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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gunawork on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POLS 2401 at Georgia State University taught by Professor Rahman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Global Politics and and Issues in Political Science at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
Chapter 2, 5, 6, and 8 Global Issues: Study Guide Overview International system - Various forms of interactions and relations between nation-states and non- state actors - Nation state: all sovereign countries on world map - Non-state actors: multinational corporations, NGOs, terrorist organizations etc. Important non-state actors - Multinational corporations - Intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) - International non-governmental organizations (INGOs) - Transitional terrorist groups - Transitional criminal organizations - International media - Powerful individuals International system - Anarchy: no centralized authority to regulate state behavior - States are on their own for survival - So they accumulate military force and build alliances with like-minded states - This leads to security dilemma, which eventually causes war State sovereignty - Absolute control over population and territory and monopoly on the use of force by the state. 2 types of sovereignty: 1. De Jure- legal recognition of sovereignty. Civil wars are a challenge De Jure to state sovereignty. 2. De Facto- actual to control territory, population and tools of violence. Evolution of state system - From Greek city-states to modern nation state. - 30 years’ war led to treaty of Westphalia in 1648. - the sovereignty norm came into being. - Sovereignty implies that no state or institution can intervene in the internal affairs of other states-principle of non-intervention. Balance of power and collective security - Balance of power- ensuring security by preventing any one state from becoming too powerful and aggressive. Comes from lack of suspicion about other states motives. 1. Techniques: alliance against a potential hegemon 2. Accumulating more military power Ex. Triple alliance and triple entete - Collective security: ensuring security by grunting a state to help against potential aggressor attack on one state against attack on every state in the system. 1. Techniques: institution building-league of nations, the united nations, NATO Ex. UNSC approval of use military force against Iraq in 1991 in favor of Kuwait. National self-determination - A nation has the right to form its own state. - Motivated movement against colonial rulers. Cold war (remember dates) - Tension between 2 competing systems (capitalism and socialism). - Manifested in the segregation of the world in 1 , 2 , and 3 world rd countries. - Eastern and Western blocs differed over the type of human rights that are more important (civil and political vs. social and cultural). - Fostered nuclear arms race between USA and USSR. Cold war (continued) - Cuban missile crisis brought two superpowers on the verge of nuclear exchange. - Détente was an attempt at temporary relaxation of bilateral relationship between USA and USSR. - Soviet Union was using the resources to military purpose than to increase productivity of the economy. - Mikhail Gorbachev introduced Glasnost and Perestroika. - Berlin Wall fell in 1989- beginning of the end. - Creation of commonwealth of independent states in 1991- formal end of cold war Causes of WWI M-militarism A-alliance politics I-imperialism N-nationalism Learn about the members of triple entete and triple alliance. Causes of WWII - Treaty of Versailles - Great depression - Policy of appeasement Globalization: - 3 waves of globalization: corporations, states, and individuals. 3 types of globalization: - economic: more economic Who makes foreign policy in the U.S.? - The legislative branch: ratifies international treaties and controls funding. - The executive branch: A. President B. Bureaucracy Department of State: secretary John Kerry Department of Defense: secretary Ashton Carter Department of Commerce: secretary Penny Pritzker Department of Energy: secretary Ernest Moniz Department of Agriculture: secretary Thomas J. Vilsack Department of Labor: secretary Thomas E. Perez Think Tanks Interest Groups External Stimuli (status in the international system) - Superpower: USA - Great Power: UK, France, China, Russia, - Middle Power: Sweden, Norway, India - Small Power: All countries that need alliances and international institution to survive and thrive Three models of foreign policy - Rational action model - Bureaucratic politics model - The organizational process model Interest Groups 2014 figures: - US Chamber - $124 M - Google - $16.8 M - Pharmaceutical Research - $16.6 M //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Questions for chapters 2: How did we get to the contemporary system where lots of actors operate on the global stage but where state is still seen as primary unit? • What is the state? • How did we get here? Sovereignty – states have complete jurisdiction over their territory and has the absolute power to regulate the behavior of their citizens. Anarchy – a system that authority defuse and share power between multiple alliances. (self-help) survival based). Non-intervention 4 components of sovereign statehood Peace of Westphalia – treat of w. establishment and diffusion of the normal sovereignty. Balance of power Colonialism World wars (causes and consequences) WWI: (triggering events) - Militarism - Alliances - Imperialism - Nationalism Consequences to WWI - Treaty of Versailles (treaty of peace) - Formal termination of WWI - Creation of league of nations - Shift in the balance of power in Europe WWII: (causes) - The Treaty of Versailles put unacceptable demands of Germany reparation - Hitler rose to power using the grievances of the German citizens - Rise of fascism in Germany in Italy: socialism + nationalism - Great Powers (including the USA) were not interested in implementing collective security. - The league of nations failed to stop Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931 and Italian invasion of Ethiopia in 1935. Consequences of WWII - Cold War - United Nations was established on October 24, 1945 - Communism was spreading League of nations Nationalism – Europe’s map was redrawn National self-determination – every nation has their own (nation state) (territory). U.S. entry into WWII - Sinking of Lusitania by a German U-boat… Atomic bombs Collective security: ensuring security by grunting a state to help against potential aggressor attack on one state against attack on every state in the system. Cold war (remember dates) – (1949-1991) – never fought, just competed; proxy wars (1989) – collapse of berlin wall Decolonization Non-state sovereignty Main question and key words/events for ‘Globalization’ What is globalization? Globalization – captures elements of a widespread precept that there is a broadening deepening and speeding up of world-wide interconnections in all aspects of life, from the cultural to the criminal, the financial to the environment. –David Held How has it influenced state sovereignty? What are the most important non-state actors and how do they interact with nation-state? What are the 3 waves of globalization? Thomas L. Friedman-Three Periods of Globalization 1492-1800-globalization of states. 1800-2000-globalization of corporations. 2000-present-globalization of individuals. What is the difference between globalization and glocalization? Driving forces of globalization (colonialism, trade and commerce, information and communication technology etc.) ECONOMICAL GLOBALIZATION. - IMF defines globalization as growing interdependence of countries worldwide through increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services, free international capital flows and more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology. More economic interdependence. POLITICAL G.- (examples: occupy wall street, Paris incident, 9/11) Worldwide diffusion of power among several state and non-state actors. Terrorists, transitional organized criminal groups, global civil society etc. are challenging the traditional roles and authorities of the state. Nationalism is on the rise as a reaction to globalization. Chauvinism and xenophobia are re-emerging. Challenge to state sovereignty from non-state actors like transnational terrorist organizations. More power to individuals and activists. CULTURAL G.- (cultural homogenization) Globalization is creating taste for same products and services worldwide. But these products and services are generally western oriented. Cultural diversity is being threatened. Diffusion of culture and global-local fusion. McDonaldization – (metaphor) Glocalization (globalization + localization) Digital divide – is a problem because of economic development and language barrier. 3 schools of thoughts (hyperglobalists, skeptics, and transformationlists) HYPERGLOBALISTS – believe that in the history of human civilization there was nothing like the present level of economic integration and interconnectedness on global level. Globalization is happening and it is a good thing. It is challenging state sovereignty. SKEPTICS – see a gradually fragmented world, with major trading and economic blocks ruling the world. The world is becoming more fragmented and globalization is helping only the rich and powerful. TRANSFORMATIONLISTS – believe its too early to predict the future course of globalization, it is a unique phenomenon with contradictory features, deserving further analysis and assessment. Globalization is happening and state sovereignty is being reconfigured. Main question and key words/events for chapters 5 and 6: How do state interact with each other and what kinds of institutions and organization do they create to help their interactions? Who makes foreign policy in the U.S.A? (relevant branches of the govt.) What are the determining factors of foreign policy (internal and external)? How do states make foreign policy (the 3 models)? - Rational action model - Bureaucratic politics model - The organizational process model Diplomacy Foreign policy is the behavior of the state mainly towards other states (and non- states actors) in the international system through their authorized agent. It is based on national interest (trade advantage) and national power (how powerful? military, economy, technology). Interest group – lobby congress to promote certain issues Public opinion – can be manipulated, politicians can frame an issue certain ways to attract attention of voters. Media – plays a big role in manipulating the population. Bureaucracy – implements the policy. Great, middle and small powers (what determines difference? Does it have an effect on how they pursue their national interest/ how they engage in foreign policy?) - Superpower: USA - Great Power: UK, France, China, Russia, - Middle Power: Sweden, Norway, India - Small Power: All countries that need alliances and international institution to survive and thrive National interest Security dilemma Democratic peace theory – asserts that it matters profoundly what kind of states are involved in any interactions. Main question and key words/events for chapter 8: What are the different types of conflict? INTER-STATE WARS – war between 2 or more sovereign nation-states. Ex. The 2 world wars and Iraq war (2003). CIVIL WAR – at least 2 groups fight within a state (one of the belligerents is the government) causing a 1000 battle death per/year. Ex. South Sudanese separatist movement from 1990-2011, conflict between the catholic and the protestant in Northern Ireland, conflict between Shiite, Sunni and Kurds in present day Iraq. CONTENTIOUS POLITICS – domestic unrest that does not reach the level of a civil war (protests, revolution etc.). Ex. Arab spring 2011. Why do states go to war? (system level, state level and individua l level explanations) What are the links between domestic and international conflicts? National security Asymmetric conflict Civil war Proximate cause – (not the main reason/cause for an event/war) an event that immediately precedes an outcome and therefore provides the most direct explanation of it. Expected utility theory – (a variant of the rational action model) the theory asserts that leaders evaluate policies by combining their estimation of the utility of potential outcomes with the likelihood that different outcomes will result from the policy in question. – Choose action with highest expected utility. – Initiate war when it is in state’s interest. –-- War is rational even if aware they will lose > may not be successful, but has highest expected utility. FOR PEACE: Increase the utility (payoff) of peace > provide “better alternatives” Increase the cost of war > deterrence Human aggression – Hardwired into humans through genetics. – Natural selection favored aggression. – Cannot explain variation in conflict. – Natural selection also favored collaboration. ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// 1. Which one of these is a class based system? a. Nation-state b. Empire c. Feudal system d. City state 2. Is there any non-state actor in the list? a. Canada b. United States of America c. General Motors d. Amnesty International 3. When was the Treaty of Westphalia signed? a. 1618 b. 1688 c. 1658 d. 1648 4. What does anarchy mean? a. Chaos b. Hierarchical authority c. No centralized authority d. Instability 5. Why is Palestine not a State? a. Lack of a functioning government b. Dispute with Israel c. Involvement in Terrorist Activities d. Absence of recognition from the international community 6. Which conflict introduced the idea of nationalism in Europe? a. French revolution b. 100 years war c. Peloponnesian war d. 30 years war 7. Which Greek city-state was famous for its military strength? a. Peloponnesus b. Corinth c. Athens d. Sparta 8. What was responsible for the demise of feudalism? a. Plague b. Rift with the Church c. Peasant revolution d. A combination of all of them 9. According to realist theorists anarchy leads to a. Alliance building and accumulation of military power b. Self-help and alliance building c. Alliance building and cooperation d. Cooperation and accumulation of military power 10. Mongols are responsible for destroying a. The Song dynasty in China b. Abbasid Caliphate in the Middle East c. Nascent Russian State in Europe d. All of them 11. Which one of these can be considered as a predecessor of the United Nations? a. The Peace of Westphalia b. The Concert of Europe c. The Defenestration of Prague d. None of them 12. Napoleon failed to conquer a. Hungary b. Austria c. Russia d. Prussia 13. What was responsible for the rearrangement of Europe in the 19 centurt? a. Nationalism b. Imperialism c. Feudalism d. None of them 14. America was discovered in a. 1681 b. 1492 c. 1365 d. 1562 //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// 1. What was the main reason behind the WWII? a. Alliance politics b. Germany’s moral support to Serbia c. Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand d. None of them 2. Which organization is based on the principle of collective security? a. The European Union b. Warsaw Pact c. The World Bank d. The United Nations 3. Which one of the following is a proxy war? a. Bay of Pigs invasion b. War in Afghanistan c. Japan’s invasion of Manchuria d. Iraq invasion 4. Non-aligned Movement was established in order to a. Get rid of the bipolar alliance politics b. Establish the ‘third world’ as another power pole c. To bypass the UN d. None of them 5. During cold war the former Soviet Union put more emphasis on a. Civil rights b. Political rights c. Cultural rights d. Social and economic rights 6. Which event inspired Détente in US-USSR relationship? a. Cuban missile crisis b. Change in administration in the USA c. Economic downturn in the USSR d. Establishment of Non-aligned Movement 7. Which event symbolizes the end of the cold war? a. The Fall of Berlin Wall b. Soviet Union’s failure in Afghanistan war c. Creation of Commonwealth of Independent States d. None of them 8. Who initiated ‘Glasnost’ and ‘Perestroika’? a. Boris Yeltsin b. Mikhail Gorbachev c. Nikita Khrushchev d. Vladimir Putin 9. What is the example of a collective security action? a. War against Iraq (1990-91) b. NATO airstrikes in Kosovo (1999) c. NATO airstrike in Bosnia (1995) d. War in Afghanistan (2001) 10. What did President Kennedy have to do to as a part of his secret deal with Soviet leadership to end the Cuban missile crisis? a. Promise not to invade Cuba b. Lift the naval ‘quarantine’ c. Remove missiles deployed in Western Europe d. Remove missiles deployed in Turkey //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// 1. What was the first wave of mass migration in 19 Century? th a. Slave trade b. European elite migration to the colonies c. Refugees produced by international conflicts d. Asian migration to Europe, Canada and America 2. What is the driving force of economic globalization? a. Powerful entrepreneurs b. Multinational corporations c. International NGOs d. State 3. Digital divide means a. Difference in access to computers and internet b. Uneven flow of information c. Both 1 and 2 d. Uneven flow of culture 4. Which one of these schools of thought believe that the world is becoming more fragmented? a. Skeptics b. Hyperglobalists c. Transformationalists d. Both a and b 5. According to Thomas Friedman, we are now living in the era of a. Globalization of states b. Globalization of corporations c. Globalization of individuals d. Globalization of NGOs //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// 1. Who controls the budget for foreign policy in the US system? a. The president b. The Bureaucracy c. The legislative branch d. US courts 2. Which one of the following is an example of unmotivated bias in foreign policy? a. Cognitive dissonance b. Bolstering c. Historical analogies d. All of them 3. What model assumes that decision makers have access to perfect information? a. Rational actor model b. Bureaucratic politics model c. Organizational process model d. Decision maker’s psychological profiling model 4. What inhibits creativity and flexibility in my in decision making? a. Bureaucratic rivalry over power and resources b. Standard operating procedures of government agencies c. Imperfect information d. Motivated bias of the decision makers 5. National courts are becoming more visible in which areas of foreign policy? a. Civil liberties and human rights b. Political rights c. Nationals security d. Environmental issues
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