COM 300 Study Guide for Exam 1
COM 300 Study Guide for Exam 1 COM 300
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sophie Smith on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COM 300 at Michigan State University taught by Ronald Tamborini in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Methods of Communication Inquiry in Communication Studies at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
Com 200 Exam 1 Review Sheet Parts of the Exam (250 pts.) 1. 25 Multiple Choice Questions (6 points/question)—150 points 2. 3 short answer questions—36 points 3. 8 questions based on practice exercise #1 (8 points/question)—64 points Please use the following review sheet, your book and practice exercise #1 as a guide to studying for the entire exam. This is meant to be a guide, so please use it as such and consider all information provided to you in lecture and in the book. Lecture 1 Define these types of Knowledge (Epistemology, Philosophy, and Science) o Epistemology the character of knowledge how do you know it o Philosophy of science the character of scientific knowledge o Science a way of generating and testing the truth of statements Distinguish these Ways of Knowing (Authoritarian, Mystical, Logicorational, Scientific) o Authoritarian social, social authority (government, teachers, doctors) o Mystical spiritual, our belief that this person can generate the truth o Logico rational procedural logic has the ability to generate the truth o Scientific observable, empirical Individual bias makes it impossible for complete objectivity Agreement among scholars is the closest thing to objectivity Without agreement there’s no confidence, no value The scientific method is a set of rules to reach agreement These rules of science eliminate individual authority Lecture 2 Assumptions behind paradigms within communication o Paradigms assumptions of how we see the world o Ontology assumptions we make about reality (objective, subjective) how to be o Epistemology assumptions we make about the best way to know something o Metatheory laws and rules the best way to exaplin the world o Methodology The Nature of Paradigms (understand all concepts; dominant paradigm, monism, pluralism, revolutionary model, evolutionary model) o Monism one perspective, everyone thinks the same o Pluralism different perspectives o Revolutionary model guided by one paradigm then QUICKLY is replaced by another paradigm (quickly changes) o Evolutionary model science goes along guided by more than one science than OVER TIME, things change Contemporary Ontology—understand the three assumptions o Mechanism forces control things o Actionalism we control things o Actional realism we make decisions within the boundaries of situational factors o Contempory ontological aaaumptions 1. Communication as a social reality 2. comm as a creative process 3. Comm as a developmental process 4. Comm as a complex system 5. Comm. As a contextual phenomenon 6. Comm as a purposive activity 7. Comm as an interactive reality 8. Comm. As an orderly process Name Schools of Thought within Epistemology o Rationalism logical structures and logical thought is they key to understanding Making rational assumptions o Rational empiricism logical structure but you have to test it. Logical structure first Observation second o Mechanic empiricism logical structure but focuses more on observation and cause and effect Observation first then see if theories are consistent with observation o Logical positivism thinks the world exists but thinks rationalism isn’t the best way Reductionism a whole is made up of the some of its parts (A+B+C) Operationalism concepts are definded by the way they are measured. Ex: intelligences measured by IQ test o Constructivism rejects reductionism and operationalism. Thinks the world is subjectively created by our meanings and interpretations o Constructive realism blends logical posivitsim and constructivism Shared meanings Cosmic copout Intersubjective agreement Identify distinguishing factors of two competing camps within Metatheory o The laws approach Types of laws Natural Necessity law (gravity explains why things happen) Correlation The current status of commincation laws o The rules perspective Types of teleological explanations (why does someone do something) Motivating goals Teleonic script rules scripts hat are written in our subconscious mind Basic Properties of the Covering Laws and Rules Perspectives o Covering Laws Based on deductive logic and logical syllogism 5 basic principles 1. Causality seen in a cause and effect 2. Universality laws are invariant in time and space 3. Linearity cause linked linearly to effects 4. Variables must be quantifiable 5. Relationships are deterministic o Rules perspective Developed from free will criticism A rule is a belief that there are correct ways of behaving Explains our expectations of others social behavior regularity Rules denote regularities in communication resulting form our interpretation of social action Behavior is often intentional and guided by rules 2 classes of behavior 1. Stimulusresponse (SR) governed by determinism and explained by covering laws 2. Intentional: governed by free choice and explained by rules Positives: people have the chance if they want to follow or disobey Negative: rules research are descriptivemore of a reality Not good at prediction communication behavior Lecture 3 Identify the Assumptions of Sciences and the Distinguishing Features of Science o Assumptions of science Objects are observable Objects are orderly want to control it Objects are explainable o Distinguishing features of science Systematic Rational Self corrective can be replicated Self reflexive Creative ThreeStage Model of Communication Inquiry o Be able to identify in an example the stages of Observing Communication Phenomena Stage I: observing communication phenomenon Specifying observational domain what concepts will you examine Selecting interpretive schemes agreement, how you’re going to make interpretations Developing relationships developing descriptive models and theories o Be able to identify an inductive or deductive approach linking theory and data Stage II: discovering theoretical explanations 1. The nature of theory (explanations) try to explain social world, theories provide explanations 2. casual and teleological explanations: laws and rues 3. Logic of discovering theories o A theory – data (deductive) o A data – theory (inductive) Stage III: verifying theoretical explanations Testing theoretical predictions (repetition is key) Criteria for evaluating theories o Validity matches observation o Predictability reliable o Precision (clearly defined) o consistency o scope generalizability ( the more broad = the bestter theory) o utility Lecture 4 Distinguish between conceptual definitions and theoretical hypotheses o Theoretical hypothesis is a proposition relational statement linking the components of the IV and DV o Conceptual definition gives the meaning of the concept Distinguish between operation definitions and research hypotheses o Operational definition how we are going to observe and measure it o Research hypotheses specific hypothesis relational stamentment liking the measures for each component of the IV and DV Identify independent and dependent variables o Independent casual (attitudes towards competitors) o Dependent affected variable (emotions reaction to outcomes) Multiple Variable Types (including intervening and extraneous) o Extraneous May conceal or suppress the relationship between IV and DV May cause spurious relation Exposure to TV violence fear of victimization ^ age, personal victimization Control of extraneous variables o must be removed to see true relationship between IV and DV o can be controlled by: holding variables constant, statistically removing impact, creating uniform groups o Intervening Helps us explain the phenomena we observe Happens in between the IV and DV Common characteristics: Can be measured indirectly Usually cognitive (ex: intelligence) Ex: Exposure to TV violence perception of increased crime fear of victimization Lecture 5 Be able to identify in an example the two levels that scientists operate on o Scientists think in concepts but test their thoughts in a world of numbers Bridging two world is a three step process Theoretical/physical diagram o Theoretical conceptual def, theories, theoretical hypotheses physical observation, research hypothesis Tell the difference between a theoretical hypothesis (proposition), research hypothesis, null hypothesis and a research question o Theoretical hypothesis: a relationship between the COMPONENTS of the IV and DV (propositions) o Research hypothesis: relationship between the MEASURED variables o Null hypothesis: the logical alternative to the research hypothesis, says the research hypothesis is NOT true o Research question: makes no clear predictions Understand primitive and derived terms, define and know how they are used o Primitive a basic unit of meaning that ALL understands and shares in common o Derived terms that are defined through primitive terms things mean different things to different people Know the criterion for formulating conceptual definitions o 1. Denotes essential qualities explains all its components o 2. Not circular not repetitive in definition o 3. Clear and precise clear primitive terms everyone understands precise boundary conditions says what’s not included o 4. Complete whole problem statement Lecture 6 Definition and components of a theory o Terms: Laws: statements about they way things ALWAYS happen Empirical generalization statements about the way things USUALLY happen under specific conditions Theories logically related general poporisions (theoretical hypothesis) that allow us to deduce an outcome o Properties of theory Explanation explain how things happen Predictable good for control Control o Increasing the value of a theory Value is usefulness, NOT truth Generalizability means that a theory is useful in many settings and populations Confidence increases use and value Understand how one would test a theory (falsifiability, boundary conditions, assumptions) o 1. Tests that establish empirical (observable) validity increase confidence o 2. Theory should be falsifiab tell us what will not happen o 3. Theory should tell us all assumptions conditions where it fails Identify the characteristics of theory o 1. Consists of a set of propositions o 2. Propositions are interrelated (within the set) o 3. Some propositions are empirically testable Difference between Definitive and Probabilistic deduction o In Logical deduction Definitive yes always happen or no never happen Probabilistic probably happen or probably not happen (If A then probably B) Problems deductions may not hold true logically Problems of combining logical and empirical deduction o Logical and empirical deductions allows testing of abstract theories ProblemThe match between the concept and the variable may be poor Understand why testing helps us gain confidence in our propositions, also what can increase confidence o For a theory to be credible we must know 3 things 1. The concepts are related 2. The variables meaaure the concepts 3. The variables are related as stated in deduction o There’s no way to guaranty #1 and #2 – but testing helps gain confidence o ****** MULTIPLE INDICATORS FOR EACH CONCEPT AND REPEATED TESTING INCREASES CONFIDENCE Lecture 7 What are and how do you define the Criteria for causality (covariation, time order, and nonspuriousness) o Covariation both IV and DV change together If one changes and the other does not then NO casuality o Timeorder IV changes first cause preceded effect in time o Nonspuriousness Nothing else caused the change other than the IV Understand Necessary and Sufficient Causes o Necessary cause a condition that MUST be present o Sufficient a condition that guarantees effect What is true about Models o 1. Descriptive representations of relations put forth in a theory describes structural and functional features o 2. Helps visualize abstract theories and causual processes o 3. Help in prediction, but offer NO explanation limits ability to control Lecture 8 Understand and know examples of empirical indicators o The domain of operational definitions (3 steps) 1. Op. def: specifying empirical indicators explain what youre measuring 2. Observe empirical indicators 3. Measurement or assignment of numerals to indicators Define the variables types (manifest, latent, discrete, continuous) o Manifest things we CAN observe o Latent things we CANT observe o Discrete varies by category or type, one thing OR the other Eye color, hair color, ethnicity o Continuous goes from high to low Ex: age, height, temperature Understand the difference between a conceptual definition and an operational definition o Conceptual definition statement relating the two components of the IV and the DV o Operational Def statement relating the two measured variables Be able to apply the criteria for evaluation of an operational definition (know examples) o 1. Taps the richness of the concept measures all components o 2. allows for a concrete standardization o 3. Allow for replication o 4. Match the concept with a good numerical scales Lecture 9 Identify sources of gathering and reporting data o Self report asking someone to report on their behaviors, beliefs, thoughts Surveys o Behavioral observing someone’s behavior then scoring it o Physiological responses that the subjects have no Conesus awareness of. Identify common types of bias in an example Define scales for single judgments o Single ratings use a single judgment for multiple ratings Ask one question tell me how liberal you are on a scale of 110 Graphic bipolar description along a line or other visual Make a mark on the line Itemized select one of several categories Pick one out of the list Comparative compare to external standard o Multiple ratings use multiple judgments Ask many questions Recognize examples of Thurstone, Likert, Guttman and Semantic Differential Scales
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