Exam #1 Study Guide
Exam #1 Study Guide PSYC 361 - 01
Cal State Fullerton
Popular in Developmental Psychology
PSYC 361 - 01
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marisol Murillo on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 361 - 01 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Lisa Weisman-Davlantes in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 186 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
Marisol Murillo MWF @ 10 Psych. 361 – Exam #1 Review Ch. 1: 3 domains of child development 1. Physical 2. Cognitive 3. Emotional and social Characteristics of lifespan development perspective 1. Development is: a. Lifelong b. Multidimensional i. Biological, psychological, social c. Multidirectional i. Growth and decline; change and loss d. Highly flexible e. Influences by multiple interacting forces i. History, culture, age, life events Continuous vs. discontinuous development 1. Continually adding more skills vs specific stages and steps of growth Darwin’s theory and contribution to study of child development 1. Natural selection 2. Survival of the fittest Freud - Parts of personality 1. Id: Child part of personality a. Impulsive, spontaneous, reckless, immature 2. Ego: Mature adult part of the personality a. Logical, rational, problem solving 3. Superego: Conscience, parent or judge a. Moral compass-guilt, embarrassment, pride Describe Freud’s Psychosexual Stages (ages, stages, developmental issues) 1. Oral: (0-1 yrs) sucking, cooing, objects in mouth 2. Anal: (1-3 yrs) toilet training; control of body 3. Phallic: (3-6 yrs) focus on sex differences and genitals; becoming aware of self/gender 4. Latency: (6-11 yrs) focus on social skills, academics, sports- competency 5. Genital: (puberty and beyond) focus on adult sexual relationships Erikson’s theories (ages, stages, developmental issues) 1. Trust vs. Mistrust (birth-1 yr) a. Sense of trust if adults meet needs in a timely manner b. Mistrust when handled harshly or must wait too long for comfort 2. Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt (1-3 yrs) a. Parents allow/encourage child’s independent choices using new skills b. Child shamed for being independent or forced to explore what parents wish 3. Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6 yrs) a. Playing leads to ambition, purpose, responsibility b. Too much self-control, lack of make-believe play, leads to confusion and guilt 4. Industry vs. Inferiority (6-11 yrs) a. Work with and cooperate with others can lead to self-esteem and achievement b. Negative, social, academic, family experiences lead to sense of inferiority/incompetence 5. Identity vs. Confusion (teens) a. Choice of value, roles, work à who am I? b. Can lead to confusion about future adult role 6. Intimacy vs. Isolation (young adults) a. Establishing close relationships with others b. Can lead to being and feeling alone 7. Generativity vs. Stagnation (middle age) a. Giving to next generation through child rearing, productive work, volunteering, helping others b. Can lead to feeling stuck, stagnant, without meaningful accomplishment 8. Integrity vs. Despair (old age) a. Reflect on life/self as worthwhile b. Dissatisfied with choices can lead to despair/fear Three main theories of learning (CC, OC, OL) 1. Classical conditioning – Pavlov a. Associates a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that leads to a reflective response 2. Operant conditioning – Skinner a. Spontaneous behavior is followed by a stimulus that changes the probability that the behavior will occur again 3. Observational learning – Bandura Observe by looking at others Piaget’s stages of development (names, age ranges) 1. Sensorimotor (birth-2 yrs) 2. Preoperational (2-7 yrs) 3. Concrete Operational (7-11 yrs) 4. Formal Operational (11 yrs and on) Brief description of evolutionary theory 1. Development happens when we create behaviors that help us adapt and survive Brief description (main ideas) of Vygotsky’s theory 1. Transmission of culture to a new generation a. Beliefs, customs, and skills 2. Social Interaction necessary to learn culture and values a. Conversation, teaching and shared experiences needed with more knowledgeable members of society Ch. 3: Periods of prenatal development 1. Zygote (First 2 Weeks) a. Fertilization b. Implantation c. Start of Placenta 2. Embryo (3-8 Weeks) a. Groundwork laid for body structures/internal organs b. Heart begins beating at about 6 weeks 3. Fetus (9-40 Weeks) a. Growth and finishing Trimesters of pregnancy plus length of each time period 1. Weeks 1-12 a. Includes periods of zygote, embryo and beginning fetus; organ/body development 2. Weeks 13-16 a. Mother can feel movement à age of viability 22-26 weeks (can live outside womb) 3. Weeks 27-40 a. Overall organ and brain growth, weight gain, “practice” with sleep/wake cycles, movements b. 38 weeks and beyond is considered full term Teratogens and pregnancy 1. Any substance that causes damage during the prenatal period a. Damage depends on dosage and heredity (gene strength in handling teratogens) b. Include other negative influences such as poor nutrition and lack of medical care i. Any type of drugs ii. Tobacco iii. Alcohol iv. Radiation v. Pollution vi. Maternal Diseases Importance of prenatal care 1. Monitor general health a. Weight gain b. Capacity of uterus and cervix to support fetus c. Growth of fetus 2. Treat complications a. Diabetes b. Preeclampsia (blood pressure goes up) 3 stages of childbirth, plus average length of each stage 1. Dilatation and effacement of cervix a. Longest stage b. 12-14 hours average for first birth c. Strong contractions lead to opening of cervix 2. Delivery of baby a. Pushing out baby b. Strong contractions c. Active part of labor d. Usually 50 minutes to a few hours for first birth 3. Birth of Placenta a. Placenta separates from uterus and is either pushed out or comes out on its own immediately after birth Purpose of the Apgar score 1. Assessment of how a baby is doing at birth a. Appearance b. Pulse c. Grimace d. Activity e. Respiration Best predictor of survival for premature newborns 1. Birth weight Small-for-date vs. Premature baby 1. Small for date a. May be born at due date or preterm b. Below expected weight for length of pregnancy 2. Preterm a. Born weeks before their due date b. May be appropriate weight for length of pregnancy Reflexes – uses, value 1. Survival value a. Eye blink, rooting, sucking, moro (startle reflex), swimming 2. Developmental value a. Palmar grasp, tonic neck, stepping Infant states of arousal – categories 1. Regular sleep 2. Irregular sleep 3. Drowsiness 4. Quiet Alertness 5. Waking activity and crying Ch.4: Period of human development after birth with the most rapid physical changes 1. Infancy and toddlerhood Cephalocaudal vs. Proximodistal development 1. Cephalocaudal a. “Head to tail” a. Lower part of body grow later than the head 2. Proximodistal a. “Near to far” b. Extremities grow later than head, chest and trunk c. Fingers and toes Lateralization 1. Specialization of each side of the brain a. Left hemisphere i. Control of right side of brain ii. Verbal abilities b. Right Hemisphere i. Control of left side of the brain ii. Spatial abilities iii. Negative emotions iv. Art, music Programmed cell death 1. Child is born with more neurons than needed, so cells die to make room for more connections and learning Plasticity 1. Brain’s ability to compensate for and take over control of damaged areas 2. The younger the age at injury, the greater the plasticity (moldable) Sensitive periods of brain development: When? For what skills? 1. Appropriate stimulation is vital for brain growth 2. Sensitive period for talking 3. No sensitive periods in first six years for skills that depend on extensive training such as reading, music, arts and sports Experience-expectant vs. experience-dependent brain growth 1. Experience-Expectant a. Depends on ordinary experiences 2. Experience-Dependent a. Additional growth resulting from specific learning experience Overstimulation and possible negative effects on learning 1. Can lead to withdrawal 2. Lack of desire to learn 3. Disappointed parents Imitation 1. Newborns can imitate adult facial expressions Habituation and Recovery 1. Habituation à Gradual reduction in strength of a response to an object/stimuli over time 2. Recovery à Return of strong response with a new object/stimuli or change in the environment 3. Make learning more efficient by focusing attention on novel stimuli 4. Are among earliest predictors of intelligence à measures memory skills as well as quickness and flexibility of thinking 4 factors at work in developing motor skills 1. CNS development 2. Body’s movement 3. Child’s goals 4. Environmental support for the skill Reaching and grasping 1. Pre-reaching à Newborn 2. Ulnar grasp à 3-4 Months 3. Transferring à 4-5 Months 4. Pincer grasp à 9 Months Ch. 6: Three areas of our lives affected by emotions 1. Health 2. Cognition (thoughts) 3. Behavior Effects of parental depression on children 1. Babies sleep poorly, less attentive, have elevated levels of cortisol 2. Paternal depression is a strong predictor of behavior problems 3. Kids develop a pessimistic view of the world 4. The greater the depression and number of stressors, the more the parent-child relationship suffers 5. Babies have attachment problems 6. Delays in motor/mental development Social referencing 1. (8-10 months) Relying on others to show how to respond Self-conscious emotions 1. Involve positive and negative feelings about seàf to self evaluation and increased/decreased self-esteem a. Shame, guilt, embarrassment, envy, pride 2. Typically appears between 18-24 months with awareness of self as separate and unique 3. Feedback regarding behavior and improving behavior Emotional self-regulation and how parents can assist kids 1. Managing emotions in order to stay focused, accomplish goals 2. Requires ability to recognize emotions, focus and shift attention and inhibit impulses 3. Affected by observing others 4. Parents assist ESR by: a. Soothing crying child before intensity rises b. Knowing when the child is “done” attending/playing c. Labeling emotions and connecting to events d. Offering words for a child to use to verbalize feelings à lessens child’s frustration, tantrums, biting e. Treating child’s emotions/fears seriously f. Suggesting coping skills to deal with emotion g. Handling their own emotion appropriately h. Preparing child for anxiety provoking situations i. Saying goodbye when leaving Thomas and Chess temperament types 1. Easy à 40% (easy going and compliant) 2. Difficult à 10% (oppositional) 3. Slow-to-warm-up à 15% (take time to adjust) 4. Unclassified à 35% (mixed of all the above) Goodness-of-fit 1. Interaction between temperament and child rearing style 2. Effective child rearing = good fit with child’s temperament 3. Encourages adaption for both parent and child Theories of attachment, ages, stages, milestones: 1. Bowlby a. Pre-attachment (0-6 weeks): grasping, crying, gazing b. Attachment-in-the-making (6 weeks-8 months): smiling, laughing, cooing, babbling c. Clear-cut attachment (6 months-2 years): Becoming upset when parents leaves à evidence of mastery of object performance d. Formation of reciprocal relationship (18 months and on): Decrease in separation anxiety, able to greet and part well 2. Ainsworth a. Secure à i. Parent as a secure base ii. May or may not cry when parent leaves, excited when adult returns iii. Parenting is warm and predictable (authoritative) b. Avoidant à i. Lack of response when adult leaves ii. Strangers and known adults are treated similarly iii. Lack of/doesn’t want physical contact iv. Parenting is over controlling (authoritarian) c. Ambivalent/Resistant à i. Cling before separation ii. Angry when parents returns iii. Not easily comforted, anxious iv. Parenting is inconsistent, ambivalent d. Disorganized/Disoriented à i. Least secure ii. Contradictory behavior (may cling to parent, but shows no emotion) iii. Confused about how to react to parents absence or presence iv. Parenting is neglectful, abusive, insensitive (mentally ill or substance abuse) Separation anxiety 1. Becoming upset when parent leaves Stranger anxiety 1. Cautious or fearful of new people à parent used as base for exploration Three aspects of self-development: 1. Self-awareness a. Treat other people as a social partner 2. Self-control a. Children must think of themselves as separate being who can direct their own actions 3. Empathy a. Ability to understand other’s emotions and feel with that person or respons emotionally Self-control 1. Show clear awareness of caregiver’s wishes and expectations and can obey simple requests and commands 2. Wait for an appropriate time and place to engage in a tempting act Ch. 8: pp. 217-219 plus lecture on Baumrind’s parenting styles 1. Acceptance of child, involvement in child’s life à emotional connection 2. Control of child to promote mature social behavior 3. Granting autonomy à self-reliance Types, child-rearing style, level of involvement, effects on kids 1. Authoritative: High Acceptance, high involvement a. Most effective b. Warm, responsive, attentive, good communication c. Reasonable demands d. Consistent discipline, teaches self-regulation e. Gradual autonomy f. Encourage expression of thoughts and feelings g. Kids show strong academic and social skills and self esteem 2. Authoritarian: Low acceptance, high involvement a. Rejecting, cold, degrading b. Use of threats, yelling, criticizing, hitting c. Low in autonomy grantingà make decisions for kids d. Self-expression discouraged e. Unreasonable expectations f. Parents needs first as most important g. Kids are angry, anxious, depressed h. Difficulty with challenging tasks, easily overwhelmed, hostile when frustrated, afraid to make mistakes 3. Permissive: High acceptance, too low or too high involvement a. Overindulgent and/or inattentive b. Little control of child’s behavior/activities c. Lack of consistent discipline; few demands made d. Too much autonomy too soon e. Kids are impulsive, disobedient, rebellious and demanding f. Sense of entitlement, immature, poor self-control, dependent on/ expect others to do their work, little motivation to achieve 4. Uninvolved: Low acceptance, low involvement a. Emotionally detached, withdrawn, poor commination b. Parents seem to be stressed, depressed, drug abusing c. Kids have poor attachment/coping skills d. Little or inconsistent discipline, control or guidance e. Few or no demands made on the child f. Indifferent to child’s long term needs g. Too much autonomy h. Minimal commitment to parenting i. Not interested in child’s viewpoint or other self-expression
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