Psych Chapters 4-7 Exam Study Guide
Psych Chapters 4-7 Exam Study Guide PSYC 110 - 008
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PSYC 110 - 008
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katie Mayes on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 110 - 008 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Alexander Malik Khaddouma in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 98 views. For similar materials see General Psychology - in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
Exam 2 Study Guide Sensation and Perception Sensation vs. Perception Sensation o Detection of physical energy by sense organs Perception o Process of recognizing and interpreting sensory stimuli Sense receptor cells Cells specialized for converting external stimuli into neural activity for a specific sensory system Transduction Process of converting an external energy or substance into electrical neural activity Sensation --> Transduction --> Perception Top-down Processing vs. Bottom-up Processing Top-down Processing: o Conceptually driven processing influenced by beliefs and expectancies Bottom-up Processing o Process by which a whole is constructed from parts Opponent Process Theory of Vision Suggests our ability to perceive color is controlled by three receptor 1 complexes with opposing actions. These cells can only detect the presence of one color at a time, because two colors oppose one another ***You will NOT need to know anatomy, apart from key sense receptor cells, such as rods and cones in the eye, and hair cells in the cochlea of the ear*** Learning Classical conditioning Classical Conditioning o Form of learning in which organism come to respond to a previously neutral stimulus that has been paired with a stimulus that previously brought out an automatic response o Example Pavlov’s Salivating Dogs Used a bell to indicate food being served to dogs – was rung every time the food was served. The dogs’ salivation was recorded and over time the dogs’ mouths began salivating just at the sound of the bell (steps of classical conditioning, also be able to identify which factors are the unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned stimulus, and conditioned response from an example) 2 Unconditioned Stimulus (US) o Something that elicits an automatic response (Example: Food) Unconditioned Response (UR) o Automatic response to an unconditioned stimulus that doesn’t need to be learned (Example: Tummy rumbling, salivation, feeling hungry) Conditioned Stimulus (CS) o After Learning o Something that comes to elicit automatic response after becoming associated with unconditioned stimulus Conditioned Response (CR) o An automatic response established by training to an ordinarily neural stimulus Operant conditioning Operant Conditioning o Form of learning controlled by providing consequences for an organism’s behavior o Thorndike Law of Effect If a stimulus is followed by a behavior results in an award/reward, the behavior is more likely to be repeated to get the reward in the future o B.F. Skinner Insight versus stimulus – reward associated “A-ha” moments Skinner box (shown below) 3 Reinforcement o Positive Something that is presented to the organism Example: Gold star, spanking, etc. o Even though “spanking” is seen as a “negative” thing, it doesn’t fall under “negative reinforcement” because nothing is being taken away o Negative Something is taken away Example: Stopping torture, being grounded, taking away a toy Punishment 4 o Positive Involves presenting an unfavorable outcome/event following an undesirable behavior Example: A student talks during the middle of class and the teacher reprimands him in front of all his classmates o Negative Involves taking something good/desirable away to reduce the occurrence of a particular behavior Example: A teenage boy stays out an hour past his curfew, so his parents ground him for a week Related Principles of Classical and Operant Conditioning: Discrimination Stimulus o Stimulus associated with the presence of reinforcement Isn’t actual reward or punishment Examples Counting to 3 before delivering punishment to a child Snapping at a dog to come get patted Stimulus Generalization o Tendency for the conditioned stimulus to evoke similar responses Higher-Order Conditioning (Second Order Conditioning) o Classical Conditioning o Refers to a situation in which a stimulus that was previously neutral is paired with a conditioned stimulus Example: A tone that has been conditioning with food to produce salivating (Pavlov’s Dogs) Reinforcers o Primary 5 Biological, natural reinforcers Examples: Food Drink Pleasure o Secondary Reinforce only after the organism has been conditioned to find it reinforcing Examples: Money School grades Tokens Schedules of reinforcement Pattern of reinforcing a behavior o Continuous reinforcement Reinforcing every time behavior occurs Faster learning, but also faster extinction o Partial Reinforcement Providing only occasional Reinforcement Slower Extinction Example: Gambling or lottery tickets Dimensions of reinforcement Number of behaviors (Ratio) o Example: Paid based on how much Amount of time (Interval) o Example: Paycheck received monthly Fixed o Predictable o Stable Variable o Unpredictable o Varies in amount of time Reinforcement Schedules 6 Fixed Ratios o Reinforcement given after certain number of responses Fixed Interval o Reinforcement given after certain amount of time has passed (Behavior just needs to occur at least once) Variable Ratio o Reinforcement given after unspecified number of responses o Strongest reinforcement schedule Example: Gambling Often a parenting style Variable Interval o Reinforcement given after unspecified amount of time has passed (Behavior just needs to occur at least once) Context-Dependent and State-Dependent Learning Context-Dependent o Recall will be best when a person tries to recall information in the same environment they learned it in Example: Taking a test in the same classroom you learned it in State-Dependent o Better retrieval when in same physiological or psychological state as when information was learned Example: Learning content while drunk, then performing better on the test while drunk vs. sober Observational Learning Learning by watching others Bandura’s Bobo Doll Study o Experimenters allowed a kid to watch an adult beat up a blow up doll o The kid then mimicked the adult, and acted the same was Mirror Neurons 7 o Activated both when doing a behavior and when observing a behavior Memory Long-Term Memory Permastore o Type of long-term memory that appears to be permanent Often based on the meaning of the information, which helps it stick Explicit o Recalled with intention and effort o Two Kinds: Semantic Knowledge of facts o Example: Capital of Tennessee Episodic Knowledge of events in our lives o Example: First kiss Implicit o Recalled without intention or effort, we don’t mean to remember it o Two Kinds: Procedural 8 How to do things o Examples Tie shoes Ride bike *Noted on professor’s study guide – be able to identify Priming Ability to detect a stimulus more easily and quickly after encountering a similar stimulus Sensory Memory Perceptual information before it is passed on to short term memory Only briefly stored Two Types: o Iconic Things you see o Echoic Things you hear, lasts longer than iconic Brain Region Involved in Memory Limbic System Prefrontal cortex – Short-term Memory Hippocampus o Consolidates short-term memories into long-term memories Cerebral Cortex o After the memory is consolidated, it is stored in the cerebral cortex 9 3 Processes of Memory Methods for turning short-term memories to long-term memories Types: o Encoding o Storage o Retrieval Encoding o Process of getting information into our memory banks o Requires focused attention on stimulus o Mnemonics help with encoding Example: Algebra mnemonic – Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally – Parenthesis, Exponents, Multiplication, Division, Addition, Subtraction Storage o Process of keeping information in memory o Schemas Organized knowledge structure or mental model that we’ve stored in our memory Example: Classifying mammals Has fur/hair Live Birth Warm-Blooded Retrieval o Process of reactivating or reconstructing experiences from our memory stores 10 o 3 Kinds Recall Generating previously remembered information o Example: Fill in the Blank Recognition Selecting previously remembered information from an array of options Most people have better recognition in comparison to recall o Example: Multiple Choice Relearning Reacquiring knowledge that has been previously learned, but forgotten o Retrieval cues help Hints that make is easier to recall information Short-Term Memory Retroactive vs. Proactive interference 11 o Retroactive Interference New information interferes with old information Example: Learning a new language o Proactive Interference Old info interferes with new info Example: Changed roads, taking old paths that are no longer usable Chunking o Help maintain short-term memory Example: (865) – 711 – 7117 Putting the numbers together to remember better Rehearsal: o Maintenance Repeating items in original form o Elaborative Linking items together in a meaningful way o Levels of Processing Example: Assigning meaning to information o Primary Effects Items at the beginning and end of lists are most remembered Amnesia Amnesia o Partial or total loss of memory 12 Retrograde o Form of amnesia where someone is unable to recall events that occurred before the development of the amnesia, even though they may be able to encode and memorize new things that occur after the onset Anterograde o Loss of the ability to create new memories, leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past, even though long-term memories from before the even which caused the amnesia remain intact. o Levels of Processing Theory Shallow Processing o Structural Processing Processing how an object looks o Phonemic Processing When we process how something sounds o Graphemic Processing letters contained in a word o Orthographic Processing the shape of something Deep Processing 13 o Semantic Processing Encoding the meaning of a word o Process of relating an object/situation etc. to something else o When the meaning of something is thought of o When we process the importance of something Blackboard readings: Stress and Memory Short-term stressors of mild to moderate severity enhance cognition Major stressors are disruptive Explicit vs. Implicit Hippocampus and its functions Cerebellum Memories are stored in neural networks When we learn and store information, it strengthens our neural networks The more we practice what we learn, the better stored it is in our memory The sympathetic nervous system indirectly arouses the hippocampus - contributing to memory consolidation Because of the close connection between the hippocampus and the amygdala, fearful events often remain in our memory Stress can disrupt long-term potentiation in the hippocampus, causing us to have trouble remembering Glucocorticoids will compromise the ability of the hippocampal neurons to survive Ultimate damage to the hippocampus o Cushing’s syndrome o PTSD o Major Depression o Repeated jet lag o Normative aging o Interactions between glucocorticoids and neurological insults Consciousness Blackboard readings: Zoophoria Animals have the ability of being affected by drugs and alcohol the same way humans do 14 They have similar affects on the brain in relation to releases of chemicals that make the organism feel good So they can be hooked too. Emotions and feelings come from biological nerves and chemicals in the brain Animals experience the same affects of pleasures and fears like humans do Drugs can cause humans lives to become uncontrollable, because of all the chemical changes that our bodies can’t keep up with Different addictions come from the feelings we receive when something good happens Animals can have the same reactions Both come from chemical changes the affect our minds 15
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