity. The more you spend, the more your company is worth. 10.What did the radical shift in corporate philosophy towards the value of branding lead manufactures to engage in?This radical shift in corporate philosophy has sent manufacturers on a cultural feeding frenzy as they seize upon every comer of unmarketed landscape in search of the oxygen needed to inflate their brands. In the process, virtually nothing has been left unbranded. 11.What does David Lubars call consumers? Consumers, he says, "are like roaches - you spray them and spray them and they get immune after a while." 12.What is the “experiential communication” industry? -Barbie is but one small part of the ballooning $30 billon “experiential communication" industry, the phrase now used to encompass the staging of such branded pieces of corporate performance art and other "happenings.” 13.What happened on “Marlboro Friday”On April 2, 1993, advertising itself was called into question by the very brands the industry had been building, in some cases, for over two centuries. That day is known in marketing circles as “Marlboro Friday," and it refers to a sudden announcement from Philip Morris that it would slash the price of Marlboro cigarettes by 20 percent in an attempt to compete with bargain brands that were eating into its market. The pundits went nuts, announcing in frenzied unison that not only was Marlboro dead, all brand names were dead. The reasoning was that if a "prestige" brand like Marlboro, whose image had been carefully groomed, preened and enhanced with more than a billion advertising dollars, was desperate enough to compete with no-names, then clearly the whole concept of branding had lost its currency. The public had seen the advertising, and the public didn't care. The Marlboro Man, after all, was not any old campaign; launched in 1954, it was the longest-running ad campaign in history. It was a legend. If the Marlboro Man had crashed, well, then, brand equity had crashed as well. The implication that Americans were suddenly thinking for themselves en masse reverberated through Wall Street. The same day Philip Morris announced its price cut, stock prices nose-dived for all the household brands: Heinz, Quaker Oats, Coca-Cola, PepsiCo, Procter and Gamble and RJR Nabisco. Philip Morris's own stock took the worst beating. 14.What was “Marlboro Friday” a culminationThe? - panic of Marlboro Friday was not a reaction to a single incident. Rather, it was the culmination of years of escalating anxiety in the face of some rather dramatic shifts in consumer habits that were seen to be eroding the market share of household-name brands, from Tide to Kraft. 15.What happened to corporate strategy as a result of the bargain craze of the early ninetThe bargain craze of the early nineties shook the name brands to their core. Suddenly it seemed smarter to put resources into price reductions and other incentives than into fabulously expensive ad campaigns, drop in advertising spending by corporations 16.According to the agencies, what would competing on the basis of real value lead Stooping to compete on the basis of real value, the agencies ominously warned, would spell not just the death of the brand, but corporate death as well. 17.How did companies such as Coke, Pepsi, McDonald’s, Burger King and Disney respond to the brand crisis? -weren't fazed by the brand crisis, opting instead to escalate the brand war, especially since they had their eyes firmly fixed on global expansion. 18.How did The Body Shop and Starbucks foster powerful brand identitieWhat the success of both the Body Shop and Starbucks showed was how far the branding project had come in moving beyond splashing one's logo on a billboard. Here were two companies that had fostered powerful identities by making their brand concept into a virus and sending it out into the culture via a variety of channels: cultural sponsorship, political controversy, the consumer experience and brand extensions. Direct advertising, in this context, was viewed as a rather clumsy intrusion into a much more organic approach to image building. 19.According to Scott Bedbury, what must brands establishwhich is why brands must "establish emotional ties" with their customer 20.What is the difference between advertising and branding?Advertising is about hawking product. Branding, in its truest and most advanced incarnations, is about corporate transcendence. 21.What was the new consensus that developed as a result of the success of the brand builThe brand builders conquered and a new consensus was born: the products that will flourish in the future will be the ones presented not as "commodities" but as concepts: the brand as experience, as lifestyle. 22.How do brands present themselves on-lineIt is on-line that the purest brands are being built: liberated from the real- world burdens of stores and product manufacturing, these brands are free to soar, less as the disseminators of goods or services than as collective hallucinations. 23.How does Tom Peters separate types of companies? "The top half - Coca-Cola, Microsoft, Disney, and so on - are pure 'players' in brainware. The bottom half [Ford and GM] are still lumpy- object purveyors, though automobiles are much 'smarter' than they used to be," Peters writes in The Circle of Innovation (1997), an ode to the power of marketing over production. 24.In the new context, how did ad agencies present themselves to their clienIn this high-stakes new context, the cutting-edge ad agencies no longer sold companies on individual campaigns but on their ability to act as "brand stewards": identifying, articulating and protecting the corporate soul. 25.What does Phil Knight think Nike’s missioNike, Phil Knight announced in the late eighties, is "a sports company"; its mission is not to sell shoes but to "enhance people's lives through sports and fitness" and to keep "the magic of sports alive." 26.According to John Hegarty, what is Polaroid? "Polaroid's problem," diagnosed the chairman of its advertising agency, John Hegarty, "was that they kept thinking of themselves as a camera. But the '[brand] vision' process taught us something: Polaroid is not a camera - it's a social lubricant." 27.How does Tibor Kalman sum up the shifting role of the brand?The famous late graphic designer Tibor Kalman summed up the shifting role of the brand this way: "The original notion of the brand was quality, but now brand is a stylistic badge of courage.” 28.According to Richard Branson, what do you build brands around?The idea, he explains, is to "build brands not around products but around reputation. The great Asian names imply quality, price and innovation rather than a specific item. I call these 'attribute' brands: They do not relate directly to one product - such as a Mars bar or a Coca-Cola- but instead to a set of values. 29.What is Tommy Hilfiger in the businesTommy Hilfiger, meanwhile, is less in the business of manufacturing clothes than he is in the business of signing his name. The company is run entirely through licensing agreements, with Hilfiger commissioning all its products from a group of other companies 30.According to Paul Otellini, how is Intel liPauloke? S. Otellini, replied that lntel is "like Coke. One brand, many different products.”. 31.According to Sam Hill, Jack McGrath and Sandeep Dayal what can also be branded? “Based on extensive research, we would argue that you can indeed brand not only sand, but also wheat, beef, brick, metals, concrete, chemicals, corn grits and an endless variety of commodities traditionally considered immune to the process." “On Advertising” Sut Jhally vs James Twitchell 1. As a social scientist, what question is Jhally interested in? Jhally is interested in the question of determination- what structures the world and how we live in it. 2. What is Marx’s aphorism that Jhally works with? philosophers help us understand the world, but the point is to change it. If that's not the function of universities, I don't know why we exist 3. What was Twitchell amazed by in terms of what his students knew? He was amazed by how little his students knew about literature in comparison to advertising. 4. What about the material world interests Twitchell? He is interested in why the material world has been so overlooked. Why has it been so denigrated? 5. Why is Jhally interested in advertising, coming out of the Marxist traditionThe reason I am interested in advertising, coming out of that tradition, is that advertising links those two things together. It allows us to speak about both the material world and the world of symbolism and culture. 5. 6.What is Jhally’s view driven byMy view is driven by political factors, not moral ones. 6. 7. What, according to Jhally, have advertisers realized since the 1920s? Advertisers are really smart. They've realized since the 1920s that things don't make people happy, that what drives people is a social life. 8. Why doesn’t Jhally agree with Twitchell, when he (Twitchell) says that advertisers are delivering to people what they want? Advertisers are delivering images of what people say they want connected to the things advertisers sell. If you want to create a world focused on family, focused on community, focused on friendship, focused on independence, focused on autonomy in work, then capitalism would not be it. 9. What vision does Jhally see in advertising? In fact, what you have in advertising, I believe, is a vision of socialism. And that vision is used to sell these things called commodities. If you wanted to create the world according to the values advertising focuses on, it would look very different. 10.Why does Twitchell think advertising excludes communal desires? Maybe advertising excludes communal desires because they are not as high on most people's agendas as they are for those of us in our fifties. Maybe most people are not as interested in the things we say we are interested in such as family and community. Maybe they are more interested in individual happiness. 11.Why doesn’t Jhally think that we can accept that advertisers reflect people’s real needs and desires? 12.According to Jhally, where is the only place in the culture where there is still independent thinking going on? The academy, schools, universities 13.Why does Jhally think that students do not follow through on the politics they really believe in once they leave higher education? When people leave school, they have to figure out what they're going to do. They're $30,000 in debt. That's one of the great tricks of American capitalism; to get loyalty is to get people into debt early. 14.Why does Jhally disagree with Twitchell’s claim that the media system reflects most people’s ideas and desires? -It doesn't have anything to do with ideas. It's got to do with access. Americans gave away the broadcast system to advertisers in 1934, which meant that everything was going to be dependent on advertising revenues rather than public service 15.How do Jhally and Twitchell disagree when it comes to the question of power?-Jhally sees it as power coming from outside in. As if these corporate interests are over there doing things to us. Twitchell sees it in a contrary way; great deal of advertising and commercialism as being the articulated will of consumers rather than the air pumped out by commercial interests. 16.Why does Twitchell think people buy diamonds when they know them to be worthless? The explanation, I think, is the need to make ceremony, to fetishize moments of great anxiety. Power from outside influencing people’s thoughts of diamonds convincing them that to please women they need to spend 2 month salary. 17.According to Jhally, what does the diamond example point to? The De Beers example points to a number of things. One is how advertising works, by reaching deep-seated human needs. I don't call this manipulation. Capitalism works because in one sense it talks about real needs that drive people. 18.According to Jhally, what is real and false about advertising? So what's real about advertising is its appeals. What's false about advertising is the answers it provides to those appeals 19.According to Jhally, why is happiness “a zero-sum game”? -there is no correlation cross-nationally and historically between things and happiness. More things do not bring you more happiness; always in a relative state; in terms of what other people also have at that time. 20.What does Marx say about people making history? The other thing I always use from Marx is, "People make their own history [or meaning] . . . but not in conditions of their own choosing." If you only look at the "conditions not of their own choosing," then all you focus on is power and manipulation. If you only look at "people make their own meanings," then all you see is individual freedom and choice. If you only look at one or the other, you get a distorted view. Advertising is the conditions not of your own choosing because it has dominated everything. If you give me a monopoly I can sell you anything. 21.According to Jhally, what happens when you look at only one side of Marx’s aphorism on making history? If you don't have the second part, then you don't have the context within which things are taking place. You have abstract analysis, literary analysis. You get a distorted view. 22.According to Jhally, why did the Soviet Union fall apart? The Soviet Union never dealt with people's individual needs. The Soviet Union fell apart because no one believed it. It fell apart partly because they could see these images coming out of the West, the most glamorous images of an alternative. When your reality is hunger and despair, no wonder this advertising model should be so powerful. 23.Why does Twitchell think advertising is not a trick? I see the trickery not as them pulling a trick on us, but us actively collaborating in this process. Like the audience observing the magician, we know the lady is not being sawed in half. We can't quite understand how it works, but we suspend disbelief and give ourselves over to it. 24.What is Twitchell’s view of morality in advertising? Advertising has one moral: buy stuff. Not very sophisticated. 25.According to Jhally, what is the last way you should evaluate advertising?And I think you can evaluate that as you can evaluate any moral system. I think whether advertising tells the truth or not is actually the last thing you should evaluate it for. 26.What does Twitchell think people are after in advertising? They're after these patterns that have to do with belonging, with ordering, with making sense. 27.How does Twitchell answer the question of whether advertising is arArt is whatever I say it is, and I mean that quite literally. There is a group of people whose job is to make claims about certain things and in making those claims essentially apply the label "art." We are to high culture what advertisers, in some ways, are to mass-produced objects. Art really is what the people who teach literature, teach art, who run galleries, who edit magazines, say it is. It is not immutable, it is not timeless, it is not free of space. It's a community of critics who, in order to trade, teach, and communicate, say certain works need special treatment and that they're art. Is advertising art? No. Could it become art? Absolutely. 28.Where does Twitchell see power emanating from in religion?I see the power more from the congregation than behind the pulpit. whereas the power really is in the supermarket aisle or church pew. Film: No Logo 1. What did the new political movement identified by Klein in the mid 1990s take issue with? Took aim at growing power of multinational corporations; do an end run around governments and go after corporations directly 2. What fundamental shift in marketing thought is reflected by “lifestyle branding”? -idea that if companies wanted to be successful and competitive in global market place, had to understand that true product was not their actual product, it was a (idea) meaning/lifestyle itself. 3. What does this fundamental shift explain? -It explained the assault on the public sphere, new forms of marketing directed at young people, less choice bc of corporate consolidation, hearing more of quality of work (sweatshops) No Space 4. What was the function of the first brands? -Comforting logos(Quaker)= serget relationships( image you can form personal relationship with) MSG was you can trust it. 5. What does Klein mean by “brand tribes” -follow brands like following rockstars, “Tommy girl” 6. What idea did Coke sell in the 1960s? -Youth lifestyle 60s peace and love= Black liquid 7. What does Disney sell? -American Dream; small american town that people thought disappeared 8. What does Nike sell? -Sports company= Core idea about nature of sports; raw athletic ability. 9. How does the new marketing approach differ from the old one? Go out into culture find out what people are doing these things, where brand ideas live and merge them; try to own it. ex.) if brand identity is spirit of rock and roll> sponsor concert, get musicians to wear clothes, then get them in your ad, Then you don’t need rockstar- goal is to grab Stars identity so brand has same cultural roll as Rockstar. 10.What is distinctive about the town Celebration? There are no brands there. No franchise. No billboards, Disney says they built it as a monument as the ideal of the American town (public space). When you have finally reached brand nirvana, make sure no competing MSGS. (Monopoly) No Choice: 11.How does the colonization of public space pose a fundamental threat to democracy? -Weakended democracy- have fewer and fewer places we can relate to each other as non consumers. 12.How are shopping malls a striking example of this danger? -Shopping mall mimics town square- fountains/benches. NO protest here- private property 13.What is different about the contemporary power of corporations compared to previously? ???? 14.How does Walmart’s “family values” brand identity clash with free speech? -Brand identity is family brand. Pride themselves on a family store. Marketing strategy: Able to attract entire family. Censorship- don’t here of the silent censorship No Jobs 15.What do companies now see as their primary role? -as producing brands image meaning, producing the product is incidental. 16.How does a Nike sneaker get produced and by whom? -Nike bought shoes from broacher in Hong Kong- Factory produces shoes cheapest price. Contractor contacts subcontractor. 17.What is the “Nike paradigm”? -“The future of the corporate world”. Can’t skimp on product, so Nike pays some workers in Asia less than a dollar a day. 18.How are wages kept low by companies? -Tightly control work force. No unions, health care; no job security 19.What are export-processing zones? Special industrial parks that have been set up to produce goods for export. Walled in, armed guards, high fences. Young woman (18-25). Woman came from all over. 20.Why is the work force in free-trade zones largely young and female? -Easy to control. Young woman are easier to control than older woman, girls away from home (what makes them strong) are easier to push around. 21.What contradicts the much heralded claim that globalization will lead to development in poor countries? -When it first started, began with Japan, got too expensive. Then workers in Korea/Taiwan formed unions, so they canceled contracts. Then the company owners moved to Philippines and China. (Global Action) 22.How is the Nike example a case study in worker abuse? ???? 23.When companies decide to “build the brand”, what is at the cost of? -Companies openly say they sell off factories, embrace Nike model. 24.How are American and European workers casualties of globalization and the Nike paradigm? -Factories cut jobs to plants overseas where there is cheaper labor. 25.What are McJobs? Sell products for mega brands. Service sector jobs, Not real jobs; (No benefits) - replaced manufacturing jobs.(good experience for real job) 26.Who are the two biggest employers in the U.S.? -Walmart & Manpower. 27.How can a shoe tell the story of globalization? - (Leather produced in Argentina, shipped to Philippines, produced by Koran- dealt with company in Oregon) ect. Deconstruct shoe through global economy, find out how much the company spent on advertising; you have disparities of global economy. 28.What are brand-based investigative activities? -Campaigners see how goods are produced. Going to places to tell people how products are produced. 29.Who or what have become the most visible targets of globalization? -Brands have become the targets 30.Why is the line of riot cops guarding a McDonalds or a Starbucks symbolic of? -It’s symbolic that they're guarding the entry to globalization. 31.How can you shop ethically in this context? -It’s hard to. There is no way to change it, you can support businesses that believe and follow fair trade ; buy in bulk as a school. You can be part of global movement thats about creating fair trade. 32.If you keep following the logos, where do you end up? -You end up on the doorsteps of the world trade organization. You end up on the doorsteps of the institutions that are riding the rules of global trade. 33.What is being articulated by the street protests outside the meetings of the global financial institutions? -Counter demonstrations: The beginnings of a movement that’s about reclaiming the public. (The world is not for sale). 34.What forms can anti-corporate activism take? -Cultural jamming (Billboard liberation) - Climbing on billboard placing your own msg over theres; Online hacking-Direct action against corporations. Questions on film: SHOP ‘TIL YOU DROP 1. If we are no longer defined by the work we do, but the objects we consume what can we say industrial society has morphed into? The consumer society 2. What does Duane Elgin think the distraction, alienation and fragmentation of the consumption process has led to? We are not sure if we actually have been alive. 3. According to Cecile Andrews, what was true historically that is no longer true? In most of history having more made you happier and that’s not true anymore. 4. What else was transformed by the sheer speed and efficiency of the new age of production? It transformed the way people saw themselves and their place in the world. Not only how much we could produce for each other but how much individually we could acquire 5. According to Juliet Schor, what did Thorsten Veblen’s “The Leisure Class” look at? A partly satirical but very serious look at the growing role of using products to convey social superiority. 6. According to Juliet Schor, what sort of interaction was middle-class suburban life in the 1950’s based upon? It was based upon working class being incorporated to the suburbs. Neighborhood based model, face to face interactions 7. According to Juliet Schor, what changes this situation? Women going into the workforce, shift out of neighborhoods into corporation levels- hierarchical, people start to gaze at the top- affluence, those people are conspicuous , conspicuous consumption 8. According to Eli Jaxon-Bear, what are we being run by? We are being run by our subconscious drives. 9. According to Chris Jordan, what is running the whole consumer culture? The machine of advertising and marketing 10.According to Cecile Andrews, what switch has advertising made? It used to be if you buy this you’ll be popular now its if you buy this you’ll be happier. 11.What did Juliet Schor find in the research she conducted on kids and consumerism? She found that involvement in consumer culture undermines kids wellbeing in a variety of ways that the kids that are less exposed are healthier and have a better sense of self. Good parents and bad parents have super consumer kids. 12.According to Duane Elgin, what do you need to control if you want to control society? You need to control its stories and its television. 13.According to Duane Elgin, what is every commercial a pitch for? Every commercial is a pitch for a set of values and attitude toward life. 14.According to James Twitchell, what drives human behavior? Feeling and emotion/ Stories 15.According to Peter Whybrow, when the rewards systems are hijacked what do they take over? They take over all the rational part of thinking. 16.How does Juliet Schor describe our present mode of social consumption? The consumer marketplace never stands still, accelerating, always moving, deep social dynamics because of inequality etc consumption is about social connection 17.What has consumption not sat well with? The basic demand in democratic societies for people who know what is going on in the world 18.What did John Dewey say about democracy? He said democracy is born in conversation, its talking to each other about it 19.According to Peter Whybrow, what has risen along with competitive consumption? Rising level of anxiety because everyone is always competing 20.According to Peter Whybrow, what wasn’t the human body designed for? The human body was not designed for people to be always on their toes, only for acute emergencies, mind never relaxes, stress diseases and depression 21.According to Peter Whybrow, what is one of the results of the fast-paced, consumption-intense characteristics of modern life? We tend to reduce the time we spend in social interactions in settings such as eating 22.According to John De Graaf, what is the fastest- growing business in Marin County? Professional dog walkers 23.According to Peter Whybrow what have we not spent a lot of time thinking about? We have not spent a lot of time thinking about what to do with affluence. 24.According to Rod Gorney, why do we survive as a species? We survive as a species because of cooperation and taking care of each other. We are still the caretakers of one another. 25.According to Julian Darley, what drives the dissolution of society quicker than anything else? Tendency towards individualism, large quantities of money and things 26.According to John De Graaf, what myth are we victims of? We are vicitim to the myth that the road to the good life is the goods life, economy that always grows more and more 27.How does Julian Darley describe our system of economics? The economy is not the flow of money it’s the flow of energy and resources, crazy, devastating, suicidial 28.What may not be able to keep pace with the sheer force of global economic growth? The resources such as oil, etc 29.According to Julian Darley what kinds of energy are there enormous differences between? There are differences between coal and trees which every lb of energy you have to cut it down or pick it up , oil and gas they flow, flowing energy and energy you have to process 30.According to Duane Elgin, if the whole world consumed like Americans, what would be required in terms of resources? It would take 5 earths 31.Why is the the rise of a focused movement to solve our problems remote? It is remote because people are unable or unwilling to recognize that there even is a problem in the first place. 32.According to Julian Darley, why has evolution not prepared us to meet the challenge? We use our eyes to look at the world a few feet ahead of us, where in evolution would we have the power to think about what would happen in 10 years? We couldn’t think of that. Our brains are designed to observe 33.According to Duane Elgin what are we doing to the biosphere? Animals are becoming extinct. Volcanic Explosions, Meteors, Unraveling the fabric of life 34.According to Eli Jaxon-Bear what could happen to the ego as a result of the shock of waking up to what we are doing to the earth? Now it is killing us, that kind of shock can wake up the whole of humanity 35.When Chris Jordan sees vast piles of garbage, what does he think? He thinks that this isn’t someone else’s’garbage, this might be something you used, apocolyptic 36.According to Chris Jordan, what is an easy justification for keeping on going the way we are? What the heck is one more SUV when we sold 3.6 mil last year?? Being unable to comprehend it is a good way to justify it 37.According to Rod Gorney, what is biggest threat that we face? The gap between how urgent it that we learn to change our values and take care of eachother AND the enormous rage and revenge that people around the world are seeking for that they are exploited 38.According to a hundred Nobel Prize winners, what is the most profound danger to world peace? Legitimate demands of the world 39.How does Duane Elgin think a solution to our problems will emerge? Humbling of our psychi , consciously learn how to live sustanibly on the earth 40.According to Rod Gorney, what image reflects what is happening to us? Ship that is torpedoed and sinking, immigrants that loose everything they have because of the sinking ship 41.According to Duane Elgin what is it incumbent upon all of us? Look at everything around us and make choices that will collectively move us to a more sustainable future, take that look in the mirror
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