Comm 287 Study Guide 2
Comm 287 Study Guide 2 Comm 288
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Stephanie Marie on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Comm 288 at University of Massachusetts taught by Sut Jhally in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see in Communication at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
“High and Mighty: The Dangerous Rise of the SUV” by Keith Bradsher: Introduction: 1. Why is the safe image of SUV’s an illusion? It is an illusion because they roll over easily, killing an injuring occupants at an alarming rate, and they are dangerous to other road users, inflicting catastrophic damage to cars that they hit and posing a lethal threat to pedestrians. 2. What have manufacturers’ market researchers decided? They have decided that millions of baby boomers want an adventurous image and care almost nothing about putting others at risk to achieve it, so they have auto engineers to design vehicles accordingly. 3. What has this resulted in? The result has been unusually tall, menacing vehicles like the Dodge Durango, with its grille resembling a jungle cat’s teeth and its flared fenders that look like bulging muscles in a savage jaw. 4. What loopholes in government regulations were automakers able to exploit? Automakers are able to produce behemoths that guzzle gas, spew pollution, and endanger their occupants and other motorists because of loopholes in government regulations. 5. What automotive safety issue intensely captured the nation’s attention? The many rollover crashes of the Ford Explorer sports utility vehicles equipped with Firestone Tires that failed 6. Why are SUV’s dangerous to other motorists? They are tall so it makes it hard for cars behind them to see the road ahead increasing chances that they will be unable to avoid a crash. Their brakes make it less likely that they will be able to stop so it is more likely that they will collide with other cars. 7. Why are SUV’s less safe than cars? The height and width of the typical SUV make it hard for car drivers behind it to see the road ahead, increasing the chance that they will be unable to avoid a crash, especially a multi-vehicle pileup. The stiff, truck-like underbody of an SUV does little to absorb the force of collisions with trees and other roadside objects. Its size increases traffic congestion, because car drivers tend to give sport utility vehicles a lot of room, so fewer vehicles can get through each green light at an intersection. Most of the nation's roadside guardrails were built for low-riding cars, and may flip an SUV on impact instead of deflecting it safely back into its lane of traffic. The truck like brakes and suspensions of SUVs mean that their stopping distances are longer than for a family car, making it less likely that an SUV driver will be able to stop before hitting a car. And when SUVs do hit pedestrians, they strike them high on the body, inflicting worse injuries than cars, which have low bumpers that flip pedestrians onto the relatively soft hood. 8. Why are SUV occupants at higher risk for paralysis? They are at higher risk for paralysis because roll overs account for nearly half of all cases of paralysis. 9. What is the only thing more frightening for traffic experts than a bad driver behind the wheel of an SUV? A bad driver behind the wheel of an old SUV with failing brakes and other maintenance problems. 10. How are SUV’s a problem for the environment? Their poor gas mileage causes them to emit a lot of carbon dioxide, a gas linked to global warming, burns a lot of energy 11. Why are the gains that automakers made with fuel- economy eroding? The gains are being slowly erased by the rise of SUVS, because they use so much gas. 12. What accounts for the 3000 needless deaths every year as a result of cars being replaced by SUV’s? About 1000 occur because of roll overs of SUVS, 1000 more occur in cars hit by SUVs, and 1000 more from respiratory problems because of the extra smog caused by SUVS. 13. How does the terms “network externalities” explain the rising sales of SUV’s? This economic concept holds that if enough people start using a certain product. everybody else will start buying the same product just for the advantages of being able to work with people who already have the product. Consumers will do this even if the product chosen is technologically inferior to the alternatives. 14. What has a big chunk of automakers’ ad money gone towards? It has gone towards ads that subtly or blatantly undermine people’s confidence in cars. 15. Why does Bradsher think that the claim in Escalade advertising that “It’s Good be a Cadillac” is false? But few people reading the ad carefully could possibly conclude that "to be the Cadillac" was "good" in a moral sense. Nor is it good for public safety and the environment to have even some people "be the Cadillac" in the sense of this ad. 16. Why is the Escalade’s advice to other drivers to “Yield,” good advice? It is good advice because the Escalade can be a very hard vehicle to control even for an experienced driver. The steering is sluggish, the suspension vague, and the brakes not as effective as car brakes. 17. What is the key to how automakers have made enormous profits? They put a lot of chrome and optional equipment on SUVs, basically taking a work truck and making it look fancy. 18. How long will automakers continue to make SUV’s? As long as gasoline prices remain low, government regulations remain tilted against cars, and Americans remain enamored of big, macho vehicles worthy of the American frontier, executives at GM and other automakers plan to go on making SUVs. Reptilian Dreams: What did Rapaille become convinced of when he applied principles of psychological research? He became convinced that a person’s first encounter with an object or idea shaped his or her emotional relationship with it for life. What are the three levels of brain activity? There is the cortex for intellectual assessments of the product. There is the limbic for emotional responses. There is the reptilian, which he defines as the reactions based on “survival and reproduction”. What do SUV’s appeal to? They appeal to people’s deep seated desires for survival and reproduction. How do teenagers respond to feelings of fear? The response of teens, he added, is that "They want to give the message, 'I want to be able to destroy, I want to be able,to fight back, don't mess with me.'" Why does Rapaille think we are going back to medieval times? "I think we're going ,back to medieval times, and you can see that in that we live in ghettos-with gates and private armies," he said. "SUVs are exactly that, they are armored cars for the battlefield." Which idea has disappeared, as epitomized in the Mad Max movie? Yet the idea of being civil on the roads has disappeared and SUV design needs to reflect this, Rapaille says. What were Bob Lutz’s instructions to Chrysler’s director of vehicle exterior design? . Lutz's instructions were consistent, said David C. McKinnon, Chrysler's director of vehicle exterior design: "Get them up in the air and make them husky. How did Lutz establish the Grand Cherokee’s credentials as a rough and tough vehicle? , He drove a Grand Cherokee up the steps of Detroit's convention center and smashed through a plate-glass window to enter the building. A special window had been installed in advance to make this a little less dangerous than it sound. The television footage was nonetheless great, and established the Grand Cherokee's credentials as a rough-and-tough vehicle What was the result of research that found 80% of consumers disliked the aggressive design of the Dodge Ram? Our share of the pickup market shot up to 20 percent on the radical new design, and Ford and Chevy owners gawked in envy! What did the Dodge Ram’s menacing front end result in? Ford and GM responded by making the Ford F- series pickups and the Chevrolet Silverado and GMC Sierra pickups more menacing, too. The entire full sized SUV market became more menacing. What were women telling Rapaille about driving a convertible? Women are worrying that they might be assaulted by an intruder who climbs inside the convertible. They told Repaille that if you drive a convertible with the top down the message is “rape me”. How do the interiors of SUV’s have to be designed like? Inside, they must be as gentle, feminine and luxurious as possible. Why does Rapaille drive a Porsche? Sports utilities are too tall. The Porsche allows him to retain control of his destiny with its nimbleness, excellent brakes, and tremendous stability. It is safer. What characterizes SUV buyers? They tend to be people who are insecure and vain. They are frequently nervous about their marriages and uncomfortable about parenthood. They often lack confidence in their driving skills. Above all, they are apt to be self-centered and self-absorbed, with little interest in their neighbors Or communities. What are SUV buyers often uncomfortable with? They are often uncomfortable with being married and having kids. What is the tough challenge of designing SUV’s? There is a tough challenge of designing vehicles that will sell based on their fashion appeal, but which are supposed to look as though fashion was the last thing on the designer’s mind What are SUV owners willing to trade off? They are willing to trade off flexibility or functionality for a better image of themselves. Why do automakers mount the seats in SUV’s higher than in minivans? They do this to provide the feeling of control that SUV owners want. They want to feel in control of the people around them while mini van users want to feel in control on terms of safety. What are the higher seats of SUV’s a recipe for? . The higher seats of SUVs also mean that occupants are often sitting above the center of gravity of the vehicle; which is (as we will see later) a recipe for a rollover; because the vehicle becomes a little more top-heavy with every additional pound above the center of gravity What is the height of SUVs making it more difficult for car owners to do? The height of SUVs is also making it harder for the people still driving cars to see where they are going What is the generational preference regarding wanting an SUV? The younger a person is the more likely they will want an SUV. When affluent men and women in warm cities are walking around in hiking boots and parkas, what are they subscribing to? They are subscribing to what Bulin defines as “ preparedness chic”. For baby boomers who have office jobs and mortgages, what does owning an SUV provide? It ensures that they have not changed much from their youth. They are still adventurous and virile. How is the European view of car safety different than the American view? Europeans and Asians tend to associate safety with a nimble vehicle with excellent brakes that can swerve or stop quickly so as to avoid an accident entirely; said Jerry P. Hirshberg, Nissan's recently retired president of North American design. Americans tend to have less confidence in their driving skills and assume that crashes are inevitable, so they have gravitated instead to tank like vehicles that will protect occupants even if they plow into another vehicle. What are SUV owners less likely to be doing, than owners of other kinds of family vehicles? People who drive SUVs are less likely to be doing volunteer work and less likely to go to church. What does the declining sales of minivans represent? What do minivan drivers tend to be? The gradual decline in sales of safe, practical minivans over the last few years represents another sign that Americans care more about image than anything else. They tend to be extremely nice people. 28. Why is the minivan market neglected by auto executives? Strategic Vision's Gorrell says that the minivan market is neglected by many hard-driving auto executives because the executives simply cannot relate to such good people 29. What theme do many television ads for SUV’s emphasis? SUV ads celebrate a more individualistic, sybaritic and even sometimes epicurean vision of life. Intimidation 30. What has happened to SUV adverting in the last decade? . In fact, SUV advertising soared much faster than SUV sales over the last decade, rising nearly ninefold from $172.5 million in 1990 to $J.51.billion in 200 31. According to J.C. Collins, when is the only time most SUV’s are going off- road? When they miss the driveway at 3 am 32. What did one woman in a Toyota focus group say see wanted a SUV for? She said she needed her Lexus SUV to drive up over the curb and onto lawns to park at large parties in Beverly Hills. 33. Why do most SUV drivers not engage in off-road driving? They are more interested in the fantasy that they could go off road than actually going off road. They believe they are like superman anyways just driving them on the road. 34. How have automakers fomented demand for four-wheel drive vehicles? Automakers have also gone to great lengths to foment demand for four wheel drive systems by creating opportunities for customers to use them. 35. What is the popularity of SUV’s a response to? . The poplarity of SUVs is not just about automakers' catering to people's sense of adventure, but about automakers' response to two huge changes in the American auto market: the growing concentration of income among the nation's most prosperous families and the growing availability and reliability of used car 36. How much of the new automobile market do the richest 20% account for? 60 percent 37. What is one practical effect of SUV’s being so big? 38. When it comes to gasoline, what do affluent families care about? They care very little about gasoline and they are not affected by the prices. They care about the availability of gas not the price. 39. What last factor does Bradsher identify as helping SUV’s become so popular? But there is one last factor: the way politicians and Hollywood celebrities have embraced SUVs, giving them lots of free media exposure. 40. What, mechanically, is the SUV a poor substitute for? The family car Juliet Schor “Born to Buy” CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1. Why have people, for the most part, been okay with working longer hours? The country was preoccupied with getting and spending. The more they worked the more they could spend to buy things considered social norms. 2. What are “downshifters”? Those who were intentionally rejecting the consumer lifestyle rather than merely working less. 3. Why do so few “downshifters” have kids? Children are expensive or that most parents would not want to impose a regime of reduced consumption on their kids. 4. What does the term “tweens” refer to? A marketing category roughly comprising children from first grade to age twelve 5. As they have tried to explain evidence of rising stress and distress among kids, researchers have unfortunately limited their focus to what? Social trends such as working mothers, poverty, and divorce 6. What does Schor mean by “moral panics”? exaggerated adult fears about children’s fads 7. What has replaced “unstructured socializing” for kids? Marketed leisure, most of what kids do revolves around commodities 8. How do today’s youth differ from the youth of the baby boomers in terms of exposure to adults? Today’s youth have earlier exposure to and more involvement with adult worlds, “a disappearance of childhood” 9. What original 1920’s formula for selling children’s products has been overturned by marketing and advertising? An alliance with mothers, advertisers had to convince moms that the product was beneficial for the child 10.What does Schor’s research say about the relationship between dysfunction and consumption? Involvement in consumer culture causes dysfunction in the form of depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and psychosomatic complaints. CHAPTER TWO: THE CHANGING WORLD OF CHILDREN’S CONSUMPTION 11.What kinds of imagery and metaphor dominate the literature of the youth marketing industry? Biological warfare, viral marketing, sending out a virus, converting a kid into a user, broad social trends 12.How have youth marketers “gone anthropological”? Using ethnographical methods that scrutinize the most intimate details of children’s lives, ex: videotaping children in their private space, observing 13.What are the top three spending categories for kids 4 to 12 years old? Sweets Snacks and Beverages, Toys, Apparel 14.Where does the industry term “the influence market” derive from? the more children shop the more voice they have in parental purchases 15.What has driven the growth in children’s influence? Changes in parenting styles 16.What do the “sign wars” refer to? Corporate competition centered on images 17.Beyond kids having more money and say, what does Schor say is the other side to the commercialization of childhood? The growing scope, marketing power and political influence wielded by the small number of mega-corporations that sell what most kids buy 18.What has been the result of the children’s market being dominated by just a few powerful companies? With monopoly comes uniformity, the companies become almost identical, true variety and diversity of products is hard to find, less value and influence for consumers 19.What have studies of trends in children’s time use revealed? It showed that children’s time spent in leisure and unstructured play is limited. Only 25 percent of children’s time remains discretionary. Kids are less able to be kids. More time in school and on homework, less time visiting others and having conversations 20.According to experts, what is the new “postmodern childhood” driven by? It is driven by television and a heavy involvement with electronic media. 21.According to the Kaiser Family Foundation study cited by Schor, how much time does the average American child spend with media? 5 hours and 29 minutes for a weekly total of more than 38 hours 22.What is the “conservative take” on the youth commercialization trends Schor describes? The conservative take on the trends is that we’ve produced a generation of couch potato kids, scarfing down chips and soda driving their parents crazy about those hundred-dollar sneakers. Spoiled, unable to delay gratification, and headed for trouble 23.How has children’s nutrition been faring over the past few years? Most children are eating the wrong foods and too many of them. Diets have gotten far out of line with the recommended nutritional standards. 24.What has happened to the obesity rate of teens since 1980? Rates of teen obesity have sky rocketed. Since 1980 the obesity rates have doubled and those for teens have tripled. 25.According to psychologists, how do materialist values affect kids? They undermine their well-being, leading people to be more depressed, anxious, less vital, and in worse physical health. More likely to engage in risky behavior Film: Consuming Kids: The Commercialization of Childhood 1. At what age does James McNeal think you can start to think of children as consumers? The consumer embryo beings to develop during the first year of existence. Children being their consumerism in infancy. 2. What do most parents not realize about what corporate marketers are intentionally trying to do? Parents do not realize that the corporate marketers are intentionally trying to have the children influence the parents spending. They try to make parents absolutely miserable to get children to nag their parents about products. 3. According to Nick Russell, what is 360 degree immersive marketing? It is where the advertiser tries to get around the child on every aspect and every avenue. Kids are buried in media. 4. According to Enola Aird, what is advertising trying to convince kids of? Life is about buying and life is about getting. 5. According to Enola Aird, what is the philosophy of marketing to kids? Cradle to grave, lets get to them early lets get to them often and in as many places as possible to turn them into lifelong consumers 6. What did the FTC Improvement Act of 1980 mandate? The law mandated that the FTC would no longer have any authority to make rules regarding children’s advertising. 7. What followed the release of the “Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtle” movie? There were over 1000 products released linked to the product and a TV show and a comic book. Saturation of the whole childhood culture. 8. According to Michael Rich, what are important touchstones in children lives that marketers emotionally leverage to make money? Characters- constants in their lives that they feel they understand and love 9. According to Gary Ruskin, why is product placement in programming dishonest? It is dishonest because it sneak by children’s faculties and it places ideas in children’s minds when they aren’t paying attention. 10.How does CBS News label internet games with products embedded in them? Adver-games 11.Why have children with cell phones become a prime target for marketers? Cell phones is advertising literally in the face of the child with ringtones, wallpaper, and games. They can search the web and watch videos. Downloadable content 12.Why do advertisers covet sites such as Webkinz? Because of their proven ability to gather personal information from kids 13.Where were Chicago kindergartner’s taken for a field trip? Petco 14.According to Dan Acuff, what is missing from the youth marketing conferences? More conversations and discussions about what’s good for kids,How can we move our society in a better way? 15.How does Juliet Schor describe the ethnographic research that follows kids into bathrooms? creepy 16.According to Juliet Schor what does the Girls Intelligence Agency ask kids to do? Slumber party in a box, kids are asked to push a certain product or have focus group parties where kids are asked to give opinions on the product, ask them to be sly and get info from friends without their friends knowing about, teaches children to exploit their friends 17.What does Lucy Hughes says about whether manipulating kids is ethical? I don’t know, but if they manipulate kids in the right way and the children want their product then it is fine 18.What does Michael Brody call marketers? Pedophiles, child experts 19.According to a youth marketer what is a good thing in pursuit of a product? Antisocial behavior in pursuit of a product is a good thing 20.What is modern marketing to kids based on? Symbolic advertising, the product is pushed based on its social meaning, taught that they should have things because its cool, what you buy is who you are 21.According to Susan Linn what is the primary value being sold to kids? Value that things or stuff or brands will make us happy 22.According to Allen Kanner, what is the number one answer that kids give about what want to be when they grow up? Rich 23.According to Betsy Taylor, what is being squeezed out by the world of kids marketing? childhood 24.How do marketers communicate their messages and values to kids? Selling down to kids: example seventeen magazine, communicate as girls and boys rather than as just simply children- girls look pretty and sexy, boys- being a man with aggression 25.About what does Michael Rich worry concerning the sexualization of young girls? Are you emotionally mature enough to handle the outcome of when people stare at you like an underage Brittney spears 26.What happened when the movie studios tightened up on letting kids into R movies? The sexual content drug content etc migrated into the PG-13 rating 27.According to Susan Linn what kinds of baby items are hard to find? Baby things that aren’t branded with characters, hard to find unbranded products for babies 28.According to Michael Rich, what are parents told about not getting the new educational DVD’s? if they don’t get these things their children will be behind 29.According to Michael Rich, what might be an effect of a lot of early media exposure? May change the way the brain develops 30.According to Michael Rich what is optimal for brain development in the first two years of life? The brain is rapidly developing and face to face involvement with other people, manipulation of a physical environment, is far better than any media entertainment 31.According to Michael Rich what lays the foundation for all higher learning? Social Interactions 32.What has happened to the amount of time spent in creative play by kids? The amount of time has been declining dramatically over the past decade 33.According to Susan Linn, what kind of generation are we raising? Children who are never going to have the experience of amusing themselves or calming themselves down 34.What are kids being told, when picking up stick and turning it into a wand is not enough? They can’t play unless they have the official gear, their imagination is not good enough you have to have the real wand 35.According to Nancy Carlsson-Paige, what fundamental message of kids marketing is really harmful and tragic? That I need something other than myself to play and be happy 36.According to Michael Brody, what has replaced the healthy child of sports, play and make-believe? The sick child as viewer consumer 37.According to Michael Brody, what is the difference between type 1 and type 2 Diabetes? 38.According to Juliet Schor, what is needed to make childhood healthy in this country? There is no way without a government effort 39.What does Michael Brody say advertisers who hide behind the first amendment are entitled to? They are entitled to the constitution but they are also entitled to the shame. 40.How does Susan Linn think we should look at the issue of kids marketing? As an issue of rights, the rights of children to grow up and the rights of parents to raise Film: Deadly Persuasion – The Advertising of Tobacco and Alcohol 1. What are the most widely used and damaging drugs? Alcohol and nicotine 2. Why do people often become defensive when alcohol and tobacco-related problems are discussed? See any discussion as a threat to individual rights and freedom 3. How many people does nicotine kill a year? 440,000 deaths 4. For every pack of cigarettes sold, what is the estimated cost to the US health care system? $7 per pack sold 5. What is ironic about Marlboro cigarette ads’ attempt to link smoking to masculinity? The evidence is clear that cigarettes are linked to low testosterone, infertility, etc, smoking is hazardous to erection 6. Why did Marlboro shift from marketing itself as a woman’s cigarette to a men’s cigarette? Women will use products promoted for men but men wont use products promoted for women 7. What does the tobacco industry say the point of its advertising is? Get adult smokers to switch brands 8. How many new smokers does the tobacco industry need every day to replace those who quit or die? 3,000 new smokers (children) 9. What percentage of smokers start before they’re 18? 90 percent 10.What theme is often used to sell cigarettes to young people? Theme of excitement and adventure 11.What are “pre-quitters”? 80 percent of smokers who want to quit 12.How does tobacco advertising play into the fact that smokers feel increasingly marginalized these days and on average feel powerless in society? Exploit what African americans and Hispanics want, present the smoker as a heroic person, smoking is a statement of independence, freedom, and autonomy 13.What has happened to the lung cancer rates of women over the past two decades? Dramatic increase in lung cancer rates, increased by more than 400 percent 14.What has been a longstanding theme of tobacco ads targeted at women? Liberation and freedom, smoking is sexy and will make a woman more desirable 15.What is a key reason people have been denied important information about the health effects of cigarettes and alcohol? The companies would lose money if they did 16.What is our main form of alcohol education? Alcohol advertising 17.Contrary to its glamorized image, in reality how is alcohol related to sex in negative ways? Promotes desire but takes away performance, related to STDs, rape,unwanted pregnancy, sexual dysfunction 18.What do alcohol ads emphasize about women? emphasizes their bodies 19.How do alcohol ads usually portray men? Men who want sex but are terrified of relationships 20.What percentage of violent crime is linked to alcohol? 50 percent 21.Why does the alcohol industry need to open up new markets? To get people addicted early and new drinkers 22.Why is alcohol consumption particularly dangerous for young women? Women get drunk more quickly than men, alcohol increases pregnancy complications, cancer, fertility problems, and depression 23.What is the most widely used drug in America? Beer 24.The alcohol industry targets college students with what goal in mind? To get college students to have addictions and habits for brand loyalty, investing in college students 25.What statistic does Kilborne use to show how only a few people do most of the drinking on college campuses? 10 percent of the 60 percent of drinkers 26.What would “responsible drinking” do to the alcohol industry if it came to be embraced en masse? It would destroy the industry, alcohol industry sales would be cut by 80 percent 27.What must the alcohol industry do to keep high-risk drinkers drinking? Glorifies using alcohol, glamorizes black outs ??? 28.Who is the primary provider of educational messages about alcohol abuse on TV? Alcohol industry 29.What is the usual focus of the alcohol industry’s prevention messages? Issue of drunk driving 30.Beyond products, what do the billions spent on advertising sell?
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