Intro to Policing Study Guide Chapters 6 & 7
Intro to Policing Study Guide Chapters 6 & 7 CRJ101-040
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by CarlyM. on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CRJ101-040 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Ko-Hsin-Hsu in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see Intro to Policing in Criminal Justice at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
Intro to Policing Study Guide Chapter 6: Seniority System- officers with more experience have first priority in requesting assignments Least experienced officers get the most difficult assignments William Westley- discussed group solidarity (public hostility), made the code of silence- not testifying against other officers accused of misconduct, and thought that secrecy justifies officer lying Jerome Skolnick- discussed the danger of officers (potential v. actual), officers authority (the capacity to use force), and conflicting demands (law v. order) Steve Herbert- came up with six factors that shape officer behavior and subculture (the six factors are: the law, bureaucratic control, culture of adventure/machismo, safety, competence, and morality) The Changing Rank and File: They have changed the level of education that officers are required to have and are now more accepting of hiring women, African Americans, Hispanics, gays, and lesbians to become officers Research has found that the style of work that women officers do is the same as men, they receive fewer citizen complaints, less likely to use force, sexism and sexual harassment are still an issue. Research has found that African American officers do not perform differently from white officers, same rate on police use of excessive force, more likely to support community policing and citizen oversight, and live in an area where they work. In the 1960’s- 80% had a high school degree, in 1988- 34.8% had a high school degree and 22.6% had a college degree. There is no strong evidence that higher education leads to better performance on the street. Cohort effects- old street cop culture vs. new bureaucratic style Organizational effects- the informal culture of a police organization (community policing) Job satisfaction in policing falls into 5 categories: 1. Nature of police work 2. Organizational factors- opportunities for career advancement 3. Relations with the community 4. Relations with the media and the political establishment 5. Personal or family factors- being supportive There are 3 main sources of job stress: threat of danger, citizen disrespect and challenge to police authority, police department itself, and for females sexual harassment and sexism. They have programs to help officers cope with stress. Ch 7: The central role of patrol: majority of police officers assigned to patrol, and it is the least desirable assignment. The basic functions of patrol are: to deter crime, to enhance feelings of public safety, and to make officers available for service. Factors affecting the delivery of patrol services: the number of sworn officers, assignment to patrol (day/night shift), types of patrol (automobile v foot), one v two officer car Patrol work is dominated by communication technology and 911 communications center. The 911 system was introduced by AT&T company in 1968 in Haleyville, AL. 911 systems increased in calls for service and departments had to prioritize calls based on the seriousness of problem. The communication center operators obtain information from the caller and make a decision about appropriate response. Only one half of all calls result in a dispatch of an officer, 17% of calls are referred to another agency, 16% of calls the operator takes information from the caller, 9% gives information to the citizen, and the rest are not police-related. Patrol is point of most police-citizen interactions and studying it is difficult due to decentralized nature of the job and officers being dispersed throughout the community. Studies of police patrol include: American Bar Foundation Survey (1956-1957), President’s Crime Commission (1965-1967), Police Services Study (1977), and the Project on Policing Neighborhoods (1996-1997) Two aspects of patrol work: 1. Response time- discovery time + reporting time + processing time +travel time 2. Perf study- reasons why citizens delay calling (need to verify crime occurred, call family members or friends, decide whether to really involve police or not)
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