Study Guide Exam 1
Study Guide Exam 1 MUSC205
Popular in History of Popular Music, 1950-Present
Popular in Music
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shira Clements on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MUSC205 at University of Maryland taught by Richard King in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 398 views. For similar materials see History of Popular Music, 1950-Present in Music at University of Maryland.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
Study Guide Exam 1 Forms: Simple Verse No chorus but same music is played throughout A bunch of verses Used in ballads and folk songs because it’s good for telling a story Example Bob Dylan’s “The Times They are A’ Changin” Simple Verse Chorus Verse and chorus have same music Chorus’s words repeat “Tutti Frutti” Little Richard Contrasting Verse Chorus Verse and chorus have diffrent music AABA Modern pop genre Verse, Verse, Bridge, Verse Example “Someone to To Watch Over Me” Frank Sinatra Example “Will You Love Me Tomorrow” The Shirelles 12 Bar Blues A Bar= Group of 4 beats listen for bass of it “Green Onions” Booker T “Hound Dog” Elvis “Whole Lotta Shaking Goin’ On” Jerry Lee Lewis Beginnings ● Sound recording invented in 1877 by Thomas Edison ○ Invention of Tin cylinders ● Graham Bell ○ Graphophone Uses Wax ● Emile Berliner ○ Gramophone Uses Flat Disc ● Problems Encountered ○ Performer had to be close to the device ○ Created Muﬄed sound ○ However, it was acoustic, so recordings were made thanks to vibrations ○ Example Jussi Björling “La donna e mobile” (1909) ● Records lead to the Rise of the First Superstar ○ Enrico Caruso became wildly popular, thanks to recordings~290 recordings ○ Song were Limited to about 4:30 ○ Example “Vesti la giubba” (1907) ● Recording Advances ○ 1925 Electrical recording introduced ○ People start structuring disks so best songs were at beginning or end side of disk ● Disc formats Introduced ○ 78 RPM 44:30 per side ○ 33 RPM (1948) 20 minutes per side, Uses vinyl rather than shellac: better sound ○ 45 RPM Used for Pop Singles ● 1930s Magnetic tape recording introduced ○ Allows for multiple takes ● Famous Tin Pan Alley (The American Music Machine) ○ 28th Street in New York City ○ Called that b/c it sounded like people banging tin pans together ○ Home to Numerous Publishers ○ Unique Distribution Model ○ Sheet Music ● Gershwin Brothers ○ George (music) and Ira(lyrics) Gershwin ○ Wrote and Produced Hundreds of Songs ○ AABA was usually the form they used ○ Example “Someone to Watch Over Me” ■ Performed by Frank Sinatra ■ Written by the Gershwin Bros ● Cole Porter ○ One of the great composers of AABA ○ Lots of musicals ○ A vast number of songs ○ Wrote music and lyrics ○ Example “I Get a Kick Out of You” ● Big Band ○ America’s popular music in the 30s and 40s ○ Used many of the same musical forms as Tin Pan Alley ○ Upbeat, Dance Music ○ Large sections of Instruments: Woodwinds, Brass, Rhythm ● Duke Ellington ○ Composer and pianist ○ Born in Washington, DC ○ Estimated to Have Composed 2,000 pieces ○ Example “Take the A Train” ● Crooners ○ Appealed to children and adults ○ Was played on national radio, so everyone heard it ○ Brought about, in part, by changes in microphone technology Beginning of Rock Rock equation Modern Pop + Country Western + Rhythm and Blue= Rock and Roll Modern Pop Crooners (white so white audience), big bands known as the “rat paack” appealed to children and adults multigenerational radio led to huge audience became big because of the change in microphone technology don’t have to yell/project that much anymore held microphone close to mouth and just sang quietly very different Traditional American song forms AABA malleable and performers can make it their own this way These songs are more of performer’s songs, not composers standard model Biggest selling music in 1940s and 50s Performer takes precedence and sing into the microphone Huge audience in 1930s Kraft Music Hall show had 40% of the public watching Distribution radio was huge took off in the 30s and 40s radio shows were big as well in mid west US was linked by radio stations and played from coast to coast allowed massive audiences everyone listened to radio nothing else to do Audience white, middle class, national, multi generational Country Music Country poor rural whites made on basic instruments songs about religion since rural whites were religious Western Music Made up All about the show About cowboys and Indians Jimmie Rodgers is a famous Western singer doesn’t make sense Country Western Music country and western come together Hillbilly music white audience and white poor musicians Western ideas with country music Hank Williams Hey Good Lookin All about the show Blues Music all about the melancholy feeling black music style of performance tends to have impromptu feeling uses guitar 12 bar blues same 3 chords on the guitar Bessie Smith sings about drinking and sex which is strange for women hugely influential signed Columbia records race records division Robert Johnson one of the first blues greatest guitarists “Cross Road Blues” personal story, influential, legendary story inspired others tale of aftermath of his deal with the devil Rhythm and Blues made Blues urban, rather than country moved from South to North migration in search of work and to do away with segregation Blues becomes electric because now playing in bars, cities, and louder places, so had to get louder music Chess Records specialized in race records black music helped make R&B big on radio, so white people listened and liked it too Muddy Waters one of their first big makers creator of Chicago blues sound reflects the sound of the city yelling into microphone opp of Crooners overly sexual Howlin’ Wolf unique vocal style, extremely high energy musicianship and showmanship sounded like he was howling fuzzy guitar sound amplifier up precedes rock “How Many More Years” Rock and Roll R&B Turns to Rock Audience many black people and some white teenagers Helped children rebel against parents because it is different makes a generational split teenagers can listen to this Radio play? helped with the generational split because everyone has a radio Chuck Berry and Little Richard Two black R&B artists Begin moving towards harder R&B Alan Freed calls it “Rock and Roll” First person to call it this Chuck Berry Exceptionally talented guitarist makes the guitar a class thing in Rock and Roll It is now a major thing in rock country influence Begins to tell stories in rock Cars, love, school teenage things identifies with his audience “Maybellene” and “Sweet Little Sixteen” People didn’t know how to react to his music because it was so different than what they were used to, so crowd was silent but he is out there trying to make them go crazy White take Black Music To make music more acceptable to white audiences, white musicians perform it White parents don’t want children to listen to black artists because of the segregation, so white artists copy the black singers “Tutti Frutti” Little Richard (black), “Tutti Frutti” Pat Boone (white) “Hound Dog” Big Mama Thornton (black) “Hound Dog” Elvis (white) Sam Phillips 1950 opens Memphis Recording Service 1952 it expands and renames Sun Records bigger Elvis Presley Very charismatic, has that voice Puts Sam Phillips over the top when he makes demo for Sun in 1954 Accomplishes the “white boy who sounds black” sound Records “That’s Alright Mama” first big hit His first session was terrible Phillips leaves equipment running Elvis and band play “That’s Alright Mama” Phillips gives it to a Memphis DJ, who plays it 30 times in the first day 5000 preorders for the record HUGE success Sounds like country at first note chord note chord Parents didn’t like his too much for their children at the beginning because he would move his body. But then, he fixed himself and made a safe image, so national audience RCA buys his contract for $40,000 in 1956 from Sun, so Sam was able to expand because of this and sign great artists Class of 55 Phillips tries to make other Elvises Gets Carl Perkins, Jerry Lee Lewis Johnny Cash The Man in Black Country artist through and through Served in USAF, where he began songwriting Recorded for Sun Records (with Elvis) Was a little crazy and violent I Walk The Line (1956) Rose to #17 on the pop chart June Cash meets her and starts musical romance with her when he was going through certain things Lyrics don’t really matter in Rock and Roll just about performance and sound Major Labels Try to Compete Capitol Gene Vincent (too orgasmic) “Women Love” Capitol Eddie Cochran (tough guy, leather coat) Summertime Blues Cochran dies and Vincent is injured in a car crash in England Buddy Holly and the Crickets Buddy Holly led the Crickets That’ll be the Day” Helped innovate recording process Helped to break down racial barriers The Producers Rock in Trouble/Rock’s Decline Downfall begins in 1950s: Little Richard finds God, leaves R&R for Gospel (1957) Elvis goes to the Army (1957) Jerry Lee Lewis marries his 14 year old cousin (1958) Buddy Holly’s plane crashes/dies (1959) Chuck Berry transports underage girl across border (1959) Congress finds out about Rock; Payola What’s left? (PostR&R) tame, whitebread music Dick Clark: becomes a producer, makes television show where he promotes his music: American Bandstand Men dressed up, very cleancut (BORING) “The Twist” by Chubby Checker: becomes a huge dance craze; simple dance white audience even though black music and black artist fills void for R&R The Rise of Doo Wop: Gospel based, urban black music originally a cappella requires singing, and voices; anyone could do it doesn’t involve instruments so it’s FREE name: comes from when you don’t have good lyrics, you just say syllables polarity: lead singer pierces through all the other singers; wide range of singers; harmony popular in late 50s/60s Phil Spector: producer for huge number of artists; especially girl groups created “The Wall Of Sound”: doubling instruments pack his studio with musicians and records it; wash of sound, everything blends together records it in MONO: no differentiation between left and right ear; records the “room sound” vocals always in foreground can’t pick out individual instruments, they all run together Girl Groups & The Brill Building: Brill Building: put a bunch of songwriting teams (lyrics and music writers) into small rooms and stick them in there with a piano until they come up with a song; simply write what teenagers want to hear songs created apart from performance; not created for a specific singer people can start to see themselves in the songs songwriting teams: Sedaka/Greenfield Goffin/King Mann/Weil “Be My Baby” Ronettes “Will You Love Me Tomorrow” Shirelles Berry Gordy & Motown: music producer founded Motown in Detroit: “Motor town” (1959) formulapop: follows a formula like an “automotive assembly line”, they made #1 hit after #1 hit he would have a team of writers write for a specific group until they stopped getting hits; when they stopped having success, they would switch to another singer artists worked with motown publicity people: learned etiquette and moves, modeled into perfect representations of how men and women should be; he wants to make black music more polished than any white music The Supremes: Motown girl group; epitomized motown style Diana Ross (lead singer) 12 number one singles kind, polite, great musicians best all around every move choreographed; nice harmonies; good singing Stevie Wonder: Motown Success Story: performer, composer, pioneer, activist blind from birth could play piano, harmonica, drums, and sing by age 8 Signed with Motown in 1960; treated him like the 10 year old her was “Fingertips, Part 2”: first #1 hit at 13 years old Different sides and sounds: Funky: “Uptight (Everything’s Alright)” (1966) Sentimental: “You and I” (1972) Motown had controlled his career; in 1971, he takes control, and begins to experiment his music used Synthesizers “Superstition” Beatles and Beach Boys Began around the same time same sort of evolution played off of one another constantly both immensely popular Early Beatles formed in 1957 in Liverpool, England (important port, but poor working man’s town) Eventually go to Germany and hone their craft and play for hours on the port there the people do not care how good the music is, just get hours of practice, so when they come back they are a really good and focused rock band do a lot of rock covers in US, rock is in the decline, but in UK, it is becoming huge Sweet Little Sixteen by Chuck Berry they do a cover of it That Will Be the Day That I Die Buddy Holly and the Crickets cover for it First Hits come back to Liverpool First #1 hit in 1963 From Me To You make an album called Please Please Me, with 13 songs all recorded in one day basically a live concert performance because they couldn’t work on it too much on it “Love Me Do” can hear the reason why Beatlemania is a thing live show matches the recorded one “She Loves You” after the success of Please Please Me over 5,000 preorders before the song was even named in England August 1963 Simple, precise rock and roll form in the US, there were 1000 copies that’s it they weren’t so excited catchy hook attraction is energy and the fact that they grab you most successful song in UK, but US does not buy into it so quickly, but then it comes across Beatlemania After getting big in the UK, they cross the pong Able to get Beatles everything Everyone is obsessed with it They were on Ed Sullivan and over 1,000,000 people watched it First US concert in Washington, DC, Feb 11, 1964 full house British Invasion Beatles open the floodgates Wave that sweeps over the US Record company starts to look for “Mersey sound” like the river in England try to imitate the Beatles Dave Clark Five, The Kinks, Herman’s Hermits, The Rolling Stones British rock and roll bands but find out that US is obsessed with it, so good to go there “Mrs. Brown You’ve Got a Lovely Daughter” Herman’s Hermits “All the Day and All of the Night” The Kinks they are so different talk about babies and then sex, the tunes are different Surf Rock Coming in from the West Coast, and making its way East California is the land of opportunity early on, Gold Rush in 1849, place for slaves to escape, can get a job in the Dust Bowl and the Great Depression, place of manufacturing, aerospace, and etc People move to California center of American industry, which means more money and more land for cheap CA becomes epicenter of American dream Surfing becomes huge representation of lifestyle of what everyone wants Need music to go with surfing surf rock turning the Reverb as high as it can go Dick Dale is the father of it played the ood and electric guitar After surfing, would come back and play some music “Miserlou” Early Beach Boys try to fit in the surf scene and surf rock “Miserlou” focus on vocalled surf rock bunch of good singers, but surf rock is more focused on the music have to connect both and integrate it into each other “Surfin Safari” 1962 add in doo wop vocals to make it big becomes hallmark sound spreading the Surfing Dream “Surfin’ USA” a rework of Chuck Berry drops the names of surfing places to connect to them Chuck Berry would drop random places to connect with people from all over the place March 4, 1963 (just Before “From Me To You”) Very simple song teens and young adults can relate to it Brian Wilson’s Depth Leader of Beach Boy “In My Room” 1963 pretty deep need a place to feel safe people start to copy the emotional depth introspective grew up in an abusive house, so he sang personal and confessional song not the same upbeat song very different Beatle’s “Yesterday” (1965) George Martin’s (producer) impact on the Beatles Classical inspiration Not a classic Beatles song Bands start to change from cover bands who know how to do rock and roll to bands who start to discover their own abilities String cortette It was early rock n roll extension of chuck berry and little Richard Now in 1965 “Rubber Soul” is starting to move a little bit Beatles begin to expand their music Admired in performance and studio Making music that can only exist in studio Used to be making a performance and crafting a performance, now it is a place that music and a specific sound is created that can’t be performed More along the song of yesterday Eastern and classical influence “Norwegian Wood” and “In My Life” no drum kit, Indian instruments bongos building the music with it based off guitar, but making it completely new 1966 Pet Sounds Album of the Beach Boys produced and written by Brian Wilson Response to Rubber Soul #2 greatest album of all time Introspective, put your head on my shoulder, deep, songs that go further Can’t do the surf rock sound, so HUGE orchestration This was his famous and favorite songs he made Influential Many different people were involved making this album Some instruments are weird for rock band Many harmonies from the band and orchestra rich full of harmonies “God Only Knows” “Don’t Talk (Put Your Head on My Shoulder)” Counterpoint musical idea that is multiple melodies happening at the same time Can pin your ear to everyone singing Have to make individual melodies make sense on their own and sound good together Beatles then response with Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band 1967 artistic exchange between the two bands helped to change the landscape of rock confirmed the studio is a place of creation rather than documentation ranked the BEST album of all time by Rolling Stone in 2003 The Concept album It’s basically a band not really the Beatles called Sgt Peppers led by Brian Wilson Takes you through a shows of theirs loosely “Being for the Benefit of Mr. Kite” Indeterminate tape splicing with calliope More of the same Sgt Pepper Music of chance Impossible to do it on stage “Penny Lane” recorded with Sgt Pepper but on different album called Magical Mystery Tour faux baroque styling Paul McCartney’s response to John Lennon’s “Strawberry Fields Forever” What can we take from these bands? Altered music Stayed for a long time in the studio and create something in the studio place of creation now Rock becomes more serious because of them Lost some of the Chuck Berry and Jerry Lewis Got more depth Innovative music, and way to make it WEEK 1: Chuck Klosterman's "Me, On Shuffle" You can find this reading in ELMS ● This article is centered around the question “Why do we like the music that we like” ● The music we like tells people a lot about us. ● The author has trouble explaining why he likes the songs that he likes. He can show you what he likes, but he can’t explain WHY he likes it. ● One of the author’s main points can be summarized with the following quote: “When someone asks me what kind of music I like, he is (usually) attempting to use this information to deduce things about my personality; this is (usually) the same reason we casually ask people about what TV shows they watch or which NBA franchises they support or what political movements they align with.” Jake’s Take: All we really need to know about this article is that it’s hard to pinpoint why we like certain music and our answer to the question “What music do you listen to” says a lot about us. Andrew Smith's "Shots at a Pop Canon" You can find this on ELMS ● There are many different “Top 100” lists (Mojo, The Guardian, NME….) ● This article addresses the questions: ○ “Why are certain songs on the Top 100 list and then left off of other lists?” ○ “Why do these lists change so much through the years?” ○ “What makes a song worthy of making the lists?” ● I think these quotes from the article summarize his points well: ○ “An artist’s place in the cannon is almost entirely out of his or her hands” ■ It’s the critics that decide. ○ “The records haven’t changed, just the way we perceive them. The cannon is not about the past, it is about the present” ■ The reason lists change so much throughout the years is b/c each person/critic/generation perceives the music differently based on what is going on in the world around them. Justin Bieber’s new album in 2015 with whale sounds might remind us that “SGT. Peppers” and “Pet Sounds” were two albums that helped make Bieber’s album possible, so we might put the Beatles and Beach Boys as the greatest of all time in 2016, but maybe they were left off the list in 2015. ○ “The most significant factor of all and what makes this business so pointlessly relative is the effect an artist has had on those who have followed.” ■ Meaning a lot of it has to do with how influential the artist was on other people who came afterwards. So albums might be added to the list years later once we fully understand their significance. Jake’s Take: I think that what you should take away from this article is that there are many things that influence if an album or song will be in the canon, and also pop is a very unique art form and deals with the question “How does this make me feel”. There are many different rankings of the same songs. Hua Hsu's "When Politicians Make Playlists" http://www.newyorker.com/culture/culturalcomment/whenpoliticiansmakeplaylists ● This article is about John Kasich (Ohio Governor) and Obama tried to signal something to the audience about themselves by the music they listen to. ● John Kasich said in one of his speeches that he liked Lincoln Park, which the author thinks was done to try and make the audience relate to him. ● Obama released two Spotify playlists, which the author of this article think “are song titles that passiveaggressively nudgewink toward the remains of the President’s political vision” Important Quotes: ● “The playlist has become a kind of biographical shorthand, a way of communicating something essential about ourselves through the performance of taste.” ● “These are playlists meant to convey a set of values: knowledge of the past, an open ear, an interest in the future.” Jake’s Take: This article is similar to the other two, and is centered around the idea that the music we like says a lot about us. Even Obama and other politicians try to make people think things about them based on the music they listen to. (Ex. we think Obama is cool because he listens to Coldplay) WEEK 2: (Week 2) A Popular Music Reader Nik Cohn "Classic Rock (1969; excerpt)", pp 29 33, Joel Rudinow, "Race, Ethnicity, Expressive Authenticity: Can White People Sing the Blues", pp 251266 Classic Rock "Classic Rock (1969; excerpt)", pp 2933 This article is about: ● The raw energy of early Rock and Roll ● How Rock and Roll was born when white and black musics mixed particularly in the south. ● How exciting each new rock artist was in the 50’s and how it was rebel music for teens. ● He focuses on Little Richard and Chuck Berry. ● Little Richard gave up music after he promised God that he would “give up devil's music and devote himself to Godspell instead” if God would spare his life after his plane caught fire. ● Chuck Berry left the spotlight after he got in trouble for trying to transfer a minor over state lines. Can White People Sing the Blues pp 251266 ● This was a lengthy article about race, music (specifically the blues), and the authenticity of a blues performance. ● Two main arguments presented: proprietary argument and experiential access argument ● Proprietary The position that as a genre belongs to AfroAmerican descent and when whites perform, they misappropriate the culture ● Experiential The position that only AfricanAmericans can know the hardships of what being black was like at the time period. Is there anything inherent, genetic, etc that can validate this claim? Week 3 : John Covach, "In the Studio: The Role of Recording Techniques in Rock Music," pp. 145154 Girl Groups: A Ballad of Codependency pp. 299308 ● Prominence in the ‘60s, response to male doo wop of the ‘50s ● abundance of girls, many were largely exploited “penniless and washed up by age 21” ● themes range from teenage love to raunchy stuff like spousal abuse (“He Hit Me (And it Felt Like a Kiss)”) biggest wtf song ever In the Studio: The Role of Recording Techniques in Rock Music pp. 145154 ● So the author for this explained the recording process. They went into detail about reverb and all that fancy recording techniques. ● Two ways of looking at what a recording represents: ○ “Audio snapshot” the recording session tries to as faithfully recapture the live recording of what was being performed; document the performance ○ “Studio creation” the artists and producers manipulate the recordings in the studio in ways that would be impossible to recreate in a live setting. ● Author talks about three dimensions of production: ○ Frequency range of the instrumentation, EQing ○ Stereo placement aural illusion of where the sound comes from in the soundscape ○ Ambience the “depth” of the sound Week 4: “The Rap Against Rockism,” Sanneh, pp. 711 ● This passage was written by Kelefah Sanneh. She opens up this passage by referencing the embarrassing 60 second clip of Ashlee Simpson standing on stage in complete confusion as her lip sync goes terribly wrong. She leads this example to how rockist use information to insult other music. Rockists are those that reflect on a particular genre (usually rock) and assign it as the only source of authenticity. They use old music to criticize new/other music. They are people who are unable to move on in a way. “19 January 1967,” Martin, pp. 155164 ● This was written by George Martin, producer for all of the Beatles’ albums. He is sometimes referred to as the fifth beatle. But in this chapter, George broke down the recording process for “A Day in the Life” from the album Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band released in 1967. This song is “lit” as the young kids say today. ● Martin was limited to 4 tracks at the time, so this may have caused the Beatles to figure out in advance what sounds they were going for, since there was less room for error. Compare this to how we record music now. We can have like fucking 96 tracks all together. They only used 4. Listen to the songs, they only use 4 tracks. four. ● Recruiting the orchestra half of them were confused, others went along with the absurdity of the instructions they received “play your lowest note to highest” ○ this refers to the middle section that connects John and Paul’s pieces together, and the final piece with the famous piano chord to finish off the album. If you haven’t listened to the song, you won’t understand, so listen to it. it’s great. And from NPR: "The Story of the Beach Boys' 'Good Vibrations'" http://www.npr.org/2000/06/19/1075634/goodvibration s ● So this article was about the recording of “Good Vibrations” by the Beach Boys from the album Pet Sounds. The article emphasized the dense sound from the song. The excessive use of different instruments. All produced and thought of by Brian Wilson, a member of the Beach Boys, who is deaf in one ear. Week 5: MGM Studios vs. Grokster ● Supreme Court Case ● Overall Question? ○ Were companies that distributed filesharing software and profited from direct copyright infringement using such software, liable for the infringement? ● Grokster and other companies distributed free software that allowed computer users to share electronic files through peertopeer networks. ○ In such networks, users can share digital files directly between their computers, without the use of a central server. Users employed the software primarily to download copyrighted files, file sharing which the software companies knew about and encouraged. The companies profited from advertising revenue. ● A group of movie studios and other copyright holders, MGM, sued and alleged that Grokster violated the Copyright Act by intentionally distributing software to enable users to infringe copyrighted works. The district court ruled for Grokster, reasoning that the software distribution companies were not liable for copyright violations stemming from their software, which could have been used lawfully. The Ninth Circuit affirmed. ● However, The Supreme Court decided that Grokster was liable for the resulting acts of infringement. The Court argued that although the Copyright Act did not expressly make anyone liable for another's infringement, secondary liability doctrines applied here. The court ruled that MGM was entitled to proceed with claims for damages and equitable relief. ○ Justice Breyer states this case is similar to Sony’s, where timeshifting was the main purpose of users copying shows by VCRS. ○ Also, Bryere believed that there would be such a major market for noninfringement uses for this software that they shouldn’t be stopped from distributing the software. When Stealing, Isn’t Stealing ● Discusses the case with “Megaupload” ○ Megaupload is a hugely popular file sharing site ○ File Sharing has led to copyright infringement and other crimes ● Explains what “theft” used to be and what it is now. ○ Theft was once thought of as being when someone stole a real and tangible object. ○ However, since more intangible have been created, the meaning of “theft” has shifted as well. ● Therefore, eventually specialized doctrines were developed to cover the misappropriation of services, semitangibles and true intangibles ● Yet, in the middle of the 20th century, criminal law reformers were sufficiently annoyed by all of this specialization. ○ So in 1962, the American Law Institute issued the Model Penal Code, resulting in the confused state of theft law we’re still dealing with today ○ This code defined “property” to refer to “anything of value.” Therefore, it would no longer matter whether the property misappropriated was tangible or intangible, All of these things were now to be treated equally. ● This would eventually create many problems. People don’t seem to have a problem with illegal downloads, even though it is a crime.
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