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Exam 2 Material ( part 2)

by: Kourtney Edwards-Campbell

Exam 2 Material ( part 2) BIOL 2140

Marketplace > East Carolina University > Biology > BIOL 2140 > Exam 2 Material part 2
Kourtney Edwards-Campbell

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Exam 2 Material ( part 2)
Human Anatomy and Physiology
Elizabeth Jones
Study Guide
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kourtney Edwards-Campbell on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2140 at East Carolina University taught by Elizabeth Jones in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology in Biology at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 02/24/16
Exam #2 Material Notes from February 8 –February 12 th Parts of the Cell Lysosome  Description: Bags of powerful digestive enzymes acid hydrolases called oxidases and catalases  Function: 1. Used in phagocytes to degrade bacteria, viruses, toxins, worn out organelles and storage molecules 2. Break down non-useful tissues and bone to release calcium into the bone Peroxisomes  Description: Looks like a lysosome  Function: 1. Oxidases; uses O 2o detoxify molecules, such as alcohol 2. Catalase; degrades free radicals such as O 2, *free radicals are highly reactive molecules that disrupt biological molecules, such as DNA. Studies have shown that free radicals may cause cancer but they are the side product of normal cellular metabolism Golgi Apparatus  Description: Series of stacked and flattened membranes  Function: 1. Directs cellular protein in different sections 2. Modifies, concentrates and packages proteins and fats made in the endoplasmic reticulum (protein synthesis) Nucleus  Description: 1. Largest cytoplasmic organelle 2. Double membrane surrounded with pores 3. Continuous with the rough endoplasmic reticulum 4. Has gap junction to allows material in and out of the nucleus 5. Contains nucleoli which are dark spherical bodies where ribosomes are made  Function: 1. Control center that contains all the instructions to build almost all the body’s proteins. Protein Synthesis Transcription Steps: 1. 16-18 base pairs of DNA are undone by the process of zipping 2. Most recently made RNA is bounded to the DNA, this region is called the DNA-RNA hybrid Translation Steps: 1. m RNA in the cytoplasm is read by the ribosomes 2. a group of 3 nucleotides is called on codon 3. each codon calls for a particular amino acid 4. AUG starts the site for translation 5. t RNA bring e correct amino acid to the ribosomes as it reads the m RNA code. 6. The amino acids attach to each other forming the primary amino sequence of the developing new protein 7. UAA translates as the STOP codon 8. The formation of the primary amino acid structure is now complete 9. The protein is then folded into its secondary and tertiary structure which are held together with bonds within the molecules


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