Exam 2 Study Material ( Part 2)
Exam 2 Study Material ( Part 2) BIOL 2140
Popular in Human Anatomy and Physiology
Popular in Biology
This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kourtney Edwards-Campbell on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2140 at East Carolina University taught by Elizabeth Jones in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology in Biology at East Carolina University.
Reviews for Exam 2 Study Material ( Part 2)
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/24/16
Fracture- a bone that has been broken or cracked Types of Fractures: Non-aligned fracture- bone that has fractured but is still aligned. Displaced fracture- bone that has fractured but is out of alignment. Complete fracture- bone broken completely through. Incomplete fracture- bone not completely broken, part of it is still attached, may be referred to as a crack. Linear fracture- bone fractured in same direction as the bone/ parallel to the long axis. Transverse fracture- perpendicular to the long axis/ bone fractured on a transverse plane. Open/ Compound fracture- when the bone fractures and penetrates the skin. May cause infection, surgery is needed. Closed/ Simple- bone fractures but doesn’t penetrate the skin. Comminuted fracture- bone fragments into three or more pieces. Particularly common in the aged, whose bones are more brittle. Compression fracture- bone is crushed. Common in porous bones subjected to extreme trauma, as in a fail. Spiral fracture- ragged break occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to a bone. Common in sports fractures. Epiphyseal fracture- epiphysis separates from the diaphysis along the epiphyseal plate. Tends to occur where cartilage cells are dying and calcification of the matrix occurring. Depressed fracture- broken bone is pressed inward. Typical of skull fractures Greenstick fracture- bones break incompletely. Only one side of the shaft breaks and the other side is bent. Bone Disorders Osteomalacia- soft bones, calcium is not deposited so bones are weak. This leads to pain. Rickets- bones such as pelvis, hips and ribcage deform. The legs may bow because of a lack of vitamin D and/or calcium. Occurs in children. Osteoporosis- bone mass is reduced. Leading to them being porous and lighter. The spongy bone of the spine is most vulnerable. Occurs mostly in older men and women and more so in women. Sex hormones restrain the osteoclast activity. Joint Articulation Functional classification- amount of movement Synarthroses- immovable Ampiarthroses- slightly moveable Diarthroses- freely moveable Structural classification- material binding bones together Fibrous- immovable/ slightly moveable Cartilaginous- rigid/ slightly moveable Synovial- freely moving Joints Fibrous joints Bones joined by fibrous tissue No joint cavity Most immovable 3 types Sutures Only skull bones Wavy edged interlock Filled with minimal amount of very short connective tissue Short connective tissue fibers continuous with periosteum Tightly bind bones but allow growth Ossifies as adult , bones fuse to single unit Now called syntoses (bony junction) Syndesmoses Bones connected by a ligament of fibrous tissue Vary in length Length determines movement Ex: ligaments connecting tibia and fibula Gomphoses A peg-in-socket fibrous joint Tooth in bony alveolar socket only Held by short periodontal ligament Cartilaginous Joint- cartilage attaching bone together Synchondroses Bones to bone joint Hyaline cartilage unites bones Virtually all are immovable (synarthrosis) Are temporary joints, become ossified; completely fused (synostoses) Ex: epiphyseal plates Symphyses Hyaline/ articular cartilage is fused to a pad of fibrocartilage Allows limited movement of joint (amphiarthrotic) Designed for strength, shock, absorption, flexibility Synovial Joints Articulating bones are separated by a fluid-filled joint cavity Allows a lot of movement (diarthrotic) All limb joints 5 distinguishing features Articular cartilage Glassy smooth hyaline cartilage Absorbs compression-protective Synovial cavity Unique to synovial cavity Filled with synovial fluid Articular capsule 2 layers External layer- tough, fibrous dense irregular connective tissue Strengthens the joints Inner layer is synovial membrane composed of loose connective tissue Covers all internal joint surfaces that are not hyaline cartilage Synovial Fluid Occupies the joint capsule Is a blood filtrate ( viscous, viscosity decreases as joint warms) Also found in articular cartilage As joint compresses it oozes out When pressure relieved synovial fluid gets soaked back up into cartilage; weeping lubrication Contains phagocytic cells Removal of cell debris Reinforcing Ligament Strengthen joints Most are intrinsic or capsular Are thickening of fibrous capsule Extracapsular- outside capsule Intracapsular- not really within as these ligaments covered with synovial membrane Bursa and tendon sheaths Often closely associated with synovial joints Are bags of lubricants Bursa Flattened sacs Lined with synovial membrane Contain synovial fluid Provide lubrication and padding Bunion is an enlarged bursa Bursitis- painful inflamed bursa Tendon Sheath- an elongated bursae that wraps completely around a tendon Muscle Function of muscle tissue: convert chemical energy into mechanical energy/ force Types: 1. Skeletal 2. Cardiac 3. Smooth How do they differ? Cell structure Body location Function Source of contraction Skeletal muscle is a discrete organ- made of several types of tissue Muscle fibers Blood vessels Nerve fibers Connective tissue Muscle Structure Epimysium- covering that surrounds whole muscle, made of dense irregular connective tissue Fascicle- a group of muscle fibers. For example, skeletal muscle is made of multiple fascicles Perimysium- covering around fascicle Muscle fibers-muscle cells Long, cylindrical, multinucleate Plasma membrane of muscle fibers is called the sarcolemma. The sarcoplasm is similar to cytoplasm of other cells except: 1. Sarcoplasm has large amount of stored glycogen in glycosomes 2. Myoglobin, is a muscle fibers. Similar to hemoglobin in red blood cells; stores oxygen 3. Contain myofibrils alongside the usual organelles Endomysium- connective tissue that surrounds each muscle fiber.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'