American History since 1865
American History since 1865 amh2020
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Date Created: 02/24/16
AMH2020 Spring 2016 Tentative Midterm Exam Study Guide 1835: Alexis de Tocqueville French scholar who visited US in 1831 and wrote Democracy in America in 1835; amazed at lack of stratification (is a system or formation of layers, classes, or categories) 1865: Reconstruction The south loses the war, but wins the peace After the Civil War: Northerners: Rebuild country, secure black southerners Black Southerners: New life from scratch, maintaining family and community, when blacks worked the white people supplied the clothing food and housing, so when slavery ended they had nothing. No jobs everything's destroyed no economy. White Southerners: want to return to the status quo of the antebellum period (or what is known as white supremacy) ^There are places where the goals of these three groups conflict 1865: Abraham Lincoln Assassinated April, 1865 by John Wilkes Booth Hearse pic is used to carry Lincoln’s body 1868: 14 Amendment Grants citizenship to African Americans in 1868 (Anyone born on our soil is a citizen) 1873: Colfax Massacre Louisiana, 1873 A vigilante group killed 81 black republicans French used to own New Orleans before the Louisiana Purchase (Diff cultures) violent incidences with black men are riots (Blacks always treated as attackers not victims) = Large black pop in Louisiana ruined Colfax Riot: Incidence of violence that include black men are called “riots” – treated as if the black men caused the riots. The media skews these issues in history. KKK acted as if they were the victims 1873: The Gilded Age Mark Twain & Charles Dudley Warner 1873 Mark Twain is saying America is Gilded, America is becoming powerful and industrializing Most Americans the Gilded Age does NOT make them wealthier or more prosperous, does not improve the lives Some lives are amazing, but most do not prosper EX comparison to today This is an age and a BOOK 1876: Election of 1876 Hayes vs Tilden Came down to 3 states in the south where results are contested Tilden won popular votes and loss (poor man, just like Al Gore :( ) People worried of another civil war if Tilden won Southern Democrats Gave Hayes the victory Remove troops from the south and South democrat will support Hayes South democrats take control of the South ( END of RECONSTRUCTION) North Tired of south and “black problem” South destroyed by war, no slavery = loss of worth Farms become worth less without slavery o Sherman's Bowtie (bending of railroad tracks) 1882: Chinese Exclusion Act First national anti immigration law and based on a state law in California (where most of the chinese were going, mostly men) In the 1870s America experiences a series of economic depressions and as a consequence of this the chinese exclusion act was made The chinese exclusion act was made so chinese would stop coming over and those already here were not eligible for citizenship Chinese people in China boycotted American goods in retaliation to the exclusion act and the Chinese exclusion act remains a law until 1943 1890: Massacre at Wounded Knee massacre that killed 150 Siou, that ended Native American resistance of removal (Resolution system) Siou man kills officer…. we massacre their village The success of Manifest Destiny (belief that it was our right/ dream to conquer land from sea to sea) 1891: James Naismith (1891) Basketball television made it more popular in 50s jewish were best because of areas gyms were in 60’s and 70’s when basketball becomes a black, urban sport. 1892: Ida B. Wells Is a spokeswoman against lynching and is herself engulfed with fury when three of her friends are lynched for having a successful grocery store that competed with a white grocery store across the street SUCCESS brings upon attacks Published: Southern Horrors 1892 International campaign to expose lynching She is not going to just talk to black people, she also goes to whites, Christians, liberals, women to spread what is actually happening. Gets the British public on her side, Great Britain was the strongest country in the world of the time (They were what USA is today) Face of black America, she’s in the generation that raises the children of the civil rights movement *Doesn’t work during her lifetime… 1893: Frederick Jackson Turner President American History Association 1893 Americans had free time beginning in 1890’s Created the Turner thesis of “What is an American” o Americans must go towards the frontier o Frontier is gone when we know where everything is on the map; “what defines us after”... we are still searching 1894: Immigrant Restriction League High society north easterners (Senators, Governors, Ivy league people, etc.) Motivated by social reform (blaming social problems on immigrants) 1894: Pullman Strike 5/11/1894 ¼ million go on strike against the company for too many wage cuts in a year, raised rent, and raised living standards. The quarter million people gather other companies to get involved. Pullman Car Company Strike background, 1894: 34 killed, thousands wounded. Railroad industries call these “Acts of God” not accidents. If injured no workmans comp etc. Low wages (reduced 5 times) due to depression and left people with no choice but to quit. 1896: Plessy vs Ferguson Segregation is LEGAL Supreme Court case Separate but equal 1898: USS Maine William Mckinley sends the ship it explodes killing 266 sailors ”Remember the Main, down with Spain” media reports the explosion came from outside of the ship and spain is immediately blammed. Spain says they didn't do it and aren't leaving cuba. cant tell at the time if it was internal or external and Mckinley knows this. causes the Spanish American War to begin. 1898: Teller Amendment Amendment to the declaration of war; added april of 1898 Imperialist trying to convince the others not to take control of another land Amendment says we won't take over cuba Own Cuba but no control over it 1901: Platt Amendment (1901) Begins as an Army appropriations bill in congress. Set the conditions for American troops to withdraw from Cuba. Amends Cuban Constitution: 1. U.S can intervene in Cuban affairs at anytime 2. U.S controls Cuba's foreign policy 3. established Guantanamo Bay as a U.S military base on permanent lease. Remains in effect until 1934 1903: Coney Island First major theme park in the US average daily attendance: 90k trains change convenience of reaching these places. 1903: John Muir During his presidency they go on a camping trip John Muir: Founder of the Sierra club, we have to do more to conserve the environment Roosevelt creates a major national park push When Roosevelt becomes President Teddy is determined to fix the environment 1904: Henry Ford Model T Assembly line production Built Model T very fast and very cheap for people with disposable income. 1907: Gentlemen’s Agreement Roosevelt meets with Japanese Government, unofficial agreement, shake of the hand, Japanese Gov. agrees to stop Japanese immigration to America, San Fran and West coast cities will allow Japanese children to go to school. San Francisco’s school board refused to allow East Asians into their schools Fear of the Asians “Contaminating” white children Consequences: Japan is becoming a world power, so we basically just fucked up a new and coming world power. Risking cutting trade off with us. Many Japanese immigrants come to America for the education – Realizing their child wouldn’t get into a Japanese school 1910: Simon Patten 19021910 reason why number of work hours decrease Theory of Prosperity (1902) The New Basis of Civilization (1910) Normal conditions of civilization = scarcity Thrift, Selfdenial, restraint Modern society can provide for WANTS AND NEEDS 1913: Alien Land Act 1913 CA farmers are upset with immigration of Japanese. They was labor not competition. The Japanese cause no problems other than taking jobs because they work hard. They pull their own money together and buy their own farms. This act makes anyone ineligible for citizenship unable to purchase land. 1914: Franz Ferdinand Archduke. First in line for the throne of Austria Hungary Assassinated in the summer of 1914 in Sarajevo by Gavrilo Princip 1914: Gavrilo Princip pretty much a terrorist but called themselves (the Black hands) revolutionaries. 1915: DW Griffith “Birth of a Nation” Based on the book The Klansman (think kkk) the idea that the Civil War is not North vs. South but white vs. black New Nation is a White Supremacist nation KKK heros that save the nation (the idea) important because the most advanced movie of the time (cinematography) fighting looks the most real it ever has. Assassination of Lincoln looks the most real it ever has. Woodrow Wilson: president of the time. says “every American should see this movie of “true” History.” Shows the people the “true” nature of blackmen, reconstruction, and the civil war. 1915: RMS Lusitania RMS Lusitania was a British ocean liner and briefly the world's largest passenger ship. In 1915, she was torpedoed and sunk by a German Uboat, causing the deaths of 1,198 passengers and crew. In firing on a nonmilitary ship without warning, the Germans had breached the international laws known as the Cruiser Rules. Although the Germans had reasons for treating Lusitania as a naval vessel, the sinking caused a storm of protest in the United States, as 128 Americans were among the dead. The ship's sinking provided Britain with a propaganda opportunity, which helped shift public opinion in the United States against Germany and influenced America's involvement in WWI 1916: Spanish Flu extreme casualties during the war made worse by this. killed 2040 million (675k in U.S) strange pattern: hit ablebodied people the hardest (close spaces like soliders) 1917: Red Scare – 1917 (Russian power overthrown. Americans fear immigrants will bring communism and chaos to US Origins: Fear of immigrant subversion in war belief that they are going to attack the U.S from the inside (German Americans in particular) 1917 october during the Russian Revolution communism emerges and Americans fear that this communism is going to spread like disease. Antiforeign (anyone diff and strange without our beliefs) and AntiImmigrants 1917: Zimmerman Telegram Jan 1917 intercepted by Britain sends to us. telegram from Arthur Zimmermann (German Foreign minister) sends to German AMbassador in Mexico saying that Mexico should attack U.S. and if they do, Germany will form an alliance with them and give them everything they need. NO ONE thought we could win the war. (not prepaired) between the telegram and resumption of uboot, Wilson asks congress for delcaration of war. 1917: Selective Service Act May 1917 men 1827 drafted 3 million drafted lottery system think about rights vs security. 1917: Espionage Act 10 year sentence for interference with the draft or encouraged disloyalty. Postmaster General can censor mail by refusing to distribute seditious materials. 1918: Henry Adams “The education of Henry Adams” 1981 was about the 1890’s1900’s States that the greatest minds of the generation were created in garages; meaning that those who worked on cars and other industrial like machines had more useful knowledge to further society, whereas his education of classical knowledge is worthless 1918: Sedition Act Amends the Espionage Act. Outlaws criticism of the government, armed forces, the flag, or the war effort. 11,500 people jailed in 1918. 1918: Treaty of BrestLitovsk (Russia and Germany) Russia is out of the war Punitive, Punishing Treaty, Germany loses ⅓ of pop. end of eastern front Germany takes 44+ divisions from eastern front to western front treaty allows Germany to knock out war with one punch (Does not work) 1918: Operation Michael 1918 Kaiserschlacht begins with operation Michael All or nothing offensive “one last throw” works at first but germans come to hault in july 1918 1918: Armistice Day Nov, 11, 1918 @ 11am stop fighting so can have peace treaty signed on railroad car of Ferdinand Foch becomes veterans day how you end the war is almost as important as winning it. 1920: Prohibition (19201933) Comes from the Temperance Movement: (LED BY WOMEN because they were the most affected by the drinking) it was the belief that alcohol is at the root of U.S. social problems. established by the 18th Amendment Failed to eliminate demand for alcohol (people are still going to drink even if it is illegal, like weed now) Does NOT ban possession or drinking of alcohol (rich with wine cellars etc get to drink what they have) DOES ban the manufacturing, selling and transportation of alcohol. Only lasts 13 years and is repealed by the 21st Amendment. Puts legal sellars out of business > America sees largest increase in organized crime Ends in 1933 because of The Great Depression Important of this time because it was part of the AntiImmigrant movement. 1920: Sacco and Vanzetti The first celebrity court case. Italian Immigrants and anarchists $15k stolen, 2 men killed. (Men who were carrying the money were robbed and murdered) April 15, 1920 Vanzetti and Sacco arrested and found guilty (although later most scholars have concluded that Nicola Sacco was there and guilty, and just sure that Bartolomeo Vanzetti was not. Executed in 1927, there are protests in every american embassy around the world. Sacco and Vanzetti Death Watch ^ 1921: First Quota Law response to Red Scare and Immigrants restricts immigration from specific country to 3% of that country's immigrants in 1910 census. excludes western hemisphere because even though we restrict immigrants we need some immigrants. 1924: National Origins Act amends First Quota Law. adjusts FQL to 2% of 1890 immigrant population cuts immigration to barely any. western hem exempt again remains until 1965 REST OF THE KEY TERMS: Jordan Anderson Runaway slave who got a letter from his previous slave owner to come back and work on his land for a salary. He said no, fuck that shit! His slave owner asks Jordan to come back where Jordan would be paid a salary Slave owner promises to treat the Andersons better Dear sir, (Anderson replies asking to receive everything his slave owner owns him from the previous years) Anderson basically says fuck off, his owner tried to shoot him. Anderson sent this letter to newspapers as an open letter * 1. Highlights the period of desperation of former slave owners, they now have nobody to work these massive plantations > A lot of slaves aren’t willing to go back, 2. highlights the violence in slavery 3. Jordan Anderson's letter demonstrates black economic power Black Codes were laws passed by Southern states in 1865 and 1866, after the Civil War. These laws had the intent and the effect of restricting African Americans' freedom, and of compelling them to work in a labor economy based on low wages or debt Sharecropping New form of labor developed in South – in response to devastation from postcivil war Plantations divided up and rented out in small pots: 2530 acres Share croppers paid 50% of harvest Half their harvest goes to landowner Sharecroppers must pay for materials upon loans of 5060% Interest rate Perpetual Debt: Lead from high harvest interest rate, debt that never ends Another name for slavery White and black sharecroppers, poor white southerners have bad economy too EX: Farmland owners sell their plots to sharecroppers Civil Rights Act 1866 Becomes important 100 years later and the foundation of the civil rights movement Elevators invented in 1850 by Henry Waterman Improved models increase safety one of the most important inventions made skyscrapers possible Nativism Focus on the interest of native born Americans against the interest of the immigrants (Not Indians, but born American citizens) The definition of what is considered white changes over time. The characteristics of a race is fluid, it changes over time and space In America racism is often about competition. Conflict between racial groups is often about competing for jobs, housing, and education The race in America isn’t just black versus white Natural, it happens everywhere. EX class meets all semester, 20 students come new, there’s this automatic reaction against them Nativism in America is Racial: Judgmental, defensive, Ben Franklin: Pennsylvanian, Ben is constantly against Germans: B/c they are rivaling the British settlements in Penn. AKA competition Race in America is not just black versus white, it’s very complex In America, racism is often about competition Interstate Commerce Commission 1887 (ICC) The beginning of federal regulation of industries first federal regulatory agency problem is that when ICC is formed by the government, they filled it with railroad men (not efficient) Depression of 1893 America goes from unimportant to modern economy. (major industrial power) by 1900 in the top 2 world powers the drawback of all of this is that it is now too big, it must shrink (unemployment rates are up). Almost as bad as the Great Depression depression of 1893 is devastating Griffins Law: Extreme poverty = Extreme politics depression lasts for most of the 1890s and is the worst America had seen up to this point. also had some of the worst labor strikes. Baseball first leisure pursuits national pass time during the Civil War soldiers have too much pass time at camp so they play and bring it back with them to their hometowns. Cincinnati Red Stockings: first professional league 1869. Players are paid. Negro Leagues Black people form leagues after men were pushed out. Segregation is forming in 1890’s. Anyone considered nonwhite played on these leagues. Jim Crow Origin: 1830s Blackface song and dance routine called “Jump Jim Crow” Not immediate development in 1880s1890s Civil war black looked at as stupid/meek postcivil war black ppl foolish violent Minstruel shows: White ppl wearing black makeup Teddy Roosevelt Well rounded Represents America of the age ”Icon of an Age” thinks industrialization can cripple Spanish American War begins with industrialization (can produce wants and needs and surplus) Surpluses lead to the need for foreign markets Begin to look around the world for supply of natural resources America does not have. during 1890s the spanish empire is collapsing and steadily losing territory but we want cuba and the philippines from them Sometimes called “The Splendid little war” Lasted 80 days with only 345 deaths and 2400 casualties Wars start caused by explosion of U.S.S Maine. (thought to heal the North and South because instead of fighting each other they are now fighting a foreign enemy together) Woodrow Wilson Fourteen Points (Jan 1918): this is his peace plan to end fighting. It is the basis for the treaties that end the war. War Industries Board War Production Bernard Baruch Industrial production is going to increase 20% from 19171918 Shows the government that when it controls the economy the economy improves (they think that is the lesson learned) Government cannot afford labor disputes during the war so forms the: National War Labor Board National War Labor Board Prevents labor unrest Collective Bargaining Also, Government accepts and supports the standard of 8 hour workday. Committee for Public Info. Created by Wilson in 1917 Sole purpose is public opinion First time official government office directs propaganda. Published Official Bulletin (circulation over look) creates the standard government version of what's happening in the war and the nation. 150k employed. George Creel First Chairman of Committee for Public info. Journalist Wrote Pamphlets for Wilson’s campaign in 1916 (he would hire men like Don in the show Mad Men) Henry Cabot Lodge leader of opposition to the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles GOP Sen. (MA) Chairman, Sen. Foreign Relations Committee Woodrow WIlson and Lodge hated each other (repub vs democrat etc) led opposition to the ratification of treaties every opinion poll during this time show vast majority of Americans in favor of Treaty of Versailles. Edith Wilson boss married in 1915 Wilsons 2nd wife Wartime rationing (she sets the example throughout) 19191920: De Facto “Presidentress” after Wilson has paralyzing stroke. ran country for 6 months John J. Pershing Commander of US troops in Europe who opposed mixing British and French Troops with American ones Automobiles not until 1920s after WWI where they were prevelantly seen. prior to 1904 you do not see lower and middle class with cars Henry ford. Radio (1930) A collection of inventions form together to make the radio 1920’s radio stations appear (play music, dicussion of politics art and sports.) people realize they can make people pay to listen. prior to the radio, music tended to be local and regional. Now the transmission of sounds makes the radio fundamentally change American culture. by 1930, nearly every household had one creates a mainstream culture radio makes it so people who can not make it to a game, still able to listen to it because it is not nearly as fun to read about it Army vs. Navy where college football becomes popularly followed. radio would also change politics in that the voice of the politician is directly heard making it national. Section II: Essays Students will be given one of the three essays below. They must write an essay that covers the entire period in the question, using specific examples/key terms to demonstrate their points. 1) From 1865 to 1930, Americans changed their views on leisure. Discuss why this occurred and the ways American spent their leisure time. In the first century of American history, most Americans spent most of their day doing labor. As America becomes more industrialized leisure time starts to be prevalently seen. America has leisure time for the first time in the 1890’s. Turn of the 20th century, early 1900s we see a prevalent increase in leisure activities. Americans can now survive working fewer hours. From 1860 to 1960 the hours per week decreased drastically from 70 to 40 hours. Prior to industrialization leisure was actually seen as a bad thing. “Idle hands are at the work of the devil” Simon Patten (8hr work day) was influential in the reason why the number of work hours decreased. He believed the modern society could provide for their wants AND needs, work hard play harder. In 1902 he publishes the Theory of Prosperity and in 1910 he published The New Basis of Civilization. He believed that there would be a shift from production to consumption. In the 1890s sports became more popular due to television. Baseball is one of the first leisurely pursuits. Baseball becomes a huge national pass time during the Civil War especially for soldiers at camp who have a lot of leisure time. Soldiers bring baseball home with them and it becomes the first professional sport in 1869. James Naismith invents basketball in 1891 and it becomes the first indoor sport that people follow. Football and boxing also become popular. Women have much more free time now with the inventions of stoves, dishwashers, etc. At the same time America begins to measure fitness of women as attractiveness. Women participate in sports such as cycling, swimming, and gymnastics. Trains change the convenience of reaching places such as Coney Island, the first major theme park in America. Transportation allows people from all over to enjoy the theme park. Dance halls also become prevalent to attend in leisure time. Movies such as The Birth of A Nation are now part of leisure time in America. Woodrow Wilson encourages Americans to watch this movie to show the “true” nature of black men, reconstruction, and the civil war. 2) Discuss the expansion of the federal government from 1865 to 1934, using five specific examples. Interstate Commerce Commission (Icc)The federal government expanded its service by establishing both the ICC and National war labor board. The ICC regulated industries and was only flawed in that it was only employed by its own workers haha. (first est. by government) The national war labor board was first federal agency established and allowed the government to regulate the work industry for instance the 8 hour work shift. First quota law 1921, and national origins act1924 both restrict the traffic of people into country. 1894 Immigrant Restriction League supports and sees victory here. The first quota law is an example of the federal government's expansion by its ability to establish an act that put regulatory laws into place that control the flow of people from the eastern hemisphere into the country and the national origins by not only controlling but constricting the flow to such a muncile amount in comparison to the previous years; as demonstrated by the graph shown to us in class. As an example from the past, in the 1907 Gentleman's Agreement between Japanese and Roosevelt, that wasn't an actual constitutional act/law. This agreement in the end didn't solve any immigration problems b/c nothing enforced the immigrants & school boards on the west coast. Espionage act(war) , and selective service act During this time the federal government expanded mostly through world war one. Demonstrated by the great deal of war acts passed by them, such as selective service which allowed for them to draft an army based on enlistment(lottery style), and Espionage act which allowed the federal government to imprison any person who didn't have a legit reason to serve or avoided their service to their country by the means of lying. International commerce commission War industries board Bernard Baruch Robert cuff vvv Leads too: National War Labor Board prevents labor 3) How did America’s labor systems evolve from 1865 to 1934? America before the reconstruction era of 1865 originated with Slave Labor in the South, creating prosperous plantation fields and Northerners benefited off of the crops. Then during reconstruction and post reconstruction we see with the help of the 14th amendment the system of sharecropping is the dominant labor system until the 1930s. The problem with sharecropping is that the landowner chooses the crop, which is most likely cotton. Britain and Europe find alternate supplies of cotton during the civil war, which makes the price of cotton plummet leaving sharecroppers unable to pay off loans. Prior to industrialization most work was done by muscle energy. Prior to the Civil War most Americans were not wage laborers this is changed by industrialization. This creates a wide range of economic stratification. By 1920 the first census that shows the majority of Americans are living in urban areas. At this time there was also a vast increase in the demand for factory workers because machines still need a lot of manpower. Subsequent to the industrialization of the nation working conditions became better for the people operating the machines. This was mainly due to the actions of the Pullman strike which was induced by workers of that company having increased living conditions, cut wages and increased rent; yet continuing to work under harsh conditions. Eventually the national war labor force board is introduced by the federal government. Their major contribution was establishing max 8 hour work days, which led to workers having more free time for sports, and dancing. Slave labor pre reconstruction era of 1865 Help of 14th amendment: blacks are granted citizenship Sharecropping Seen as “good” but is actually perpetual debt North lacks prosperous crops Jordan AndersonEX: Free slave will take lower wage to be free 4) America has had a troubled history of immigration, often wavering between acceptance and intolerance, recruitment and expulsion. Discuss the evolution of America’s relationship with its immigrants from 1865 to 1965. Nativism focused on interests of Nativeborn Americans (citizens) against the interest of the immigrants. Race in America is not just black vs. white it is very complex. When talking about racism in America it is often about competition. Nativism creates major manifestations including antiimmigration laws, riots and strikes, research aimed at justifying nativist thoughts, marginalization, and economic issues. Nativism becomes very strong in the 1850s. The Americans issue with immigrants is that America has a great demand for labor at this time even though nativists did not like this. The first antiimmigration law was passed in 1882 named the Chinese Exclusion Act. The Chinese Exclusion Act was a reaction to Chinese miners seeking the Gold Rush in California. In the 1870s America experiences a series of economic depressions. In response to this the act is passed. The Chinese Exclusion Act prevents future Chinese immigration and makes Chinese in America ineligible for citizenship. The racism in America is circumstantially driven. In 18651890 ten million immigrants came from Northern Europe and small numbers from other areas. In the 1890s nonwhites are invading America. An intense reaction against immigration occurs as a consequence of immigrants failing to assimilate to American culture. The Immigration Restriction League is established in 1894 by the high society. It is motivated by racism and social reform. 1894: immigrant restriction league AntiImmigrants Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 first anti immig law (Cali chinese) Gentleman's Agreement (Japanese vs roosevelt) 1920 Sacco (guilty) & Vanzetti (not guilty) kill 2 men steal automatically arrested b/c italian immigrant anarchist First quota Law 1921: well accept 3% 1910 census National Origins Act 1924: amends first quota 2% 1890 census
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