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Midterm Study Guide for Exam on 3/2

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by: Julia Walker

Midterm Study Guide for Exam on 3/2 101

Marketplace > Grand Valley State University > Art > 101 > Midterm Study Guide for Exam on 3 2
Julia Walker
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This is a midterm study guide with detailed notes from lecture, powerpoints, book readings, course reserve readings, and study guide answers.
Introduction to Art
Geoff Burd
Study Guide
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"Yes please! Looking forward to the next set!"
Mr. Sheridan Stokes

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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Walker on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 101 at Grand Valley State University taught by Geoff Burd in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Art in Art at Grand Valley State University.


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Date Created: 02/24/16
PowerPoints Main Points  Everybody makes art in a natural way, not just people who are defined as artists or work in an art museum  Artists throughout society and history: o 1. Shaman focus on religion, well-being of individuals and community  their art is practical and ceremonial, helps to heal the ill or helps people prepare for a role in society o 2. Monks/nunsreligious roles as well o 3. The outsiderwork is expanded past the aesthetic commonalities, more individualized, possibly graffiti or spray paint o 4. Craftspersonmay not be recognized as art by some but by others they include it in their culture, can have or not have a purpose or cause, o 5. Skilled workermost common are painters/sculptors o 6. Creative geniusrole in societal art is above the ordinary, maybe abstract or angelic to some, possibly the most influential  Examples: Imhotep (step pyramid of king zoser), Leonardo de Vinci: seen as an inventor (mona lisa) Michelangelo (David, creation of Adam) o 7. The artist scientist  Examples: Leonardo de Vinci (natural plastic, anatomical drawings), artist and naturalist: Audubon (Carolina paroqet) o 8. The tragic genius  Examples: Van Gogh (starry night, self-portrait) o 9. Artist as a celebrity  Exmples: Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) Andy Warhol (1928-1987)  Guilds: organization of persons who informed people with related interests to keep their “trade secrets” they were taught  Artists were usually trained by a person of higher order or someone who had mastered the arts o They learned the common techniques, theories, perspective, and tastes of these people they followed o 16 century and forward was when this system really advanced and changed widely o They were now informed not only of the arts but also how to present the knowledge they have learned professionally  Artworks that were privately owned began to allow access to society o State-wide academia was initiated  Genres and specific topics of study were formed  Naïve: self-taught artists  Some artists opened “workshops” o They were usually seen as the masters and had workers placed in positions below them o Common in Europe  As a communitygroup created large projects together and they were worked on over a period of time o Gothic Cathedrals: symbols of Christianity and community pride o Aids memorial quilt=largest artwork made by a group in the world**  Collaboration: o Art piece rankingsoriginal pieces, engravings, printer prints, paper made, published works  Contracting: o Commonly artists will hire people below them who do not have much experience in art, that’s what makes it creative and new  Many different people are involved in deciding what actually qualifies as art: o Patrons, collectors, sellers, critics o Titian (Isabella d’ Esta) is a good example (read bio)**  The first public work of art was funded by Art in Public Places Program of the National Endowment for the Artists o Actually in Grand Rapids, MI** and represents the culture o Example: Alexander Calder (La Grande Vitesse)  Sometimes the purpose of a piece of art distinguishes fine art from other types so audiences make assumptions, yet commonly the artworks meaning is not always directly portrayed to us o Understanding the meaning is learned (acquired) and has to be educated/instructed o Artists and the audience play roles in this education system  Content: subject matter, what we view in the artwork  In art that we view with our eyes, its seen in: o Form: physical aspects  Elements, principles, styles o Iconography: symbols that show the concepts presented  Something that is determined by something else o Context: social, political, historical, physical environments of the artwork  Style (being under the subject of form)the way people involved in the arts communicate through visual expression o Representational style: shows figures that look real, also could be called “real style”, objects in work are identified easily  Stylizedimages are exaggerated and some parts are supposed to stand out more than others  Idealizedimages in the art work commonly match the images in real life  Tromp-l’oeilintended to mislead the audience o Non-objective style: art that has no detectable specific style, each individual views it in their own way  Use directed perception  Items in work can be seen as distorted to some people but normal to others  Abstraction: art becomes more non-objective and less representational  Signs in contrast to symbols: o Signsspecific, only one meaning, not misleading o Symbolsteach people, multiple portrayals, complicated and gradual when trying to figure out the different meanings  Modes of analysis: o Iconographicsigns and symbols in a piece of art, addresses history behind it and religion  See Marilyn Monroe by Audrey Flack for representational meaning, symbolic meaning, and individual meaning examples** o Biographicalcreator of the piece includes experience, past, and memories in the work, gender/race/nationality is common  See Hang-Up by Eva Hesse for analytical meaning for this topic** o Feministrole of women in society, their views, identity, and personality  See Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Grande Odalisque** o Contextualmeaning based off time and place, considers history, religion, politics, social economics  See Leni Riefenstahl, still from Triumph of the Will** o Psychologicalartist mental image and interpretation, emotions play a role  See Edward Hopper, Nighthawks** o Formalincludes elements/principles in artists eyes  See Diego de Silva y Velázquez, Las Meninas for line, shape, form, mass, volume, color, texture, space, time, motion, value, contrast, balance, unity, variety, rhythm, emphasis, focal point, pattern, proportion, and scale** 1.3 Implied Depth: Value and Space  Three-dimensional: height, width, depth  Two-dimensional: height and width  Depth is implied by value: lightness/darkness of a plane or area, space: distance between identifiable points/planes, perspective: creation of the illusion of depth in a 2D image using math principles  Surrealist artists: their art is inspired by dreams and subconscious  Value range: many different values in a series  Renaissance occurred in the 14 -17 century, artistically it included changes in culture and art  Hatching: parallel lines to show light-dark transition  Cross-hatching: overlapping hatching lines (diamond shaped)  Artists imply that a larger object is closer to us than it really is by the size of shapes o Overlapping shapes can create an illusion o Atmospheric perspective creates the illusion of a shape being further away  Rhythm: pattern of elements  Isometric perspective: diagonal lines that are parallel portray depth/distance  Linear perspective: converging lines far away  Actual line: uninterrupted  Implied line: portrayed by the other elements in the work, not physically shown  Vanishing point: lines not actually drawn appear to imply depth and reach a certain point  Orthogonals: lines not actually shown that extend to the vanishing point  One-point perspective: only one vanishing point is present in the picture  Fresco: freshly applied to the painting  Three-point perspective: two vanishing points on the surface and one not on the surface  Foreshortening: a perspective that makes you look at the painting/picture unusually  When a piece of work uses overlapped shapes and lines it can portray something that doesn’t really exist  All perspective techniques imply different depth perceptions 4.5 Art and Illusion  Oculus: opening looking circle in the center of another circle  Putto: people who look like infants/angels  Balustrade: looks like a round railing  Convex: round shape that curves inward (looks like you are in the bottom of a well looking up)  William Harnett was a particular artist who was good at tricking his audience and convincing them of things that were not really there  Julian Beever used anamorphosis to distort images so it only looks correct from one specific viewpoint Off Class Study Guides: (some topics may be mentioned twice throughout the document)  Teachings: o Apprentice method: apprentices had a master and were the inferiors, they responded to requests asked of them, possibly making additional marks/designs to their artwork  Mona Lisa and Creation of Adam works of art both had apprentice assistance o Guilds: learned through secrets within the subject  Chartres Cathedrial and Notre Dame Cathedrial are examples o Academics: taught not only physical creation methods, also theory, studies of specifics  State-supported from the 1500’s and forward impacted art heavily, different subjects within the main topic of art arose, as well as public art showings  These replaced guilds o Genres:  History, portrait, genre, landscape, animal, still-life o Self-taught: people do not use much knowledge or detail of the subject, they create a piece of work according to their own selves and no one else  Hierarchy of genres: they are ranked according to value o History, portrait, genre, landscape, animal, still-life Things to know** (Study Guide Answers) Powerpoints:  Images may be given and you will need to know how the artist was trained and how the artworks were created  “We are all artists by practice or proxy”- Desmond Morris (quote to know)  For some theorists meaning separates fine art from other types  Types of style (match images to types)  In relation to non-objective art: “Fear interrupts attention, stops plans for happening, and increases alertness”  Zeuxis Selecting Models for his Picture of Helen of Troy uses idealized style because the people in the figure are perfectly compared to human life  Symbols in the Arnolfini Portrait: o Wealth=chandelier o Fruit on the window=fertility o Dress=fashion (queen was pregnant, woman in the photo was not)  Symbols of Vanitas in Marilyn Monroe: o Timecalendar, watch, hourglass o Vanity cosmetics, mirror, jewelry, perfume o Death/decaycandle, fruit, flowers o Wealth/fameMarilyn, necklace  Contextual analysis and our understanding of Triumph of the Will: o Political propaganda; Hitler’s words were of importance  Biographical analysis of Hang-Up by Eva Hesse: o Break up with her husband, mothers death  Feminist analysis of Grande Odalisque by Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres: o Women in France were demanding equal rights or her gaze  Psychological analysis interpret Edward Hopper's Nighthawks: o Reflects the solemn mood felt in the US at the beginning of WWII  How a formal analysis describe/explain Las Meninas: o How the artist has communicated using visual language  Biographical analysis of Las Meninas tells us about the artist and why he painted himself in this work: o Suggests why he painted himself in a painting that shows the presence of the king. He was the kings favorite painter and assistant  Iconographical analysis of Las Meninas: o The cross on the painter in Las Meninas is the cross of the Order of Santiago 1.3:  Chiaroscuro: an effect that creates an illusion of solidity and depth by using; o Highlight, light, core shadow, reflected light, cast shadow  In the Great Wave off Shore at Kanagawa: o Implied depth (illusion of space) is created by making one boat a smaller size, overlaps the wave over the two large boats so it makes it look like the boats are further than the water  In The Qianlong Emperor’s Southern Inspection Tour: o He uses a building shape to suggest its 3D  In The Sims: o Game designers used parallel lines that are diagonal to make tiles and make objects uniform and the same size, when they move around in the game, depth is implied o Use isometric perspective  In Trinity: o Uses fresco, horizon lines, vanishing points  In The Lamentation over the Dead Christ: o Foreshortening is used, makes the body look shorter than it is, makes us feel like we are standing at the foot of the bed 4.5  Trompe l’oeil: extreme kind of illusion meant to be deceiving  Anamorphosis: distorted representation of an object so that it appears correct  Parrhasius won the battle because he tricked Zeuxis  What is special about Women in a Pool: o He used Anamorphosis and from one specific angle the art becomes clear, other angles it is destroyed Barret Reading:  Two types of art:  Honorific o Pieces that are presented to audiences as works of art or in books/museums labeled as art are not usually doubted to be a work of art o Three honorific types: realism, expressionism, formalism  Classificatory o Descriptive o Tells audience what is and specifically what isn’t art o “art displays tell you what art actually is” o People associated with art are part of the artworld o Doesn’t make a distinction between good art and bad art, just tells what is in fact a piece of art  Open o Avoids defining art and looks at it openly o Does not follow rules or circumstances  Artworld consists of obviously artists, directors, collectors, history specialists, art analysts


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