Study Guide for ANTH 160 with Professor Hanson at KU
Study Guide for ANTH 160 with Professor Hanson at KU
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Date Created: 02/06/15
September 28 2009 PACIFIC Medical Anthropology Aleut Joints 0 Joints are important part of humans health and wellbeing 0 Death does not occur until all joints have fallen apartno longer are connected 0 If a person is very important to society they will wrap the corpse to prolong their in uence in society and vice versa with evil I If a person was exceptionally evil they will cut the joints away from the body instantly upon death Ancient Greeks and the Humor 0 4 humors phlegm blood yellow bile and black bile o Humans humor s should always be in balance with each other if the humans become unbalanced you will have a sick person 0 It is a belief of the Greek s that the body heals itself I Vomiting is the body s way of getting rid of excess yellow bile I A cold is the way ofthe body getting rid of excess phlegm o Humors also explain temperaments I Phlegmatic I Bilious or Choleric 7 yellow bile I Sanguinary 7 blood I Melancholic 7 black bile Rapa French Polynesian Rapa Medicine 0 Herbal preparation and massage herbs are mixed with water 0 Measured by knuckles initi of water on your index finger container size doesn t matter always measured by knuckles o HotCold Theory get sick by upsetting temperature balance of the body I Diseases are classified by hot and cold as well are medicines o No specialist healers 9 every woman is a specialist only she can administer her medicine or it will not work 0 Dreaming up a new medicine typically occurs when someone is sick and typical medicine used does not work for that person 0 Medicines are passed through generations from mother to daughter to granddaughter o Otu I I Girl does not get period develops severe pain throughout her lower abdomen up throughout her body I Fatal disease 7 considered a cold disease I Parallels the goat grease and wine bottles same with blood that solidifies within the abdomen and can t pass out of the body just like goat grease solidifies and can t pass out of the wine bottle I Medicine use a hot medicine marie tutae moa plant 7 chicken shit fern I Make a tea out of this massage is downward on abs of ill woman I How does medicine cure it They say tea heats inside of woman s body aka got grease in a wine bottle I Herb also used for abortions Theories of Conception o Trobriand Islands people unaware of males role in conception 0 John Huarte and Fatherchild link inverse relationship between smart father and childs level of intelligence I Dumb men will focus more during sex making smarter children 0 Rapan Theory of Conception I American doctors agree with US way of conception 7 Rapans discredited American doctors o No ovaries fallopian tubes just a uterus vaira a tamari i storehouse of children 0 Notion explains why women either menstruate or don t 0 Conception mixture of semen and womb blood 2 liquids o The opening and closing uterus and the fertile period 0 When uterus is sealed you will not be able to get pregnant 0 45 days after menstruating is primes time to get pregnant October 7 2009 PACIFIC Male and Female in New Guinea Ritual elements in Polynesian religion 9 female 0 Are gods driven away or drawn to females Gods are drawn to them in Polynesia Menstruation huts 7 common practicing not all women find it degrading Important reason for debilitating women and dominating men is due to male feeling inadequate so they make themselves superior 0 Women mature naturally where as some societies believe men require culture interventions to mature I Male initiation rights from boys to men The Sambia New Guinea Highlands farming people small villages valleysmountains warfare Value on masculinity turn boys into adult male warriors 0 Girls are like softwood plants who mature faster than boys who are like hardwoods I Blood soft juicy woman blood soft parts I Dry white hard male bones teeth All children imbued with female in uence at birth 0 Fine for girls because you want girls to grow up to be women BUT femininity is destructive for males 0 Initiation break ties with mother and turn boy into man I Boys cannot make semen not developed naturally organ to store it can t make it I Need supply from outside 7 institutionalized male homosexuality young boys receive it from older males I Throughout life men will ingest white sap to replenish semen Male cult of utes men own utesitems that women don t know exist 0 Keep house activities secret from women tell the woman that music is from gods 0 Has to be secret so that women won t take back the utes 7 they originally belonged to the women The Wogeo Schouten Islands off the coast of New Guinea Blupblup and Bam Some mythology 7 what s a house What s a digging stick Strange defecation 0 Woman backed up everything she needed to make a life in her vagina and went out and met a man the man knew nothing of houses cooking etc man was totally clueless Nature and Culture 0 Culture what we do to civilize ourselves to live and be more than animals I Female in myth is the cultural being where male is natural being normally other way around I Female is completing intervening to make him a man 0 Story of the utes women originally owned them and utes played themselves a boy comes along and takes utes and tries to play but can t women come back and boy is rude and they let him take the utes Male needs to be completed originally it is female but males try to avoid help form women which leads to male initiation Mutual contamination Both sexes pollute each other 0 Carefulness certain behavior relationships are careful o Pollution happens in sex 0 Menstruation what women do to rid themselves of male uids and in uences from sex males have no natural way of riding themselves Male Initiation 7 starts at age 5 0 Ear piercing good jolt of pain go home to mother 0 Age 1112 tongue scraping 7 line of fires boys line up over men will take sharp grass and saw across tongue and blood can only drip into fire I Ridding boys of in uence of mothers milk female in uence and enables the boys to play utes 0 Age 1920 male menstruation 7 stand in shallow water of ocean get erection take crab claw and cut at head of penis causing blood to ow blood can only fall into ocean couple times of the year not every month Male pregnancy among HUA men feel inadequate because they can t have children 0 Foods males eat when they re an adult 7 only dry hard foods not red soft juicy foods 0 Men will sneak away and eat foods that they shouldn t eat possum esp and sometimes the food will cause them to become pregnant o Fetus will kill them because it is unnatural for men to be pregnant Absent Father and the CrossSex Identity John Whiting Harvard wrote article what interested him was frequency of male initiation rights 0 Correlated rights with absent father 0 PostPartum SeX taboo for certain length of time after birth males and women don t allow sex want to be able to provide very well for health of child 0 During period or early in uences child is totally cared for by mother dad typically has lots of wives and when one has a child father avoids that wife Status Envy weaning is very traumatic for child because it no longer gets all it wants and father comes back and takes it s place in bed 0 Women can grant wish or deny wish 9 viewed women as totally powerful o No problem for girls we want powerful women 0 For boys it leads to crosssex identity males id with and wanting to be like females Initiations break crosssex identity and status envy replace identification with adult males Couvades as a sign that crosssex identity hasn t been broken 0 Right before childhood father will take to bed and take child right away male gets all the attention 0 Our society to break crosssex id 7 cross dressing street gangs etc 0 Boys in later teens in 50 s were sons with dads in WWII so lots of absent fathers and in turn boys joined gangs to have crosssex identity broken October 12 2009 Paci c Art and Culture Gisaro The Kaluli dance and the opposition scenario New Guinea Mt Bosavio area rivers rough terrain deep valleys Longhouse communities 1 building with several families central plaza area think modern day apartments 0 Rear area meant primarily for men to socialize and front area intended for women to socialize Gisaro Dance 7 put on by l longhouse community for another visitors DO the actual dance 0 Elaborate good looking costumes they enter trying to look as f1erce as possible run in circle making noise with their weapons 0 Rear 4 men dressed plainly and acting calm walk to a comer of plaza and they sit down with heads down regardless of the taunting they receive from the hosts I These four are the actual dancers the others sing and play music Kaluhi and The Opposition Scenario 0 2 parties with an establishment of differences very crucial to Kaluli culture 0 Creation Myth human beings were created rst a wise man then divided up and established differences 7 made people into animals 0 Reciprocity happens after opposition I Negative reciprocity death and revenge no such thing as natural death I Sei witch will come from 1 longhouse to another at night and harm the victim no visible injury and within a few days person will die I Seeking the witch War party from longhouse of the victim will go nd the witch in their longhouse and bash head in with long clubs 0 After witch is dead the ghting stops and they perform autopsy on witch to see if they were actually a witch I Condition of heart low fat rm red 7 heart of a nonwitch o If the person was a witch it was a justi ed killing a life for a life Wel 7 what you do to me I do to you 0 Su 7 raiding party needs to give gifts to longhouse community of the witch to smooth out differences 0 Heart was not a witch raiders are at fault and one of them must die 0 Wel reciprocity 7 witches longhouse must kill a raider goes back and forth back and forth blood feud I Positive Reciprocity 7 marriage as a form of su exchange 0 Money and valuables as an exchange for a wife I With su reciprocity is different from what I did to you I Wel same reciprocity between two parties Reciprocity of the Unseen World 0 Mirror image between human world and natural world what birds and trees see is same as what we see when looking at them and each other Reciprocity of Appearance 0 Reciprocity of Interdependence the mamul spiritual beings live on Mt Bosavio as a re ection of human society 0 Counterpart of man pig living on Mt Bosavio spiritual mamul pig I Kill a pig mamul man will die 0 Counterpart of woman cassowarie birds same thing as men and pigs 0 Large deaths are explained by large number of deaths during festivals taking place goes back and forth between the 2 societies Gisario and Opposition 0 Exchange between guests and hosts I Morning after longhouse bids gusts farewell with an exchange of gifts su exchange I Gifts from dancers 7 hosts for upsetting the host people I Wel Exchange host village will eventually go to dancer village and dance for them Analysis o Gisario reworks experience into a culturally meaningful form so they can cope 0 Experience of grief of a lost loved one I Songs generally about hosts places 0 Upsets hosts 0 Saddens hosts 7 remember time spent with deceased loved ones they take retaliation against dancers through burning yelling etc Meaning and Order SEE POWERPOINT SLIDE October 19 2009 Africa ISLAM LECTURE Mohammed was born in 570 in Mecca 0 Born from Quraysh tribe and traces origins to Abraham 0 Made many trips with his uncle as a child to see mosque 2 trips at winter and summer to Jerusalem and Silla Married Khadja 610 when Mohammed was 40 years old it is believed that Gabriel came to him in a revelation 7 beginning of the Koran o Started preaching in Mecca connected to entire Arabia lst people drawn to Mohammed s preaching were poor people and slaves they were drawn to his social economic spiritual message 0 Faced hostility as message grew o Moved from Mecca to Medina JewishChristian town 622 Year 1 in calendar founded first Muslim community first Islamic state in Medina Mecca social reform Medina political 7 about state and how to organize it o Sourate chapters verses small Muslim community in Medina in 622 had a prophet spiritual political military leaders By time of Mohammed s death all of Arabia was Muslim 100 years after Muslims were in Spain France China and Afghanistan Only had daughters 7 succession question He did have 2 grandsons 7 children of Fatima and Ali uncle s son 0 Sons 7 Hasan and Hussein o Believed successor should be from Mohammed s lineage but Abu Baca became his successor Small group refused to acknowledge Abu Baca as successor thought Ali should have been successor 654 life became complicated government of Silia o Mouawiya 7 governor of Syria who created a lot of strife for people 0 Hasan was not very political took side of Mouawiya o Hussein wanted to be successor of prophet Mohamed People of Iraq told him to come and they would rise against Mouawiya and so he moved from Medina to Iraq o In 680 was intercepted and killed by an army of Mouawiya grandson of prophet was assassinated and killed 0 Created division Shia 7those who support Hussein household of Mohammed Anyone can succeed Mohammed with certain qualities male intelligent etc o Shia believe follower must be from household of Mohammed Consensus Koran was a revelation from God to Mohammed and those are exact words God gave to Gabriel to give to Mohammed 2md most important source what Mohammed did and said collected and called Hadith Muslim Scholars Ulema 7 those who are quali ed to interpret the Koran 43911 Source consensus scholars agree if they don t have a precedent for something Overwhelming majority can t understand the Koran no longer majority Arab little bit more than 10 o 17 billion Muslim very global community Most stories in Koran you can nd in the Bible and 1 point it was seen as Christian heresy 0 Subject to interpretation to those who live in speci c places depends on time and place 0 There is no xed meaning Clifford Geeitz Indonesia and Morocco did study of 2 groups of Muslims 0 Indonesia 7 l6Lh century through merchants vs Morocco 8Lh century contest 0 Indie culture 100 changed Muslim 7 very very spiritual about visions 0 Morocco ritualistic and dogmas more Puritan Berbers Twelvers division and majority of Shia unit believed 12Lh descendant of Hussein would return and become leader of the religion Sunnia and Shia division started as political over succession but developed into theological division 0 Shia leader should be from family of prophet only 1 quali ed cannot commit a sin 0 Sunni political leader 0 Hadith 2quotd source is not object of consensus among Shia and Sunni 7 both divisions have their own Hadith of what Mohammed said and did I Succession addressed directly in both Hadith s October 21 2009 Africa Movie 1 Wodaabe Niger People of the Taboo West Africa very social and a very strict social code 3 things treasured above all else friendship physical beauty and personal charm Bad winter of 1985 almost erased entire population Work of men and women kept separate 0 Women will not speak to rst born 0 Women and men won t speak while the sun is in the sky 0 Women won t eat in front of husband Men day starts with a tea ceremony 3 cups offered to each guest strong like life sweet like love subtle like friendship Celebration affirmation of life after 10 month dry season 0 Warso 7 marriages within a clan and births over the past year Magony sick seeking super natural powers carry in a pouch around neck 0 Lots of uses for magony Charm 1 of the most important virtures to Wodabe 0 Make oneself as irresistible as possible to women who are looking on during charm dance 0 Men can take up to 4 wives o 3 most beautiful women of tribe act as judge by tapping favorite on shoulder without looking in eye 9 taboo to look directly at what you desire Gedawal dance of physical beauty judged on looks along only most handsome men compete Celebrate life courtship and children Movie 2 Degon death and funerals Mali Life is a dance many dances but death must dance too or life won t be precious Dance at death 7 fearful to touch or see the dead Carry a blanket coast of the dead Degon can see their version of heaven everyday Life is like a wind Still dancing on 3rd night after death occurs The bush the source of all being 0 Gives mask power of bush can come into the village 0 Mask dance is last celebration of what life was for the deceased Life is only wonderful because of death death makes like precious you need to get to know death Live on the plain 9 move to cliff where death exists 9 back to the plain story of cycle Death seemed like a natural death As you get older you move up the cliff October 262009 AFRICA Using Ourselves as Symbols An idiot in Europe is represented as someone who has looked upon glory of God Are they 1 or Are they 2 0 Watched a film filmed by twins for one of their masters degrees at Stanford 0 Every year in Twinsburg Ohio there is a twins day 0 The question of identity in an individualistic culture What is the experience of being a twin 0 Nature vs Nurture debate same DNA makeup but can have totally different experiences In Wales both twins would go in for a fight in the trial by dispute good to be a twin in Wales Conjoined Twins Siamese born before fully separated o PT Bamum s Eng and Chang 7 1st pair of very famous Siamese twins I Got married between them they had 22 children got into serious ght with each other 0 What 1 died it was clear you were about to die as well Twins in African Societies 0 Low birth weight difficult to feed confuse distinction between human and animals animals born in liters just like 2 twins 0 Bamana Bambara and Manika of Mali thought of as 1 person unity of twins is very important they marry 1 person between the two of them I Concept of Sneezing 7 your soul could escape your body and want person to regain soul which is why it is a common practice to say God Bless You every time a person sneezes I Don t awake a person suddenly from sleep their soul wanders while sleeping and need time for their soul to reenter their body I Dya soul twins are dya to each other unity twins very powerful and dangerous 0 Dya has greater knowledge of future capacity to in uence things combine human and spiritual powers 0 Ability to walk on H20 favored by deities turn into scorpions 8 legs 8 limbs The Yoruba of Nigeria 0 High natural rate of twinning something like 45X s more common 0 Originally twins were all killed things started going bad and were told they had to honor twins instead of killing them myth I Twins and their mothers are given gifts upon birth 0 Have to appease twins want mom to sell beans and palm oil calming food to counteract ery temperament o 2quotd twin born is the older twin older twin says for lSt born to go out and see what is up with the world all about authority 0 We all have spiritual doubles never in same place at same time go between physical and spiritual world but with twins both parts of you are born into physical world 7 reason for power I More than human since full self is in human world but also like animals associated with monkeys 0 Very curious o Offspring in pairs carry 1 on front and l on back when l dies carries a carving of twin 0 Care for statue as if it was a child I Big deal of voodoo respect twins October 282009 Africa The Eastern Quest for Enlightenment Sherpas Mandalas and Yoga Sherpans foothills of Himalayas Buddhist O O O Sherpa House animals live on ground oor coarse physical with humans on upper oor I When women give birth they do so on the ground oor Sherpa Buddhist Temples I Lowest level ground oor gallery with wall paintings on outer walls inner walls look upon statue of Buddha 0 Violent artwork I 2quotd level 7 library monks spend time reading there and learning 0 Journey passing through levels onjoumey of enlightenment overcome body and enrich the mind I Room of Srungma death and destruction 7 still an obstacle that 1 must overcome fear of death and destruction I Ceiling painting of Buddha in a very serene setting 0 Sexual position to demonstrate the unity of man and woman Overcome threats that face us as physical beings and each level of temple Tibetan Mandala Path to Enlightenment O O 0 Outer ring to the center journey of enlightenment 8 Rings of Death outer rim very violent and vicious I Material physical violent things Ring of Fire 7 overcome elds of death lSt way purify yourself with re Adamantine Circle diamonds very hard make yourself impermeable to in uences from the outside overcome and avoid distractions Lotus Circle Lotus plant doesn t live in soil roots are in water 9 detachment detach self form physical world Gate to the Palace square palace Bodhisattva at the center achieved enlightenment like Buddha did Hinduism Prakrti and Purusha Sanskrit O Prakrti closely related to English word practice journey 9 physicality of things physical world Purusha more spiritual more dethatched more impervious the closer you are to purusha Ordinary course of events of world movement from purusha to Prakrti ideas 9 things What you want to do as a yogi reverse ordinary movement from Prakrti to purusha 7 the path to enlightenment goal of yoga Yoga I Minimize distractions that infringe of meditation get control of the body Render citta body inactive citta is what puts us in contact with the outside world works with senses decreases so you are impervious to outside world I Sensations no longer as sensitive Control subconscious vasanas mind memories recollection of memories of both present and previous life I Concentrate on 1 thing and block everything else doesn t matter what 1 thing is tip of nose breathing mantra 0 Ultimate fundamental unity of the mind I Final transformation merge with purusha as sate with NO attributes pure being pure nothing I Cannot describe purusha because it has no attributes at all I This is goal all distinctions are dissolved and there is nothing November 2 2009 Africa Chinese Thought Confucianism and Taoism Human behavior and the order of nature Ancient Chinese Philosophy 0 Yin cold dark wet female passive Q Yang hot light dry male active 0 2 principles necessary for anything to happen Yang Acts Upon Yin o A day or season ofyear midnight 7 peak ofyin noon 7 peak of yang midwinter 7 maX yin spring summer 7 yang 0 Life cycle infant yin grow mature yang then age back into yin o Dynastic history dynasty succession also follows yin and yang much life the life cycle 0 World historical cycle of 129600 years 0 Degree of organization entropy growth of yin and diminishment of yang Confucianism Confucius 551 7 479 BC 0 Confucian Principles I Principles from nature as to how life should be conducted and tailor life to do so I Order human relations according to yin and yang that is to nature 0 Depending on relationship everyone is both yin and yang 0 Very important to know and recognize your place 0 A harmony of differences everything is done properly I Experience the natural order of things 0 By living life properly you are integrating self into order of the universe understand and conform to harmonies of differences Taoism o Confucianism degenerates to hollow show do what you have to do in order to get ahead without understanding and appreciating the order of things 0 Things are done very shallowly and without any sincerity Lao Tse ca 400BC o Taoist Principles I The world of concrete objects similar to Hindu Prakrti 0 Concrete things made up of molecules building block of things 0 More things than molecules 0 0 Elements are building blocks of molecules less elements than molecules 0 Simplify down to the fundamentals of nature World of Attributes the te 0 Form texture color weight etc 0 Reduce down concrete objects to their attributes The World of Pure Being the tao o 1 thing everything has in common they exist pure being 0 Uncarved block metaphor sculptor can carve block into a million things but you cannot perceive anything when you look at the block itself 0 Differences disappear with tao pure beings manifest no differences If you can move from concrete things to pure being you ve reached enlightenment The lst step be natural simple don t worry about propriety existence the te Final step realize the tao November 4 2009 AFRICA Zen Buddhism The Expert by Nakashima Ton story 0 Characters Chi Chang and Wei Fei greatest archer ever 0 Learned about making small things seem bigger how to not blink for long periods of time Ability to shoot 100 arrows into bulls eye Chi Chang realized he would never be greatest if Wei Fei was still alive Chi Chang and Wei Fei had a stand off and Wei Fei eventually won Wei Fei sent Chi Chang out to look for Kan Ying on top of a mountain Chi Chang became greatest archer of land after his visit to Kan Ying even better than Wei Fei OOOOO Zen 0 Introduced from India to China in 527AD by Bodhidarama I Later monks exported it to Japan 0 Path to Enlightenment I Can t reach enlightenment by thinking about it I Zen stresses doing going with the ow overcome the interruption I Abolish all interruption I Don t concentrate just let it go high level of confidence required to just do without any mind dwelling Understanding the Last Part of the Story 0 Duel with master Wei Fei totally unconscious thinking 0 Standing on ledge but Chi Chang is too afraid to do anything absolutely massive interruption o Overcome self consciousness what Kan Ying trying to teach I Will realize there is no fundamental difference between you and things around you I Overcome image of self as a greater archer or as an archer at all Eradication of all Distinctions 0 Some art pottery will look like a skill less child produced it I Distinction between good and bad is not a distinction at all Parallels with other Eastern Philosophy 0 Taoist uncarved block discarding knowledge haVing notknowledge I Have to have it then discard it o Yogi s achievement of purusha
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