PSYC 368 study Guide
PSYC 368 study Guide psyc 368,
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dawn Kohler on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to psyc 368, at Truman State University taught by Dr. Angela Knoverek in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see psychological testing in Psychlogy at Truman State University.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
Study Guide Exam 2 De ne describe and give examples of the following Alternateforms reliability estimate Base rate Bias Coef cient alpha Concurrent validity Construct validity Content validity Criterionrelated validity crossvalidation Cut score Decision theory Error estimates Error variance Expectancy datatable Face validity False positive False negative Generosity error Guttman scale Halo effect Internal consistency estimate of reliability Internal consistency validity Interscorer reliability Item bank Item branching Likert scaling Multiple hurdle selection Parallelforms reliability estimate Power test Predictive validity Random error Rater error Reliability Consistency of measurement Reliability coefficient is an index of reliability a proportion that indicates the ratio between true score and total score Reliability estimates ScaHng Selection ratio Severity error Speed test Splithalf reliability estimate stages of test development Standard error of measurement Test administration error Test heterogeneity Test homogeneity Testretest reliability estimate Test variance Utility Utility analysis Validity vaNance Know factors that affect the following ReHabH y Sources of error variance Reliability estimates Validity Utility Stages of test development Error Variance standard deviation squared Measurement error what is the error of measured variables Random not predictable or systematic typically constant or proportionate predictable There is validity and limitations to projective tests Test constructionvariations within items and between tests ltem sampling or content sampling Between forms Test Administration Sources of error may stem from the testing environment Also test taker variables such as pressing emotional problems physical discomfort lack of sleep slap happy and the effect of drugs or medication loopy Examiner related variables such as appearance good or bad characteristics and demeanor method of interaction may play a role Test Scoring and interpretation computer testing reduces errors in test scoring but many tests still require interpretation like projective tests Subjectivity in scoring can enter into behavior assessment Other Sources of error variance Surveys and poles margin of error sampling error Test retest reliability an estimate of reliability obtained by correlating pairs of scores from the same people on two different administration of the same test Within six months4Most appropriate for variables that should be stable over tie like personality and not appropriate for variables expected to change over time like mood Estimates tend to decrease as time passes With intervals over 6 months the estimate of reliability is called the coef cient of stability Time spent scoring and interpreting is not reimbursable Your mood when grading can change while grading Coef cient of equivalence degree of relationship between forms Parallel variances of observed forms are equal Alternate forms have adaptions or accommodations for people with disabilities Check reliability by administering them to the same group Split half do evens or add Divide into equivalent haves lnter item consistency how related are they items on the test Coef cient alpha 01 Inter scorer reliability consistency between scorers With regard to a particular Must be within the one rank of truth helpful for licensing Codes behaviors CANS It is often used with behavioral measures guards against bias and idiosyncrasies in scoring Coefficient of interscore reliabilityThe scores from different raters are correlated with o e another Autism codes by how close teacher and students were standing Within four feet positive interaction no IRB Got millions of dollars Reliability estimates depends on what you are measuring Look at the nature of test Homogeneous or heterogeneous of items Variation in behavior rating scales Characteristic ability or trait is presumed to be dynamic or static range of test scores is not restricted Speed or power test Criterion referenced Must meet standards to move up or pass TrueScore re ects a test takers ability Verbalization theory Standard error of measurement SEM Higher the reliability lower standard of error Standard error off difference between tests or between individuals on same test Chapter 6 Validity Reliability and not valid person is always 15minutes late Reliable and valid on target Unreliable and not valid all over Validity how well a test measures what it purports to measure in context Validation gather info about validity Content validity is it covering what is supposed to How adequately does it sample behaviors Look at it with employment If more than half of raters say it is valid it has some Look at cultural Criterion validity standards of evaluation have to score a certain level Don t usually get to review questions Relevant valid and uncontaminated not predicting who will pass Drivers insurance is contaminated uses predictors Concurrent validity an index of the degree to which a test score is restated to some criterion measure obtained at the same time Predictive validity how the test score predicts criterion in the future Operational de ant may lead to antisocial as an adult Wouldn t make a test for sexual offending risk Construct Within frame work Face validity relevant of the test items If it measures what is on the face of it high face validity Selfreport high Projective low MMPI says that it is a problem already it is not predictive The validity coef cient a correlation coef cient that provides a measure of the relationship between test scores and scores on the criterion measure Validity coef cients are affected by restriction or in ation of range Incremental validity the degree to which an additional predictor explains something about the criterion measure that is not explained by predictors already in use To what extent does a test predict the criterion over and above variance Expectancy Data how many do we expect to pass or fail Letter grades job settings annual performance review Expectancy charts help you know what job skills are looked for Construct validity the ability of a test to measure a theorized construct that purports to measure Homogeneity changes with age pretest posttest distinct groups Convergent evidence construct validation direction of scores Bias understand what is impacting the test from being accurate and impartial Rating error misuse of rating scale Teachers who score overly high or low scores Halo effect a tendency to give a particular person a higher rating than he or she objectively deserves because of favorable overall impression Picking favorites overall impressions Example Buying new album of favorite artist Fairness the extent to which a test is used in an impartial just and equitable way Chapter 7 and Chapter 8 Utility and Test Development Know general info Utilityusefulness or practical value of testing to improve ef ciency valid tests are not always useful KANS is not that useful though it is valid achievement test used in Illinois Cost affects utility people are more willing to use free or less costly assessment 23 per admin or computerized MMPI is most expensive Battery of exams and time is costly Bene ts Data Driven performance based Clinicians like good utility of assessments Some straight forward some you have to decide which will be the least amount of assessment for most answers Decision Theory and Utility Read though Pool ofjob applicantslimitless supply or speci c skillsets Performance and cut score passfail grades Multiple hurdles to narrow pool of applicants Discriminant analysis read about relationship Comparison on test results and jobs 0 Test Development Five stages need a test that ts a need and is sensitive to a certain aspect Preliminary questions need measure objective format Training Item Development in Norm Referenced and Criterion Referenced test good item high scores respond correctly Low scorers respond incorrectly Criterion did they meet criteria May need exploratory or piolet tests or groups Scaling for tests rating Likert provide ordinal data unidimensiona or multidimensional Paired Comparisons Comparison scaling Categorical scaling Guttmann scalesequence weaker to stronger ltem pool total number questions that can be drawn from ltem format Computer Administration more convenient less error for sub scales Computerized adaptive testing CAT bene cial Class scoringdiagnostic lpsative compare test takers scores 510 test takers per item Item analysis dif culty validity reliability Do we allow guessing Item fairness biased test item may favor one test group over another Gender bias race ethnicity socioeconomic Difference between power and speed test There is an error in the power point look at P 154 instead Speed test similar low dif culty low time Power multiple levels with generous time limit Crossvalidation and Covalidation Quality Assurance Review for test 2 chapters 58 Reliabilityconsistency Errors Homogenous heterogeneous Computer aspects Split half internal constancy Test retest blood pressures of the same person within six months stability Coefficient alpha know high and low ends Inters corer reliability know high and low ends Can be reliable and not valid Power and speed test Different types of validity face criterion and content predictive Halo effect Error random standard rater Impacts of test utiity Multiple hurde Top down selection the top scorer is the person who is hired rst Decision theory Meaning of False negatives in scores Types of reliability Cut off scores Expectancy tables Item banks branching ScaHng Know key words at the end of chapter provide example and extrapolate
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