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Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Jacqueline Shaia

Exam 1 Study Guide 72651 - BIOL 310 - 001

Jacqueline Shaia

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About this Document

Study packet that outlines the phylogenetic tree. It has each group and the major details of each group for both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, along with some information on archaea. Study guides are...
Study Guide
Biology, Biodiversity, phylogenetic tree, evolution
50 ?




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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jacqueline Shaia on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 72651 - BIOL 310 - 001 at George Mason University taught by Lawry in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Biodiversity in Biology at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 02/24/16
Name  Single or  Photosynthetic? Parasitic/  Reproduction  Cell Walls Other Multicellular Pathogenic Stramenophile ­ Diatoms Unicellular Yes No Asexual, bud off  ­ silicon shell  Silicon Shell  ­ chlorophyll c (one cell smaller  than other because  of shell) Stramenophile ­ Brown  Multi Yes No ­ oogamy? ­ cellulose  ­ Brown color from  Algae ­ can be large ­ chlorophyll c ­  sperm = 2  carotenoid pigment  ­ plastids similar to  flagellum  fucoxanthin in  diatoms chloroplasts Stramenophile ­ Oomycetes Multi None Yes decomposer &  ­ asexual and sexual ­ Cellulose  ­ called “water  pathogenic molds” ­ fungal­like in  ­ disease in fish  ­ Plant pathogens,  appearance  Irish Potato Blight  (rotted all plants) Stramenophile – Blastocytae Multi  None Yes NA NA ­ live in intestinal  tract ­ common in places  w/t unclean water Alveolata – Ciliates Multi None,  No ­ sexual ­ Membrane  ­ cilia Heterotrophic ­ 2 nuclei,  bound sacs  ­ 2 nuclei,  multiploid  (alveoli) in  macronucleus that  pellicle controls cell  process &  micronuc. that  undergoes sexual  repro Alveolata ­ Dinoflagellates Uni, some  Yes (50%  Yes ­ xsomes attached  Cellulose plates ­ cellulose plates colonies autotrophic, the rest­ red tides (from  to nuclear  *armored plates chemo) envelope; lac  plastids) ­ Toxic!: kills fish histones  ­ parasitic like  Pfiesteria sp.  Alveolata – Apicomplexa Uni None Yes ­ sexual in  Pellicle  ­ MITO W/T NO  ­ Apicoplast –  ­ Plasmodium =  mosquito containing  DNA remnant of chloro Malaria  ­ asexual humans alveoli ­ sensitive to  ­ secondary  (mosquitoes) herbicides endosymbiosis (w/t  ­ Cryptosporidium:  red algae) causes gastro­ intestinal issues Rhizaria ­ Cercozoa Uni Yes Yes ­ some lateral gene  ­ no cell wall  ­ Paulinella  Amoebae  ­ primary  ­ parasitic and  transfer chromatophora endosymbiosis &  predaceous  (chloroplasts secondary  and evolution info) - auto and - remnants of chemoauto peptidoglycan cell wall Rhizaria – Foraminifera Uni None, feed w/t  NA NA ­ shell­calcium  ­ limestone deposits  Amoebae pseudopodia  carbonate in calcium  carbonate tests ­ rich fossil records ­ used in  biostratigraphy &  oil exploration  Rhizaria – Radiolaria Uni None, feed with  NA NA ­ shell­silicon  ­ rich fossil record Amoebae  pseudopodia ­stiff pseudopods Plantae ­ Archaeplastida NA Yes NA NA NA nA Primary  chloroplast  endosymbiotic  event: gave rise to  lineage of euk.  ***ALL GREEN PLANT  CLADE AND CERCOZOA  (Rhizaria) ARE  PRIMARY*** Plantae ­ Glaucophytes Uni Yes NA NO sexual repro  Plastids w/t  ­ basal group  Primary  peptidoglycan  (earliest plant  Chlorophyll a only  diverging group) wall  & phycobilins - flagella ­ looks like  cytobacterium  Plantae – Red Algae Uni  Yes NA Complex life cycle ­ cellulose ­ NO MOTILE  Primary  CELLS (flagella..) Pigment = red color ­ very diverse ­ chlorophyll a and  ­ marine habitats phycobilins  (phycocyanine &  phycoeruthrin)  Plantae – Green Algae &  Multi Yes More later More later  More later  More later Land Plants Primary  Chlorophyll b  (green color) Excavates – Euglenida Uni  Yes, chloroplasts  NA Asexual  No cell wall  ­ mostly freshwater  from secondary  plankton  endosymbiosis  - dishaped ­ if taken away  crysta from light –  (membranes) becomes  inside heterotrophic, put  mitochondria back into light  becomes photosyn.  again (dormant  chloroplast) Excavates ­ Diplomonada uni None Parasitic  2 nuclei  No cell wall  ­ derivative of mito  ­ Giardia (intestinal  or no mito  organelle – gotten  from contam. Food  and water.)  Excavates ­ Parabasalids Uni  None  Parasitic: Asexual  No cell wall ­ no mito!!   ­ live in animals ­ Trichonympha: gut of termites ­ Trichomones: STD Excavates – Kinetoplastids Uni  None Pathogenic: Asexual  No cell wall  **1 Huge Mito Trypanosomes –  (kinetoplast –  infect humans via  circular) insect bites, get in  ­ Very lethal  blood stream because antibodies   Types: sleeping  keep changing  disease, chagan’s  before antibiotics  disease, and  work  Leishmaniases Excavates Percolozoa Uni  None Pathogenic: Asexual  No cell wall  ­ has Mito! ­ brain­eating  amoeba infection (gotten from contaminated pools & ponds) Choanoflagellates Multi  None No Asexual  No cell wall  ­ Sister to  Note: Under Opisthokonts  Metazoans  ­ Choanocytes of sponges  (animals) have same structure as these  - closest cells  relatives = animals - filter feeders (beginnings of complex GI syst) Amoebozoans – Loboseans NA  None  Pathogenic:   NA  No cell wall  - phagocytosis amoebic dysentery – for food ingest contaminated  food & water Amoebozoans – Cellular &  Multi  None  No  Plasmodium: sexual NA ­ ingest food  Plasmodial Slime Molds    Ex: physarum  endocytosis  ­ either multinucleate  Slime molds:  - amoeboid cells asexual - all motile plasmodium (one cell) or    Ex. Dictyostelium multicellular pseudoplasmodium (cellular slime molds) Name Parasitic/Pathogenic/Bacterium Gram Positive or  Notes: Reproduction Notes Examples? Gram Negative Spirochetes ­ Lyme’s disease  Gram Negative ­ anaerobic NA ­ Syphilis ­ motile with flagellum inside  ­ most free living, non­pathogenic Chlamydia ­ STD Gram Negative ­ reduced in size & simple ­ Complex life cycle ­ intracellular parasites  ­ can see with electron microscope     1. elementary bodies  **Sensitive to Penicillin  NOT light  (disease stage)     2. reticulum bodies  Hyperthermophillic ­ Aquifex: live in volcanic vents  ­ High GC and hot springs (can tolerate high  temps!) ­ Thermus aquaticus: source of  DNA polymerase used in  thermocyclers Hadobacteria ­ Deinococcus:  ­ High GC  1. resistant to radiation   2. eat toxic wastes  3. bioremediation  High GC­Bacteria:  1. **Source of many antibiotics  Gram Positive  ­ High GC Actinobacteria (can be  (tetracycline, chloramphenicol,  ­ mostly aerobic  referred to as gram pos) streptomycin, neomycin) 2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis &  M. leprae pathogenic ­ Staphylococcus, bacillus,  Gram Positive  ­ aerobic ­ spores Low – GC Bacteria:  Phylum Firmicutes,  clostridium, anthrax Class Clostridia ­ only group that is pathogenic  (Clostridium)  Low – GC Bacteria:  Gram Positive (do  ­ no cell wall (cannot make  Phylum Firmicutes,  not stain) peptidoglycan) ­ mycoplasmids (no cell wall) Class Mollicutes ­ sterols in membrane (Obtained  from Host) ­ small Cyanobacteria ­ invented O2 & Photosynthesis ­ one group of photosynthetic  bacterium = oxygen photosynthesis  Proteobacteria ­ Cholerae Gram negative  ­ Nitrogen fixers (prok. Process only) ­ Tick & Mosquito diseases ­ photoautotrophic = fix carbon ­ Rickettsia ­ Tick *Origin of Mitochondria ­ no human pathogens known  ­ anaerobic  Archaea 1. No human  ­ no peptidoglycan wall pathogens known and      ­ cell wall: lipid (membrane chem.) 2.NONPHOTOSYNTH ­ don’t exhibit lots of characteristics  bacteria do ETIC      ­ lots in animal intestines No photoautotrophic  species ­ no photoautotrophic species 2 best studied groups:  ­ first seen as  - Euryarchaeota (methanagenic and extremophiles (high salt, low pH, etc.) halophilic) ­ rep. methanogens, halophiles,   ­ not all extremophiles and sulfur metabolizers  (cows  produce tons of mthane daily) - Crenarchaeota (thermophiles and  acidophiles – extreme  environment)


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