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Study Guide Before First Exam

by: Ericah Notetaker

Study Guide Before First Exam Psych202

Marketplace > Kansas State University > Psychlogy > Psych202 > Study Guide Before First Exam
Ericah Notetaker
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What is synthetic marijuana? What is a drug? What is drug addiction? What is drug abuse?
Drugs and Behavior
Mary Cain
Study Guide
Drug Abuse, drug addiction, drug, behavior, Psychology, psych, addiction, Abuse, marijuana, alcohol, Drugs
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This 24 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ericah Notetaker on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych202 at Kansas State University taught by Mary Cain in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Drugs and Behavior in Psychlogy at Kansas State University.


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Date Created: 02/24/16
Chapter 1 – THE BOOK 02/03/2016 ▯ What is Psychopharmacology?  Psychology is a broad field that involves the scientific study of behavior from biological, behavioral, and cognitive perspectives.  Pharmacology involves the scientific study of drugs, including the effects of drugs on living systems.  Psychopharmacology refers to the scientific study of the effect of drugs on behavior.  A drug is defined as “any chemical entity or mixture of entities, other than those required for the maintenance of normal health (like food), the administration of which alters biological function and possible structure”.  The term psychoactive drug is a drug that alters mood, cognition, and behavior. The Drug Experience There are four main reasons why people are initially motivated to take a drug. 1. To feel good  Taking cocaine and heroin. 2. To feel better  Taking drugs to relieve feelings. 3. To do better  Taking steroids, caffeine, amphetamines, and cocaine to enhance performance. 4. Curiosity and social influences Pharmacological Factors There are three main pharmacological factors to consider. 1. The chemical structure of a drug and how it acts on the body. 1  When a drug is ingested, it can act like or alter the levels of naturally occurring chemicals. 2. How the drug enters the body (route of administration)  How quickly the drug gets to the brain via swallowing, smoking, and injection. 3. The drug dose.  The amount of drug ingested. Nonpharmacological Factors  Nonpharmacological factors that contribute to a drug experience include everything not directly related to the pharmacological action of the drug itself.  Drug tolerance occurs when a regular user of a drug finds that a certain dose becomes less effective overtime.  Interdisciplinary research is the combination of two or more traditionally defined academic disciplines, and it can be beneficial to solving the issues of concern for this field. o It’s common for psychologists who study psychopharmacology to spend time talking to colleagues in neuroscience, medicine, biology, chemistry, sociology, social work, and nursing.  Translational research attempts to translate basic research findings into clinical practice. o This is also called bench-to-bench research because it emphases the findings of a biochemist sitting at a lab bench should help the person suffering from drug addiction in a bed at a drug rehabilitation facility. ▯ ▯ Use of Alcohol and Drugs  Prevalence refers to the total number of cases in the population at a given time. o Prevalence data is used to estimate how common an activity is.  By contrast, incidence refers to the number of new cases in a population in a given time. o This is helpful in revealing how a problem might be changing.  The term for using two more psychoactive drugs to achieve a certain effect is called polydrug use. 2 The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV-TR)  The diagnostic system is a set of definitions about various mental illnesses.  A diagnosis is a name given to a cluster of symptoms.  The DSM-IV-TR approach requires that only one (or more) of the four possible symptoms must be present for a diagnosis of substance abuse, whereas three (or more) of the seven possible symptoms must be present for a diagnosis of substance dependence. o Substance dependence is more severe than substance abuse. ▯ ▯ Substance Abuse 1 (or more) of the following in a 12-month period:  Substance use resulting in a failure to fulfill work, school, or home obligations.  Use in physical hazardous situations.  Substance-related legal problems.  Persistent social/interpersonal problems from use. Substance Dependence 3 (or more) of the following in a 12-month period:  Tolerance  Withdrawal  Escalating use  Unsuccessful in cutting down use  Time is spent in substance-related activities  Other activities reduced because of substance use 3  Use despite physical or psychological problems  Addiction has traditionally been defined as compulsive drug use.  Withdrawal refers to the characteristic illness syndrome that occurs when the substance is not used.  Every time a person uses a drug, there is a change in the balance of the chemicals (neurotransmitters) in the brain.  The neurotransmitter dopamine is elevated when many psychoactive drugs are regularly taken into the body. Once the body is making less dopamine, the user needs to take in more drugs to raise dopamine levels to the point where the person feels high again.  The same principle explains withdrawal. Regular drug use can result in lower resting dopamine levels since the body expects the drug to supply some dopamine. ▯ Neurons  Neurons are the unique cell type that receives and transmits information.  The nervous system is comprised of networks of neurons commutating back and forth to different structures within the brain, the spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system.  (1) The cell body is found in the nucleus. o The nucleus contains the genetic material for the neuron and other processes involved in metabolic activities.  (2) The dendrites have multiple receptor sites, which are involved in receiving information in neural transmissions.  (3) The axon sends messages to the next cell. o Many axons are covered by a layer of fatty tissue called myelin. o The glial cell wraps itself around the axon to make up myelin. o Myelin acts as insulation for the axon.  When a neuron transmits an electrical message, information is gathered by the dendrites and/or cell body and sent along the axon in the form of an electrical signal called action potential. o This is produced by the flow of charged particles, called ions, through channels in the membrane that cover the axon. 4 ▯ ▯ The Synapse and Neurotransmitters  Synapse: The space where the end of an axon and another neuron’s dendrite or cell body neurons connect.  When an action potential reaches the end of the axon (the axon terminal), chemicals called neurotransmitters are released into the synapse where they diffuse across space and trigger activity in the next neuron.  The vesicles, which look like tiny bubbles containing the neurotransmitters.  When an action potential arrives at the axon terminal, neurotransmitters are released into the synapse. o The communication of neurons is electrical along the axon and then chemical a the synapse. o Neural communication is described as electrochemical.  Neurotransmitters released into the synapse travel across the synapse via diffusion, the process where particles randomly distribute in a space.  Scattered along the dendrites and cell body of the postsynaptic neuron are receptor sites. o The receptor sites are structures which the neurotransmitters can fit. o A receptor and neurotransmitter can be thought of as a lock and key. o Only the correct neurotransmitter molecule can fit inot a specific receptor site. o If a neurotransmitter fits into a receptor, the two are briefly attached; this process is called binding.  In excitatory receptors, a binding neurotransmitter is likely to result in an action potential.  Inhibitory receptors are ones where a binding neurotransmitter is less likely to result in an action potential.  After binding, the neurotransmitter is released from the postsynaptic receptor site. o The neurotransmitter may be recycled, which means that it returns to the presynaptic neuron via diffusion to be used again.  Enzymes are used to break down and build neurotransmitters. Types of Neurotransmitters 5 Dopamine (DA)  Most drugs of abuse either directly or indirectly target the brain’s reward system by flooding circuits with more dopamine.  Involved in the regulation of movement, emotion, cognition, motivation, and feelings of pleasure. o Example: The experience when we eat tasty food or engage in sexual activity.  When drug ingestion results in an overstimulation of dopamine activity, the user feels high, which encourages the user to repeat whatever behavior associated with the euphoric feeing state.  Is the key neurotransmitter involved in many brain functions. o Example: Parkinson’s disease. Dopaminergic neurons die, resulting in the primary symptom of progressive deterioration of motor control. o Since Parkinson’s disease results in the destruction of dopaminergic neurons, treatment involves attempts to restore dopamine levels. However, the brain protects itself from toxic compounds via the blood-brain barrier - Filters blood before it can enter the brain.  The Blood-brain barrier protects the brain from all kinds of toxins to which the body might have otherwise been exposed.  Side effects from elevated dopamine levels via drug treatment are throughout the body and not targeted to only the brain region that is suffering from dopaminergic neuronal death.  Elevated dopamine levels can also lead to hallucinations, delusions, loss of contact with reality, social withdrawal, and distorted emotions.  Elevated dopamine levels occur in cases of high levels of stimulant use including amphetamines, cocaine, and methamphetamine.  Dopamine belongs to a family of neurotransmitters known as monoamines. o Also in the monoamine family are the neurotransmitters norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), and serotonin (5-HT).  Dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin are typically found in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). Epinephrine is found in the peripheral nervous system. Norepinephrine and Epinephrine  Norepinephrine is sometimes called noradrenaline and epinephrine is called adrenaline.  Norepinephrine plays an important role in emotional arousal, including the physical changes associated with highly emotional states. o It’s also involved in the regulation of hunger and alertness. 6 o When released, we are alert, focused, feel positive, and don’t feel pain.  Elevations in norepinephrine and epinephrine underlie the fight-or- flight response, which is associated with stress.  Insufficient levels of norepinephrine lead to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and major depression. Serotonin (5-HT)  Found throughout the brain and plays an important role in the regulation of sleep, mood, appetite, sex, and body temperature. o Also found in the gastrointestinal tract and in blood platelets.  The importance of serotonin is when its levels are deficient, which causes depression.  LSD and psilocybin (mushrooms) increase serotonin activity in the brain. ▯ Acetylcholine (ACh)  The first neurotransmitter discovered.  Found were the axons of neurons meet skeletal muscles and throughout the brain.  Neuromuscular junction: Space where nerve meets muscle.  After a neuron release acetylcholine into the neuromuscular junction, the binding of acetylcholine to receptors on muscle results in muscle contraction. o The binding of acetylcholine can be blocked by the deadly toxin botulinum, which is produced by the bacteria that grow in environments like improperly packaged canned goods. The same toxin is used as Botox.  Important for memory, attention, and sensory processing. o Plays a big role in Alzheimer’s disease.  Drugs that elevate levels of acetylcholine (such as donepezil) help improve memory, or at least prevent further declines in memory loss. o Nicotine has also been shown to improve memory because it binds to acetylcholine receptors in the brain.  Endorphins function as neurotransmitters and act like naturally occurring morphine. o Are large molecules called peptides (a small protein). o One main role for endorphins is blocking pain, which is also called analgesia. o When we are in love, fee excitement, exercise, eat spicy food, endorphins are released. We experience little pain and feel really good. ▯ Gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA) 7  The most important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain and spinal cord.  Regulates muscle tone.  Increased levels of GABA are thought to underlie relaxation and sedation.  Benzodiazepines (such as Valium) act on GABA and are typically used to treat anxiety disorders.  Alcohol is known to increase GABA activity. ▯ Glutamate (Glu)  So common in the brain that they are found on the surface of all neurons.  Important in learning and memory.  One important receptor is NMDA, which plays an important role in synaptic plasticity, which underlies memory and cognitive ability.  Too much glutamate activity can destroy neurons throughout activity of NMDA receptors. o This is why alcoholics can have brain damage following repeated relapses and withdrawals. ▯ ▯ When Drugs Look Like Neurotransmitters  Mimicry: When drugs directly activate neurons because the drug’s chemical structure look so similar to a naturally occurring neurotransmitter.  The opiate drugs (heroin, morphine, and opium) mimic naturally occurring endorphins as the structure of the drug fools receptors and allows the drug to bind to and activate endorphin receptors.  A drug that activates the neuron is called an agonist drug since the drug has exactly the same effects a naturally occurring neurotransmitter would.  A psychoactive drug that can fit into the receptor, but not activate the receptor is called an antagonist drug. o Also called blocking agents because they prevent the neuron from firing.  Morphine and heroin are agonist drugs acting exactly like naturally occurring endorphins. Brain Anatomy 8 The hindbrain  Located at the base of the brain.  Controls all basic functions critical to life, such as heart rate, breathing, and wakefulness/sleeping. ▯ The medulla  Above the spinal cord.  Important for breathing, heart rate, swallowing, blood pressure, and digestive processes.  This is also the vomit center. When toxic chemicals reach the medulla, the vomiting reflex is triggered in an attempt ot clear the body of the toxin. Pons  Above the medulla  Controls sleep and wakefulness. ▯ Reticular activating system  Runs through the pons and the medulla.  Regulates generalized alertness and arousal. ▯ Cerebellum  Responsible for balance and coordinated motor movements, including speech.  Is important for many basic bodily functions such as respiration. ▯ Midbrain  Located above the hindbrain.  Important relay center for information related to vision and hearing.  Contains the substantia nigra: Produces dopamine and is important for motivation and reward. o When nerve cells that should be producing dopamine die in the substantia nigra, Parkinson’s disease develops. 9  Also important for production of dopamine. ▯ Forebrain  Largest part of the brain.  Located above the midbrain.  Thalamus (relay station) and hypothalamus (motivation of behavior).  Hippocampus is involved in formation of memories and spatial navigation.  Amygdala is important for strong emotions.  The limbic system is involved in the control of motivation and emotions and regulation of our ability to feel pleasure. ▯ Cerebral Cortex  Comprised of everything at the top of the brain.  Has two hemispheres which each hemisphere controlling sensation and motor functioning on the opposite side of the body. o Each hemisphere has four lobes known as the occipital, parietal, temporal, and frontal lobes. o Occipital lobes (both in the right and left hemispheres) are important for visual processing. o The parietal lobes process body sensations. o The temporal lobes process auditory information as well as complex visual stimuli. o The frontal lobes plays a role in the thinking enter of the brain, including planning, solving problems, and making decisions. ▯ ▯ Divisions of the Central and Peripheral Nervous System  Can be divided into two branches: 1. Somatic nervous system 2. Autonomic nervous system 10  The somatic nervous system  Consists of all the sensory and motor nerves associated with conscious senses.  Dominated by acetylcholine activity.  The autonomic nervous system regulates blood pressure, as well as the functioning of the digestive system and hormone levels.  Subdivided into two divisions. o The dominant division that keeps all internal organs functioning smoothly is called parasympathetic nervous system. o The sympathetic nervous system is connected to all of the same internal organs to which the parasympathetic nerves connect.  Its function is to prepare the body for a fight-or-flight response to a crisis. 11 Psychology – Drugs and Behavior 01/21/2016 Is synthetic marijuana safe?  Was designed to be like marijuana, but you use dried leaves and smoke on them.  Some of the chemicals sprayed on these dead leaves binds to receptors.  You don’t really know what you are getting if you use synthetic marijuana and you don’t really know what the leaves are.  This is very hard for researchers to track. ▯ ▯ Why study the effects of drugs on behavior? 1. Lots of people are using drugs in Kansas.  There is a big increase in the Kansas City area specifically in heroin. 2. Drug use can be harmful. 3. Many people are using “illicit drugs” and being arrested. 4. Drug use cost U.S tax payers lots and lots of money! 5. We need to understand the effects of drugs on our behavior What drugs can do to you (or what you have heard/seen them do) ▯ -Zombies -> from “Bath Salts” -Laughter -> from Salvia -Roid rage -> from Steroids -Shake ‘N Bake -> from Meth 1 What is a drug?  Anything that makes you feel good could potentially be a drug. How do we determine which compounds are drugs? It’s not easy to develop a precise definition of a drug. Drug of Abuse or Medicinal Drug? Nitrous Oxide – Laughing gas  “Huffing” is when you consume large amounts of Nitrous Oxide.  Spray paint, cans of air, ready whip cream are all ways to get a small hit of Nitrous Oxide. You can also just buy cans of air for chefs online.  They are used to get high. It’s very short acting. Methamphetamine  Used to be prescribed for weight loss.  You get energy and have no appetite.  Also used to be prescribed for alcoholic prescription.  You can get a low dose prescription of this for narcolepsy (falling asleep often or all day) and sometimes ADHD in other countries. ▯ ▯ Drug of Abuse or Religious Right? ▯ Peyote cactus  Native Americans, Cherokee etc. use this to hallucinate to talk to the Gods.  You puke out all the garbage (mental and physical) and it will make you well. 2  Only the Native Americans can use this in their ceremonies. ▯ ▯ What is a drug?  Drug: A chemical substance that, when taken into the body, alters the structure or functioning of the body in some way, excluding those nutrients considered to be related to normal functioning.  Psychoactive drug: A drug that influences the function of the brain and hence our behavior and experience. What is Psychopharmacology?  Pharmacology: The study of drugs.  Psychopharmacology: Study of the effects of drugs on behavior.  It includes how social and environmental factors impact drug effects.  They have a perception to what drugs look like and they will act it out for you. ▯ ▯ Some General Statements  Drugs are not “good” or “bad” o Drugs are not good or bad, it’s the way we use them that determines if they are good or bad for you.  Every drug has multiple effects. o It changes the way you breath and act. o It could also be affecting many systems in your body.  The effects of a dug depends on the amount of drug taken (a relationship exists).  The effect of any psychoactive drug depends on the individual’s history and/or expectations (among other things). o If you expect certain things to happen you will get that experience. 3 o If you start mixing drugs then all things are off (poly-drug use). What is Addiction?  Not all drug users are addicted.  Physical dependence: Individual displays withdrawal symptoms if the drug is not available. o You have a physical dependence on that drug.  Psychological dependence: Addiction without the physical dependence. o You REALLY want that drug, but you are not in pain when the drug is taken away from you. ▯ - You take cocaine away from a drug user and they have no signs of a physical withdrawal, but they will actively seek it (psychological dependence). ▯ - LSD is one that has a very little physical withdrawal, but many people still want it. ▯ ▯ What is a Drug Abuse? ▯ The use of any drug, “in a manner that deviates from the approved medical or social patterns in a given culture.” (Jaffe)  Drug abuse is not a social problem.  A drug may be considered abused in one situation, but not others. o Alcohol  A drug may be considered abuse if used at all. o Heroin, PCP  Some cultures may use drugs and not consider them abuse. o Peyote, bhang -> (a marijuana based drink used in certain parts of India for celebrations) 4 Substance Abuse DSM-IV Criteria At least one of the following must apply within the past year:  Recurrent drug use resulting in a failure to fulfill major obligations at work, school, or home. ‘  Recurrent drug use in situations in which use is physically hazardous.  Recurrent rug-related legal problems, such as arrest for disorderly conduct or drug-related behavior.  Continued drug use despite the knowledge of persistent social, occupational, psychological, or physical problems that would be caused by or made more difficult by the use of the drug. ▯ Note: The person must have never met the criteria for substance dependence for this particular drug. Substance Dependence DSM-IV Criteria At least 3 out of the following must apply within the past year:  Tolerance  Withdrawal  Unintentional overuse  Persistent desire or efforts to control drug use  Preoccupation with the drug  Reduction or abandonment of important social, occupational, or recreational activities in order to engage in drug use  Continued drug use despite major drug-related problems. Symptoms must have persisted for more than a month or occurred repeatedly over a longer period of time. DSM-V  Eliminated the term “dependence” and will instead just use the term “substance-related disorders.” 5  Added the term “drug craving”  Eliminated the criteria: “problems with law enforcement”  Addresses the absence of control present with addiction.  Created new categories broken down by drug type: o Cannabis-use disorder; alcohol use disorder, etc.  Added “behavioral addictions” o Only gambling ▯ ▯ Positive-Incentive Theory ▯ Problems:  Does not explain how addiction begins.  Does not address individual differences.  Drugs act as reinforcers o Ex: Teeth, wine, money, chocolate. Positive-Incentive Theory  The craving for the positive-incentive (i.e., pleasure-producing) properties of the drug is the primary factor in addiction.  The anticipated pleasure of drug-taking is the basis of addiction, not so much the pleasurable effects of the drug. ▯ ▯ Exam 1 ▯ Chapters 1 and 2 6 ▯ All multiple choice ▯ Don’t need to know stats from intro lecture ▯ Focus on items in bold and the review questions ▯ Will not ask statistics and names ▯ ▯ Theories of Addiction  Physical-Dependence Theory  Positive-Incentive Theory  Disease Model Disease Model  Addiction is a disease o This can be used as an excuse.  Research has identified genetic predisposition to alcohol dependence. Strengths: o Explains why not everyone develops a drug problem. o The usual rules that govern behavior will not apply in the disease state. Problems: o Have not identified the disease o How does a disease make us take drugs? o Lack of control. 7 ▯ ▯ Not one alone explains drug addiction, they all interact to produce addiction (but, some type of reinforcement must occur) ▯ Genetic metabolic = YOUR ADDICTED ▯ Drug causes physical dependence = YOUR ADDICTED ▯ Drug is reinforcing positively or negatively = YOUR ADDICTED ▯ ▯ Drugs and the Brain ▯ Divisions of the Nervous System ▯ Nervous System -> Central Nervous System (CNS) -> Brain and Spinal Cord ▯ Nervous System -> Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) -> Somatic and Autonomic ▯ ▯ Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) ▯ Somatic Nervous System  Movement of the skeletal muscles. Autonomic nervous System  Sympathetic  Parasympathetic Sympathetic NS  Fight or flight responses  Increase blood flow to muscles  Dilates pupils 8  Piloerection (goosebumps in humans) Parasympathetic NS  Works in opposition to sympathetic response (homeostasis): Rest and Digest.  Slows heart rate  Stimulates digestion Three Divisions of the Brain 1. Hindbrain: Basic functions 2. Midbrain: Integrating sensory information 3. Forebrain: Higher mental processes Two Major Cell Types 1. Neurons 2. Glial Cells  Physical and functional support for the neurons.  A neuron can’t survive with out a glial cell’s support. o Glial cells provide Myelin: Wraps around the axon on the neuron. Myelin is made up of glial cells. o They also provide nutrients. o Remove debris  Creates a blood-brain barrier. o Semi-permeable membrane (only certain things can pass through the barrier). 9 o Only lipophilic drugs can pass through. Neurons Four functional zones: 1. Cell body: Headquarters 2. Dendrites: Input  Provide input to the cell body. 3. Axons: Output  Provide output to the cell body 4. Synapse  Where 2 neurons meet to exchange information. Synaptic Transmission  Presynaptic cell: Neuron sending the information  Postsynaptic cell: Neuron receiving the information ▯ ▯ Action Potential  Presynaptic neuron release neurotransmitter  Neurotransmitter is released into synaptic cleft  Neurotransmitter binds to a RECPETOR on postsynaptic neurons OR remains in synaptic cleft.  The neurotransmitter has to fit into a receptor to fit into that cell. 10 General Drug Effects on Receptors  Drugs that cross the blood brain barrier also bind to receptors. o Like cocaine, alcohol etc.  Agonist vs. Antagonist  Agonist: Mimics a neurotransmitter and activates the receptor. ▯ Agonist  Agonist drugs increase the effectiveness of neurotransmission.  Example: If it increases dopamine’s action, call it a dopamine agonist. o Example: Methamphetamine ▯ Antagonist  Antagonist drugs decrease the effectiveness of neurotransmission.  Example: If it decreases dopamine action, call it a dopamine antagonist. Neurotransmitters  Excitatory: Increase the normal activity of the postsynaptic cell.  Inhibitory: Decrease the activity of the postsynaptic cell.  All drug that alters psychological activity interact with neurotransmitters. Examples:  Acetylcholine (ACh)  Peripheral action: Muscle movement 11  Central action: Memory & wakefulness o Two types of receptors:  Muscarinic - This is slow and drugs don’t act on it.  Nicotinic (nicotine) - Very fast acting.  Epinephrine & Norepinephrine  Peripheral action: “Adrenalin” and fight or flight.  Central action: Elevates mood, improves attention, and affects blood pressure and heart rate.  Dopamine (DA)  Motor pathway (Parkinson’s disease)  Nigrostriatal Dopamine Pathway  Dopamine is released from the substantia nigra.  Reward pathway:  Mesolimbic Dopamine Pathway  Dopamine is released from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and sent to the nucleus accumbens.  5 different DA receptors o Agonist:  Cocaine, Amphetamine, Methamphetamine o Antagonist:  Antipsychotics (haloperidol) 12  Serotonin (5-HT) o Synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan o Regulation of mood o Sleep and arousal o Dreaming o 15 different 5-HT receptors o Agonist:  Ecstasy, LSD, Prozac o Antagonist:  Often mixed with other drugs  Treatments for nausea, bipolar…  Glutamate o Most areas of CNS o Primary excitatory neurotransmitter o Involved in memory storage  GABA o Primary inhibitory neurotransmitter o Agonists:  Valium and ethanol o Antagonist:  Block the effects of ethanol  Endorphins (Opiates) o 3 opioid receptors  Mu, kappa, and delta. o Mu  Agonists are morphine and heroin ▯ ▯ EXAM  Chapters 1 and 2  4 choices (multiple choice)  Only 1 choice correct  Don’t need to know stats from intro lecture.  Don’t need to know statistics and names.  Focus on items in bold and the review questions.  40 multiple choice questions  4 book questions Chapter 1 (that teacher didn’t get to cover)  6 book questions over Chapter 1 (that we didn’t cover) ▯ 13


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