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COM 300 Study Guide for Exam 1

by: Sophie Smith

COM 300 Study Guide for Exam 1 COM 300

Marketplace > Michigan State University > Communication Studies > COM 300 > COM 300 Study Guide for Exam 1
Sophie Smith
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Study Guide for exam 1
Methods of Communication Inquiry
Ronald Tamborini
Study Guide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sophie Smith on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COM 300 at Michigan State University taught by Ronald Tamborini in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Methods of Communication Inquiry in Communication Studies at Michigan State University.

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Date Created: 02/24/16
Com 200 Exam 1 Review Sheet Parts of the Exam (250 pts.) 1. 25 Multiple Choice Questions (6 points/question)—150 points 2. 3 short answer questions—36 points 3. 8 questions based on practice exercise #1 (8 points/question)—64 points Please use the following review sheet, your book and practice exercise #1 as a guide to  studying for the entire exam. This is meant to be a guide, so please use it as such and  consider all information provided to you in lecture and in the book. Lecture 1  Define these types of Knowledge (Epistemology, Philosophy, and Science) o Epistemology­ the character of knowledge­ how do you know it o Philosophy of science­ the character of scientific knowledge o Science­ a way of generating and testing the truth of statements  Distinguish these Ways of Knowing (Authoritarian, Mystical, Logico­rational,  Scientific) o Authoritarian­ social, social authority (government, teachers, doctors) o Mystical­ spiritual, our belief that this person can generate the truth  o Logico­ rational­  procedural­ logic has the ability to generate the truth  o Scientific­ observable, empirical  Individual bias makes it impossible for complete objectivity  Agreement among scholars is the closest thing to objectivity  Without agreement there’s no confidence, no value  The scientific method is a set of rules to reach agreement  These rules of science eliminate individual authority  Lecture 2  Assumptions behind paradigms within communication o Paradigms­ assumptions of how we see the world o Ontology­ assumptions we make about reality (objective, subjective)­ how to be  o Epistemology­ assumptions we make about the best way to know  something o Metatheory­ laws and rules­ the best way to exaplin the world  o Methodology   The Nature of Paradigms (understand all concepts; dominant paradigm, monism,  pluralism, revolutionary model, evolutionary model) o Monism­ one perspective, everyone thinks the same o Pluralism­ different perspectives o Revolutionary model­ guided by one paradigm then QUICKLY is  replaced by another paradigm (quickly changes) o Evolutionary model­ science goes along guided by more than one science  than OVER TIME, things change   Contemporary Ontology—understand the three assumptions  o Mechanism­ forces control things o Actionalism­ we control things o Actional realism­ we make decisions within the boundaries of  situational  factors  o Contempory ontological aaaumptions  1. Communication as a social reality  2. comm as a creative process  3. Comm as a developmental process  4. Comm as a complex system  5. Comm. As a contextual phenomenon  6. Comm as a purposive activity  7. Comm as an interactive reality  8. Comm. As an orderly process   Name Schools of Thought within Epistemology o Rationalism­ logical structures and logical thought is they key to  understanding  Making rational assumptions o Rational empiricism­ logical structure but you have to test it.  Logical structure first  Observation second o Mechanic empiricism­ logical structure but focuses more on observation  and cause and effect  Observation first then see if theories are consistent with  observation o Logical positivism­ thinks the world exists but thinks rationalism isn’t the  best way   Reductionism­ a whole is made up of the some of its parts  (A+B+C)  Operationalism­ concepts are definded by the way they are  measured.   Ex: intelligences measured by IQ test o Constructivism­ rejects reductionism and operationalism. Thinks the world is subjectively created by our meanings and interpretations o Constructive realism­ blends logical posivitsim and constructivism   Shared meanings  Cosmic copout  Intersubjective agreement  Identify distinguishing factors of two competing camps within Metatheory o The laws approach  Types of laws  Natural Necessity law (gravity­ explains why things  happen)  Correlation  The current status of commincation laws o The rules perspective  Types of teleological explanations (why does someone do  something)  Motivating goals  Teleonic script rules­ scripts hat are written in our  subconscious mind  Basic Properties of the Covering Laws and Rules Perspectives o Covering Laws  Based on deductive logic and logical syllogism  5 basic principles  1. Causality­ seen in a cause and effect   2. Universality­ laws are invariant in time and space  3. Linearity­ cause linked linearly to effects  4. Variables must be quantifiable  5. Relationships are deterministic  o Rules perspective   Developed from free will criticism  A rule is a belief that there are correct ways of behaving  Explains our expectations of others social behavior  regularity  Rules denote regularities in communication resulting form  our interpretation of social action  Behavior is often intentional and guided by rules  2 classes of behavior  1. Stimulus­response (SR)­ governed by determinism and  explained by covering laws  2. Intentional: governed by free choice and explained by  rules  Positives: people have the chance if they want to follow or disobey  Negative: rules research are descriptive­more of a reality  Not good at prediction communication behavior  Lecture 3  Identify the Assumptions of Sciences and the Distinguishing Features of Science o Assumptions of science  Objects are observable  Objects are orderly­ want to control it  Objects are explainable o Distinguishing features of science  Systematic  Rational  Self corrective­ can be replicated  Self reflexive  Creative   Three­Stage Model of Communication Inquiry o Be able to identify in an example the stages of Observing Communication  Phenomena  Stage I: observing communication phenomenon  Specifying observational domain­ what concepts will you examine  Selecting interpretive schemes­ agreement, how you’re going to  make interpretations  Developing relationships­ developing descriptive models and  theories  o Be able to identify an inductive or deductive approach linking theory and  data  Stage II: discovering theoretical explanations  1. The nature of theory (explanations) try to explain  social world, theories provide explanations  2. casual and teleological explanations: laws and rues   3. Logic of discovering theories o A theory – data (deductive) o A data – theory (inductive)  Stage III: verifying theoretical explanations  Testing theoretical predictions (repetition is key)  Criteria for evaluating theories o Validity­ matches observation o Predictability­ reliable o Precision (clearly defined) o consistency o scope­ generalizability ( the more broad = the  bestter theory) o utility Lecture 4  Distinguish between conceptual definitions and theoretical hypotheses o Theoretical hypothesis is a proposition­ relational statement linking the  components of the IV and DV o Conceptual definition gives the meaning of the concept   Distinguish between operation definitions and research hypotheses o Operational definition­ how we are going to observe and measure it o Research hypotheses­ specific hypothesis­ relational stamentment liking  the measures for each component of the IV and DV  Identify independent and dependent variables o Independent­ casual (attitudes towards competitors) o Dependent­ affected variable (emotions reaction to outcomes)  Multiple Variable Types (including intervening and extraneous) o Extraneous  May conceal or suppress the relationship between IV and DV  May cause spurious relation  Exposure to TV violence ­­­­­ fear of victimization                               ^ age, personal victimization   Control of extraneous variables o must be removed to see true relationship between  IV and DV o can be controlled by: holding variables constant,  statistically removing impact, creating uniform  groups o Intervening  Helps us explain the phenomena we observe   Happens in between the IV and DV  Common characteristics:  Can be measured indirectly  Usually cognitive  (ex: intelligence)  Ex: Exposure to TV violence  perception of increased  crime fear of victimization Lecture 5  Be able to identify in an example the two levels that scientists operate on o Scientists think in concepts but test their thoughts in a world of numbers  Bridging two world is a three step process  Theoretical/physical diagram  o Theoretical conceptual def, theories, theoretical  hypotheses physical  observation, research  hypothesis   Tell the difference between a theoretical hypothesis (proposition), research  hypothesis, null hypothesis and a research question o Theoretical hypothesis: a relationship between the COMPONENTS of the  IV and DV (propositions) o Research hypothesis: relationship between the MEASURED variables o Null hypothesis: the logical alternative to the research hypothesis, says the research hypothesis is NOT true o Research question: makes no clear predictions  Understand primitive and derived terms, define and know how they are used o Primitive­ a basic unit of meaning that ALL understands and shares in  common o Derived­ terms that are defined through primitive terms  things mean  different things to different people  Know the criterion for formulating conceptual definitions o 1. Denotes essential qualities explains all its components  o 2. Not circular not repetitive in definition o 3. Clear and precise  clear­ primitive terms everyone understands  precise­ boundary conditions says what’s not included o 4. Complete­ whole problem statement  Lecture 6  Definition and components of a theory o Terms:  Laws: statements about they way things ALWAYS happen  Empirical generalization­ statements about the way things  USUALLY happen under specific conditions  Theories­ logically related general poporisions (theoretical  hypothesis) that allow us to deduce an outcome o Properties of theory  Explanation­ explain how things happen  Predictable­ good for control   Control  o Increasing the value of a theory  Value is usefulness, NOT truth  Generalizability means that a theory is useful in many settings and  populations  Confidence increases use and value   Understand how one would test a theory (falsifiability, boundary conditions,  assumptions) o 1. Tests that establish empirical (observable) validity increase confidence o 2. Theory should be  falsifiab  tell us what will not happen o 3. Theory should tell us all assumptions conditions where it fails   Identify the characteristics of theory o 1. Consists of a set of propositions o 2. Propositions are interrelated (within the set) o 3. Some propositions are empirically testable   Difference between Definitive and Probabilistic deduction o In Logical deduction  Definitive yes always happen or no never happen  Probabilistic probably happen or probably not happen (If A then  probably B)  Problems­ deductions may not hold true logically  Problems of combining logical and empirical deduction o Logical and empirical deductions­ allows testing of abstract theories  ProblemThe match between the concept and the variable may be poor  Understand why testing helps us gain confidence in our propositions, also what  can increase confidence o For a theory to be credible we must know 3 things  1. The concepts are related  2. The variables meaaure the concepts  3. The variables are related as stated in deduction o There’s no way to guaranty #1 and #2 – but testing helps gain confidence o ****** MULTIPLE INDICATORS FOR EACH CONCEPT AND  REPEATED TESTING INCREASES CONFIDENCE  Lecture 7  What are and how do you define the Criteria for causality (covariation, time  order, and nonspuriousness)  o Covariation­ both IV and DV change together  If one changes and the other does not then NO casuality o Time­order­ IV changes first cause preceded effect in time o Nonspuriousness­ Nothing else caused the change other than the IV  Understand Necessary and Sufficient Causes o Necessary cause­ a condition that MUST be present o Sufficient­ a condition that guarantees effect  What is true about Models o 1. Descriptive representations of relations put forth in a theory  describes structural and functional features o 2. Helps visualize abstract theories and causual processes o 3. Help in prediction, but offer NO explanation  limits ability to control Lecture 8  Understand and know examples of empirical indicators o The domain of operational definitions (3 steps)  1. Op. def: specifying empirical indicators­ explain what youre  measuring  2. Observe empirical indicators  3. Measurement or assignment of numerals to indicators   Define the variables types (manifest, latent, discrete, continuous) o Manifest­ things we CAN observe  o Latent­ things we CANT observe o Discrete­ varies by category or type, one thing OR the other  Eye color, hair color, ethnicity o Continuous­ goes from high to low  Ex: age, height, temperature   Understand the difference between a conceptual definition and an operational  definition o Conceptual definition­ statement relating the two components of the IV  and the DV o Operational Def­ statement relating the two measured variables  Be able to apply the criteria for evaluation of an operational definition (know  examples) o 1. Taps the richness of the concept­ measures all components o 2. allows for a concrete standardization o 3. Allow for replication o 4. Match the concept with a good numerical scales Lecture 9  Identify sources of gathering and reporting data o Self report­ asking someone to report on their behaviors, beliefs, thoughts  Surveys o Behavioral­ observing someone’s behavior then scoring it o Physiological­ responses that the subjects have no Conesus awareness of.  Identify common types of bias in an example  Define scales for single judgments o Single ratings­ use a single judgment for multiple ratings  Ask one question tell me how liberal you are on a scale of 1­10   Graphic­ bipolar description along a line or other visual  Make a mark on the line  Itemized­ select one of several categories  Pick one out of the list  Comparative­ compare to external standard o Multiple ratings­ use multiple judgments  Ask many questions  Recognize examples of Thurstone, Likert, Guttman and Semantic Differential  Scales


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