Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide 72651 - BIOL 310 - 001
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jacqueline Shaia on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 72651 - BIOL 310 - 001 at George Mason University taught by Lawry in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Biodiversity in Biology at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
Name Single or Photosynthetic? Parasitic/ Reproduction Cell Walls Other Multicellular Pathogenic Stramenophile Diatoms Unicellular Yes No Asexual, bud off silicon shell Silicon Shell chlorophyll c (one cell smaller than other because of shell) Stramenophile Brown Multi Yes No oogamy? cellulose Brown color from Algae can be large chlorophyll c sperm = 2 carotenoid pigment plastids similar to flagellum fucoxanthin in diatoms chloroplasts Stramenophile Oomycetes Multi None Yes decomposer & asexual and sexual Cellulose called “water pathogenic molds” fungallike in disease in fish Plant pathogens, appearance Irish Potato Blight (rotted all plants) Stramenophile – Blastocytae Multi None Yes NA NA live in intestinal tract common in places w/t unclean water Alveolata – Ciliates Multi None, No sexual Membrane cilia Heterotrophic 2 nuclei, bound sacs 2 nuclei, multiploid (alveoli) in macronucleus that pellicle controls cell process & micronuc. that undergoes sexual repro Alveolata Dinoflagellates Uni, some Yes (50% Yes xsomes attached Cellulose plates cellulose plates colonies autotrophic, the rest red tides (from to nuclear *armored plates chemo) envelope; lac plastids) Toxic!: kills fish histones parasitic like Pfiesteria sp. Alveolata – Apicomplexa Uni None Yes sexual in Pellicle MITO W/T NO Apicoplast – Plasmodium = mosquito containing DNA remnant of chloro Malaria asexual humans alveoli sensitive to secondary (mosquitoes) herbicides endosymbiosis (w/t Cryptosporidium: red algae) causes gastro intestinal issues Rhizaria Cercozoa Uni Yes Yes some lateral gene no cell wall Paulinella Amoebae primary parasitic and transfer chromatophora endosymbiosis & predaceous (chloroplasts secondary and evolution info) - auto and - remnants of chemoauto peptidoglycan cell wall Rhizaria – Foraminifera Uni None, feed w/t NA NA shellcalcium limestone deposits Amoebae pseudopodia carbonate in calcium carbonate tests rich fossil records used in biostratigraphy & oil exploration Rhizaria – Radiolaria Uni None, feed with NA NA shellsilicon rich fossil record Amoebae pseudopodia stiff pseudopods Plantae Archaeplastida NA Yes NA NA NA nA Primary chloroplast endosymbiotic event: gave rise to lineage of euk. ***ALL GREEN PLANT CLADE AND CERCOZOA (Rhizaria) ARE PRIMARY*** Plantae Glaucophytes Uni Yes NA NO sexual repro Plastids w/t basal group Primary peptidoglycan (earliest plant Chlorophyll a only diverging group) wall & phycobilins - flagella looks like cytobacterium Plantae – Red Algae Uni Yes NA Complex life cycle cellulose NO MOTILE Primary CELLS (flagella..) Pigment = red color very diverse chlorophyll a and marine habitats phycobilins (phycocyanine & phycoeruthrin) Plantae – Green Algae & Multi Yes More later More later More later More later Land Plants Primary Chlorophyll b (green color) Excavates – Euglenida Uni Yes, chloroplasts NA Asexual No cell wall mostly freshwater from secondary plankton endosymbiosis - dishaped if taken away crysta from light – (membranes) becomes inside heterotrophic, put mitochondria back into light becomes photosyn. again (dormant chloroplast) Excavates Diplomonada uni None Parasitic 2 nuclei No cell wall derivative of mito Giardia (intestinal or no mito organelle – gotten from contam. Food and water.) Excavates Parabasalids Uni None Parasitic: Asexual No cell wall no mito!! live in animals Trichonympha: gut of termites Trichomones: STD Excavates – Kinetoplastids Uni None Pathogenic: Asexual No cell wall **1 Huge Mito Trypanosomes – (kinetoplast – infect humans via circular) insect bites, get in Very lethal blood stream because antibodies Types: sleeping keep changing disease, chagan’s before antibiotics disease, and work Leishmaniases Excavates Percolozoa Uni None Pathogenic: Asexual No cell wall has Mito! braineating amoeba infection (gotten from contaminated pools & ponds) Choanoflagellates Multi None No Asexual No cell wall Sister to Note: Under Opisthokonts Metazoans Choanocytes of sponges (animals) have same structure as these - closest cells relatives = animals - filter feeders (beginnings of complex GI syst) Amoebozoans – Loboseans NA None Pathogenic: NA No cell wall - phagocytosis amoebic dysentery – for food ingest contaminated food & water Amoebozoans – Cellular & Multi None No Plasmodium: sexual NA ingest food Plasmodial Slime Molds Ex: physarum endocytosis either multinucleate Slime molds: - amoeboid cells asexual - all motile plasmodium (one cell) or Ex. Dictyostelium multicellular pseudoplasmodium (cellular slime molds) Name Parasitic/Pathogenic/Bacterium Gram Positive or Notes: Reproduction Notes Examples? Gram Negative Spirochetes Lyme’s disease Gram Negative anaerobic NA Syphilis motile with flagellum inside most free living, nonpathogenic Chlamydia STD Gram Negative reduced in size & simple Complex life cycle intracellular parasites can see with electron microscope 1. elementary bodies **Sensitive to Penicillin NOT light (disease stage) 2. reticulum bodies Hyperthermophillic Aquifex: live in volcanic vents High GC and hot springs (can tolerate high temps!) Thermus aquaticus: source of DNA polymerase used in thermocyclers Hadobacteria Deinococcus: High GC 1. resistant to radiation 2. eat toxic wastes 3. bioremediation High GCBacteria: 1. **Source of many antibiotics Gram Positive High GC Actinobacteria (can be (tetracycline, chloramphenicol, mostly aerobic referred to as gram pos) streptomycin, neomycin) 2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis & M. leprae pathogenic Staphylococcus, bacillus, Gram Positive aerobic spores Low – GC Bacteria: Phylum Firmicutes, clostridium, anthrax Class Clostridia only group that is pathogenic (Clostridium) Low – GC Bacteria: Gram Positive (do no cell wall (cannot make Phylum Firmicutes, not stain) peptidoglycan) mycoplasmids (no cell wall) Class Mollicutes sterols in membrane (Obtained from Host) small Cyanobacteria invented O2 & Photosynthesis one group of photosynthetic bacterium = oxygen photosynthesis Proteobacteria Cholerae Gram negative Nitrogen fixers (prok. Process only) Tick & Mosquito diseases photoautotrophic = fix carbon Rickettsia Tick *Origin of Mitochondria no human pathogens known anaerobic Archaea 1. No human no peptidoglycan wall pathogens known and cell wall: lipid (membrane chem.) 2.NONPHOTOSYNTH don’t exhibit lots of characteristics bacteria do ETIC lots in animal intestines No photoautotrophic species no photoautotrophic species 2 best studied groups: first seen as - Euryarchaeota (methanagenic and extremophiles (high salt, low pH, etc.) halophilic) rep. methanogens, halophiles, not all extremophiles and sulfur metabolizers (cows produce tons of mthane daily) - Crenarchaeota (thermophiles and acidophiles – extreme environment)
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