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Midterm Study Guide

by: Callisa Ruschmeyer

Midterm Study Guide ENGL 2250 - 001

Callisa Ruschmeyer
GPA 4.0

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Midterm is Monday, February 29th -This study guide covers all of the writings we have discussed in class -I tried to make sure to include all of the passages we discussed in class and the main ...
American Literature before 1865
Julia Tigner
Study Guide
Tigner; Midterm; Auburn University; study guide; American Literature
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Callisa Ruschmeyer on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ENGL 2250 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Julia Tigner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 91 views. For similar materials see American Literature before 1865 in Foreign Language at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 02/24/16
Midterm Study Guide "To The Reader: Exploration and Colonization"1492-1700 (1-9) Christopher Columbus (26) Letter to Luis de Santangel Regarding the First Voyage (27-32)  CC (Christopher Columbus)  CC is optimistic yet arrogant- specifically when he uses words like "victory" and the phrase "no opposition was offered to me"  CC wants to establish the idea of ownership in the Americas  CC was idolized; from heaven; had superior weapons; cultural values  Second paragraph on 27 o Divine right in order to Christianize o Alludes to Adam and Eve- Adam given the right by God to name animals so CC can name his islands  End of first paragraph on 28 o "Espaniola is a marvel" o CC wants funding so he exaggerates on how amazing his findings were  Last paragraph on 28 through the end on 29 o Very descriptive o Describes the natives as: timid, generous, guileless, content, "marvelously timorous o Natives did not have steel or iron or weapons o Last sentence, "…might become Christians and be inclined to the love and service of their highnesses…"  Major Concepts o CC has Divine Right o CC contradicts himself- says the natives were receptive and generous, but then states that he would not hesitate to bring force and violence to them in order to take what he wants; at the end of the passage there is no neutral respect anymore o CC fabricates what is going on in the New World- what he finds, what is offers the crown, etc Letter to Ferdinand and Isabella the Fourth Voyage (33-34)  CC much more self-absorbent in this letter- he turns into a savage  "I never think without weeping. I believed that heir example would have been to the profit of others" o CC wants to exploit these people- no one else can  "I came to serve at the age of twenty-eight years, and now I have not a hair on my body that is not gray…" (34) o Still young but body does not reflect it  "The same punishment is due to him who robbed me of the pearls, and to him who infringed my rights as admiral." (34) o Greed creates more conflict  "permit me to go to Rome and to other places of pilgrimage" (34) o Complains but want to redeem himself  CC now exhausted and desperate; he thinks he should be honored, or even worshiped John Winthrop (102) "A Model of Christian Charity" (103-116)  A Model Hereof (103) o Tone is revenant o Explains what type of community Winthrop envisions  The Reason Hereof (103-104) o Diversity- have variety; be different; need the wealthy and the poor o Social responsibility and balance- be charitable  "that every man might have need of other, and from hence they might be all knit more nearly together in the bonds of brotherly affection" o Love is glue- two rules: justice and mercy  Story of Elisha (107) o Parable o "he challengeth first God's part which she must first give before she must serve her own family" o Displays ideas of charity o Relation to Winthrop- the Puritans need to give their all to God and their community; the community will survive if everyone will do this  Backs up their government of a Theocracy  First full paragraph on 114 o Church and state are the same, but the care of the public is more important than the private o Public good over the private gain o "the care of the public must oversway all private respects…"  Final Prescription on 116 o "city upon a hill" o The eyes look upon us o "we shall be made a story and a by-word through the world" o Basically stated that the Puritans will set an example in order to glorify god Elizabeth Winthrop, "The City Upon A Hill" (PDF)  Elizabeth Winthrop says that John's primary purpose was to prove to England that Puritans could develop a functional community  Winthrop's moral framework 1. Community 2. Charity 3. Love  Winthrop is the governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony  Why does God make all men different? Preservation of the whole, reliance on others, community is the body and love is the glue  Winthrop envisions a theocracy: everyone has their own place to create a strong whole o a fluid society, but he impedes growth and creates justification for social inequality Winthrop vs. JFK and Reagan  JFK- America needs to be the leader in the Cold War just like the Puritans in America; we should lead other nations  Reagan- uses the city upon a hill as a way to portray America as superior to other nations  Factual Errors- o Winthrop is not imagining America- he is looking for a community o Reagan and JFK are not basing their opinions based on a Theocracy  JFK- technological aspects of making America a powerhouse o Technology is a focus o Democracy  Reagan o Utopia (that will never happen) o Open to outsiders o Everyone living in peace and harmony  Which is more accurate? JFK o JFK uses the Winthrop's ideas to build up his own o Reagan just uses Winthrop's ideas Anne Bradstreet (134) "The Prologue" (135-137)  Stanzas 1-3 o Theme- talks about discrimination and the gender inequalities seen in this early time period; sad, humbling (her writing), self-deprecating (herself), inferiority***  "for my mean pen are too superior things" o Tone- slightly sardonic and annoyed; melancholy and somewhat apologetic  Poem as a whole o Bradstreet thinks that women should have every opportunity to write and express themselves. With that being said, she does realize that her writings will never be as great as men's, but at least give them a change to be inferior to them o Delineating feminine sphere of poetry- apologetic about being a women o As the end of the poem, she has newfound confidence about her writings "The Author to her Book" (142)  "thou ill-form'd offspring of my feeble brain" o Her book is not ready  "I stretcht thy joints to make thee even feet" o Trying to make it perfect, but it just isn't  "If for thy father asked, say thou had'st none: and for they mother, she alas is poor, which caus'd her thus to send thee out of door" o Bastard child- injustice to society  Compared to the previous poem: there is a sense of pride still, but many more tensions; in this poem, she is more assertive when claiming her poetry- does not apologize as much for it; proto-feminist- seen in both of these works "Before the Birth of one of her Children" (142-143)  Poem discusses that fact that she is afraid to leave her life behind when she dies o Worries about the step-mother to her children o She wants her husband to remarry, but not for him to find love again- just simply so her children have a mother  Faith present in the poem o Divine Providence- God wills her death; she does not worry about dying, she just wants to ensure her memory is still fresh  Line 179: "friend" refers to her husband o We know this when she states "knot's untied" signifying her marriage to this friend  "And kiss the paper for thy love's dear sake, who with salt tears this last farewell did take" o Writing to her husband "A Letter to her Husband, Absent upon Public Employment" (144)  "My head, my heart, mine eyes, my life, nay, more,…" o Describing her husband  Tone- saddening and sentimental; romantic  Mood- somber but hopeful  Metaphor to the Weather o Husband represents summer time and she without him represents winter  Winter is a horrible season, but her husband brings her light and heat o She also alludes to the zodiac signs- Cancer (summer) and Capricorn (winter) "Upon the Burning of our House" (146-147)  Bradstreet upset about her house burning, but eventually realizes that it was God's will  "But yet sufficient for us left. When by the ruins oft I past My sorrowing eyes aside did case…" o Realizes her earthly possessions o God took away material objects, but he left what truly matters: their lives and love and his presence  "There lay that store I counted best"- she doesn't know what exactly heaven holds  "And did thy wealth on earth abide Didst fix thy hope on mould'ring dust? The arm of flesh didst make thy trust?" o Questions God o Doctrine of weaned affections- she is upset about losing her personal belongings, but she remembers that God willed her house to be burned and she should not be worrying about materialist things  "The world no longer let me love, My hope and Treasure lies above"- letting go of worldly pleasures "On My Dear Grandchild, Simon Bradstreet" (PDF)  "Such was his will, but why, let's not dispute" o The reason is unknown, but one should not question God's will; although Bradstreet does so briefly o She mourns the losses that she has too, but thinks optimistically that they are among brothers and sisters with God o Let's- more inclusive; includes herself and the family  Response to God- God is so good, that they should be in "awe before him"  Comparison to "To Author to Her Book" o She claims this child; she does not claim to be the author of her book o In this poem, Bradstreet is more content with the events in her life o In the other poem she is more opposed to her life o The other poem has a more hateful and discontent tone Wai Chee Dimock, "Anne Bradstreet" (PDF) Mary Rowlandson (179) The Sovereignty and Goodness of God- Rowlandson's Captivity Narrative (180-221)  Begins in medias res- in the middle of things  Food becomes "savory"- because she is starving- but says it was God's will for it to taste so good o When she eats she resembles the natives- she steals food from a n English boy = she is becoming more savage like  Page 197-198 is Rowlandson's transition from being a captive  Natives are described as barbaric, savages, merciless heathens, ravenous bears o Describes them as enemies- this shows readers that she eventually recognizes them as human since enemies are within human relationships  Omitted Context o No motivations of war o She only includes material that makes the natives look worse than the English  Rowlandson's child dies and she is not allowed to bury it- she is only allowed to see the site where the child was buried (page 204) o But when her mistress's child dies, the entire community was present at the burial  Overall, her experience was a test form God; what happened to her was because of God's Will  Overall Spiritual Journey o Started out thinking God was punishing her --> faith wavers --> associates with the Providence --> God prompted the natives to extend good will o Constant negotiation to maintain her faith, retain her strength, and survive  Page 216- Sexual Violence o Rowlandson says the natives are very bad- yet, she was never sexually assaulted o Why is this important- GOD'S WILL protected her  Praying Indians (188,209-211) o The Indians who practiced Christianity o Uses as a liaison and helped get Rowlandson's ransom o They are not trusted on either side "Mary Rowlandson's Ransom" (222-224) Roger Williams  Made colony of Providence after he was kicked out of the Massachusetts Bay colony by Winthrop  Irony- he started colony because of persecution by the Puritans in the Mass. Bay colony o Funny because the Puritans fled England due to religious persecution as well  Does not see the native's land as the wilderness o Williams is interested in the natives culture o Respects natives differently than other Puritans o He purchased land form the natives  Rhode Island Compact- first document of democracy of "America"  Proto-anthropology- Williams studies the natives and tries to understand them; he recognizes their culture, civilization, and religion A Key into the Language of America (PDF) Ted Widmer "A Nearer Neighbor to the Indians" (PDF)  Underlying Assumption- the natives matter and they have their own community structure  "Liberty of Conscience" or "Soul Liberty" o Worship should not be pushed upon the natives o Church and state should be separate  Feminist piece? He brings to the forefront that the native women work harder than the men  "Nearer Neighborhood" o Natives are just as legitimate as the English o Natives not as separate as in the Mass Bay colony  Winthrop vs. Williams  Winthrop Williams  Providence and God's will- born where  You can work your way up you're meant to be  Cooperative  Puritans vs. Natives  "Nearer neighborhood"  Exceptionalism and "city upon a hill"  Democracy  Theocracy  Baptist  Puritans  Share the community and become  Communal attitude: us vs. them one with the natives  Church and state are always the same- but  Government should not correct errors public good takes priority over private gain in religion- very separate entities "To the Reader: Enlightenment and Revolution" 1700-1830 (235-239)  Puritan ideas are falling to the wayside (235-236); commerce becoming very important; pursuit of spiritual salvation is an individual choice  Enlightenment- age of reason (late 17th and 18th century)  Deism- God is very hands off; God is a watchmaker; ties in very closely with Enlightenment: gives individuals the ability to reason  18th Century Enlightenment Thinkers: Ben Franklin, John Madison, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams  3 Largest Cities: Boston, New York, Philadelphia (which started as a Quaker economy)  Culture becoming driven by practical knowledge and material well-being Benjamin Franklin, From The Autobiography [Part One] (305-358)  The Five Errata (errata is an issue with printing, but he uses it to describe himself) o Broke contract with his brother (320) o Taking Vernon's money (330) o Writing Deborah only once from London (337) o Printing A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain (337) o Attempting "familiarities" with Ralph's Milliner Friend (338)  He confesses his mistakes to be an example to his son o No one is perfect, but if you acknowledge your failures, you will be better off in life o He finds confessions humbling  What do these confessions say about Franklin? o He damages a lot of relationships o Very prideful, but tries very hard not to be o Honesty ruins his relationships  Religion- attitude toward organized religion vs. his belief in God o Family situation (308)- family has an English bible, which is prohibited in this context o Religious decent o "…and farther that my indiscreet disputations about religion began to make me pointed at with horror by good people, as an Infidel or Atheist" (320)  Questions religion o Deism (348)- usually people will immerse within the principle of the faith, but Franklin reads books against the faith instead  Literacy (354) o Franklin loved to read, write, and print  It becomes the foundation of his identity o Allows him to find his religion through reading- and then writes about it o Printing gives a foundation for Franklin to build off of- he starts printing other people's work but then starts writing his own opinion and develops the platform of questioning people's power  Virtue (338-339, 348 and 351) o Passes judgment of people who drink- he thinks he has more money because he does not drink o He views his mistakes as errata o Franklin is 'virtuous' but passes judgment and tries to get his friend's girlfriend to get involved with him The Autobiography [Part Two] (358-375)  Gender Politics (335) o Marries Deborah- she becomes a partner in their relationship, but also in his business o Buys him a nice silver spoon and a China bowl (which feeds Franklin's ego)  This shows that, although Deborah was seen with more equality, she is still a woman who is inferior to her man- and because of this, should buy her husband nice things o Views marriage in a radical way- he sees his wife as his partner; sees her with more equality than most men do  Virtue (368-369) o 13 virtues o Individualism- American Ideal o Humility was added at the end o Evidence suggests that Temperance is the most important to Franklin  Religion (366-367) o Franklin says that being religious is not as important as being virtuous  He does not attend church- the Church was telling him how to be a good Presbyterian, not a good citizen o Franklin wants to be a good citizen, communicate through God, and practice his faith in his own way  This underscores the conflict of organized religion vs. believing in God  Franklin wants to practice his religion in his own way Thomas Jefferson, The Declaration of Independence (PDF)  Purpose: formally declare separation of the colonies form the English Crown; state the colony's grievances  Who does Jefferson criticize? What does he fear? o The Christian King is criticized o Fears the slaves will rise against their masters o Jefferson says the British have animosity; states the King is preventing the salves freedom  Paradox of Jefferson- he has slaves himself, but it is justified because they are of a different color o The colonies cannot be enslaved by the Crown because they are of the same color  Omitted Passage "Query XIV" from Notes on the State of Virginia (462-465)  What does Jefferson grapple with? What to do with the slaves; should they be deported back to Africa?  Why not incorporate the slaves? o Divide everyone o Makes scientific arguments (about brain capacity to learn and skin color) o "deep-rooted" prejudice  Insults Phyllis Wheatley o Jefferson does not spell her name correctly o Says she does not have the mental capacity like whites do o Wheatley is capable of being a Christian, but not of being a poet Omitted Passages  Miscegenation- the way blacks improve their body and mind  Africans cannot change the fact they are different than the colonists o They were brought to America- it was not their choice, so why are they being so severely punished Benjamin Banneker, "Banneker's Letter to Thomas Jefferson" and Jefferson's Response (438-441)  Banneker almost asks permission to disagree with Jefferson; argues in a respectful way  Banneker is very intelligent  Page 439, 6th paragraph o Injustices of who is allowed to be free- why are you allowed to be free, but not your African American servants?  Accuses Jefferson of almost lying when writing, "all men are created equal"  Uses this quote to make his point more sturdy  Jefferson's very short letter in response o Very shallow letter- not much effort or detail o But sent the Almanac given to him to an esteemed scientist- forces Jefferson to admit that intelligence is present in this other race- but it is not as common  Smart blacks are the exception- Banneker is one of these exceptions Phillis Wheatley, "On Being Brought from Africa to America" (455-456)  Written in 1773- when America was still not its own nation  Poem is in first person  The Preface- provides evidence on who actually wrote the work- proves that Wheatley wrote the poem o Written by John Wheatley  Phillis Wheatley challenges Jefferson with her wit and intelligence  Bradstreet Wheatley  Female poet  Female black poet  Her brother established her  John Wheatley established her legitimacy legitimacy  Poems more private  Poems not as private  Poem, line by line o 1-2: introduces blacks to Christianity; between the lines she critiques slavery and how her people are being treated o 3-6: addresses Christians about not seeking her new religion so she somewhat questions it and why her masters follow it o 7-8: very sardonic lines; suggests that blacks can become Christians; directs the lines to Christians as a way to remind them that part of their faith is to convert and bring new believers to the faith "To the Right Honourable William, Earl of Dartmouth" (457-458)  Appeals to the Earl because he is a friend of many abolitionists and has the ability to help the blacks  This appeal to the Earl was very radical  She makes the comparison between slavery and the revolution, just like Banneker  Stanzas 1-2 o Comparison to the Revolutionary War o Discusses "New England" and the new nation that is about to form from the colonies o Independence is spoken as blissful  Stanzas 3-4 o Begins the appeal to the Earl o Parents are mentioned- this is significant because it humanizes the Africans  Wheatley vs. Jefferson o She interrogates his idea of all men are created equal o Her poetry proves that blacks can be intelligent o Her mere existence undermines what Jefferson said in his State of Virginia address  Puritan ideologies o Continues the ideas of community and preservation of the whole o Alludes to the idea of God's Will o She goes against the Puritan idea of staying stationary in the realm of society- she believes one can work up in society David Walker, From Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World (512-520)  David walker is much more hostile than Banneker  Walker's audience is the black community; Banneker's was directly Thomas Jefferson  Consider the difference between [blacks and whites] and the [Israelites and Egyptians] o Holding positions of power o Having ownership of land and property o Seen as human or not o Intermarrying the opposite  Banneker Walker  Civil and diplomatic  Blunt, angry, hostile  Wrote directly to Jefferson  Wrote to blacks  Writing in the form of a  Writing in the form of an appeal letter  Wrote to blacks including himself in their struggles  Wrote as a representative and alluding to Jefferson's thoughts of all blacks Tommie Shelby, "White Supremacy and Black Solidarity" (PDF) "Indian Removal and Resistance" (541-544)  1820s- major issue: Native American rights (voided) vs. state rights  1830- Indian Removal Act  1838- Trail of Tears (The Trail Where They Cried)  Banneker Walker  Civil/diplomatic  Aggressive  Representative of blacks (like Brown  Direct address to African Americans (call is a representative for the Cherokee to action: Kill or be killed) Indians)  Indirect address to whites/Jefferson (act  Appeal to logic (with gift) justly before God takes his vengeance)- Shelby (198)  Biblical Imagery David Brown, "Address of Dawu Brown, A Cherokee Indian" (546-553)  Parallel- removal of Indians and the removal of Phillis Wheatley  Last passage on 549, "It is a matter of fact, proved by the authority of the first…and that they loved their neighbor as themselves" o Natives are peaceful; Christopher Columbus stated this himself o The audience is very familiar with Columbus o Europeans (the colonists) made the natives hostile and savage like- because before them, they were timid and peaceful (which was stated by Columbus)  "Before I proceed however, indulge me in the pleasure of informing you that I am one of the sons of the forest…to avenge the blood of my fathers." (page 549) o Cherokee Nation considers themselves separate than the United States o Not ashamed of his nationality Cherokee Tribal Council, "Memorial of the Cherokee Citizens, December 18, 1829" (553- 557)


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