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Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Jessica Painter

Exam 1 Study Guide Bio 425

Marketplace > Radford University > Biology > Bio 425 > Exam 1 Study Guide
Jessica Painter
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Good Luck on your Exam!
Dr. Sheehy
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica Painter on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 425 at Radford University taught by Dr. Sheehy in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see Evolution in Biology at Radford University.


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Date Created: 02/24/16
Evolution Exam Study Guide Answer the next three questions based on the following situation:  Spade foot toads are desert dwelling toads that emerge after summer rains, mate and lay eggs in ephemeral (temporary) ponds and then  burry themselves in the mud till the next rainy season.  A population  of spade foot toad shows two genetically controlled behavioral  phenotypes.  Individuals who are MM and MN lay eggs two days the  first rains and suffer loss of eggs if the rains do not continue. NN individuals must experience a two weeks of afternoon rains  before they lay eggs.    1) During normal years rains are consistent.  Once the rains start they will continue for 1 month.  Females who are MM or MN lay on  average of 600 eggs 15 survive to adulthood.  NN individuals lay, on  average, 320 eggs of which 9 survive to adulthood.   The relative fitness of these 3 genotypes is:  a) MM = MN = 0.89, NN = 1.0  b) MM = MN = 90,  NN=36  c) MM = MN = 1.0, NN = 0.4  d) MM = MN = 1, NN = 0.6  e) MM = MN = 15, NN = 9  2) In abnormal years rains are sporadic and early egg layers loose  many clutches of eggs to dehydration.  Here MN and MM individuals  lay, on average 540 eggs 3 of which reach adulthood.  NN individuals lay, on average, 320 eggs of which 9 survive to adulthood.   The relative fitness of these 3 genotypes is:  a) MM = MN = 0.20, NN = 1.0  b) MM = MN = 180, NN=36  c) MM = MN = 0.33, NN = 1.0  d) MM = MN = 1, NN = 0.6  e) MM = MN = 9, NN = 3  3)  a) Question 5 is selection for a recessive, question 6 is selection for a dominant.  b) Both questions 5 and 6 are selection for a recessive  c) Question 5 is selection for a dominant question 6 is selection for a  recessive.  d) Both questions 5 and 6 are selection for a dominant.  4) If a population is small enough to be affected by drift, we can make some predictions about the equilibrium genetic conditions in that  population, including that the population  a) Will not be well adapted to its environment  b) Will resemble local populations because drift causes alleles to be  exchanged among populations  c) Will be fixed for some alleles, and the probability that an allele is  fixed is equal to its mutation rate  d) Will have lost some alleles, and the more rare the allele the more  likely it is to have been lost  e) None of the above  2 Short Answers Please answer with SENTENCES and/or a well­explained graphic.  Answers must be complete and coherent to earn full credit.  5) The trait ‘tailless’ in lab mice is controlled by a dominant allele (TT,  Tt ­­tailless mice, while tt ­­normal tails).  Developmental studies have shown that TT mice do not develop normally and die during  embryogenesis. How much would you expect the frequency of the T  allele to decrease after one generation? (You may assume that tailed  and tailless mice do equally well in the lab colony you are describing). HINT:  You don’t need numbers here.  Just show the change  algebraically. (5 pts.)  If the TT mice do not develop normally and die during  embryogenesis, then they have a fitness level of 0. The mice with Tt  have tailless mice. If this continues, the frequency of the big T allele  will decrease because of the decrease in fitness among TT mice. The mice with the short tails will eventually go away as well, or decrease  over time. 6. What four conditions are necessary and sufficient for evolution to  occur? (Hint: Chucks postulates). The four Darwin principles that we classify if evolution can  occur are: 1. Individual variation (phenotypes vary, ecology and genetics) 2. In every generation, more progeny produced than can  survive (population dynamics, ecology) 3. Survival and reproduction of individuals not random Within the current conditions, individuals with some phenotypes produce more offspring, find more mates, survive better (i.e. are more fit) 4. Some phenotypic variants passed on to offspring (heritable  information, genetics) 3 7) Many populations of frogs have a small frequency of individuals  that express a light stripe down the center of the back. Research in  the wild has shown that the stripe has no fitness consequence, and  laboratory breeding studies show that the stripe is produced by  recessive allele, s (SS, Ss produce the normal patterns, while ss  produces a striped frog).  7a) If 9% of frogs exhibit the striped pattern, what are the frequencies of the s and S alleles in the population (5 pts.)  The frequency of s allele is 0.09, The frequency of the S allele is 0.91 7b) After 3 generations, what is the frequency of the s allele? (3 pts.)  9/100= ss 91/100=S_ (ss) n+3= 0.000729 (S_) n+3= 0.753571 7c) Assume that these frogs have very specific habitat requirements  and habitat loss has reduced their population size to only about 30  breeding individuals. If the population size remains at this size  indefinitely, what do you expect to happen to the frequency of striped  frogs in the populations (Be specific and explain your answer, giving  all the information you can about the trend you describe) (7 pts.)  If the stripe allele does not affect the frogs fitness, the  phenotype and allele frequency should stay the same. However over time, the allele might increase or decrease depending on  environmental changes.  8) One population of frogs occurs in a bog, an environment with  acidic water. Another population frogs occur in an environment with  basic water.  Neither population currently is adapted for acid  conditions.  In which population do you think a mutation for acid  tolerance would be most likely to occur? Why? The population with the mutation for acid tolerance would most  likely happen with the population that lives in the acidic water. If there was a mutation that changed the frogs adaptively to acidic water, then the frog will have a higher fitness.  4 9) How could the rate of mutation be an adaptation, evolved through  natural selection, even if the specific mutations that occur may or may not be adaptive? The rate of mutation can be an adaptation that has evolved  through natural selection through the mutation of different  alleles. These alleles could either benefit the organism or not  benefit the organism. If the mutated trait benefits the fitness of  the organism, then they pass that trait to their offspring.  10) What are the assumptions about a population that must be true  for the population to be in Hardy­Weinberg Equilibrium? For each  assumption, describe what happens if the assumption is NOT true of  a population, and explain why this result occurs. 1. Random Mating: If random mating is not happening, this is  called inbreeding, when this happens it is more common to find  homozygosis in all genes 2. No selection: If there is selection, then it eventually leads to  the loss of an allele frequency (except for the favored one) 3. Infinite population size: A small population size will change  the allele frequencies. 4. No mutations: There can be mutations that will keep alleles  in a population, even if there is a strong selection against them  5. No migration: The allele frequencies will become more  homogeneous  5 11) The graph below depicts changes in allele frequency due to  natural selection at a single locus.  Each line represents a different  selection regime.  Associate the letter of each line with the type of  selection. ___E____ Strong selection for a dominant ___D___ Weak selection for a dominant ___C___ Strong selection for a recessive trait ___A___ Weak Selection for a recessive trait ___B____ Selection for a heterozygote. 6 12)  A population of frogs varies in size of warts: WW individuals have big  warts, Ww individuals have small warts, and ww individuals have  smooth skin (no warts). You quantify the number of warts of 100  individuals and find the following numbers of adult, reproducing  individuals with each wart condition type: Phenotype: Big Warts: 77 Small Warts: 21 Smooth skin: 2 a. What is the frequency of the w  allele in the population? 2^2 x ½ (21) = 42/100 = 0.42 freq(w) Freq W= 0.58 FreqWw= 2(0.58)(0.42)=0.4872 b. Big warted frogs produce the most toxins, Small warted frogs  have less toxin and smooth skinned frogs have no toxin.  You  hypothesize that big warts have the highest fitness because  they are produce more toxin and are thus best protected from  critters that want to eat them. To test this, conduct a chi­ squared test to determine whether or not wart size is in Hardy­ Weinberg proportions at the 5% level of significance. What can  you conclude about whether the population is in Hardy­ Weinberg proportions? Does this conclusion support your  hypothesis regarding the fitness of different wart sizes? Genotype     Observed     Expected X^2 WW 77 33.64 55.88 Ww 21 48.72 12.58 ww 2 17.64         13.86 NOT IN HARDY WEINBERG


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